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Full text of "Public documents of the legislature of Connecticut, ... session .."

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in 2012 with funding from 

LYRASIS Members and Sloan Foundation 



http://archive.org/details/publicdoc22conn 



Fifteenth Report 

3< 



OK THE 






FISH COMMISSIONERS 



OF THE 



j^tutc of Connecticut, 



TO THE 



O E3 1ST IE 3R. A. Hi ASSEMBLY, 



JANUARY SESSION, 1881. 



middletown, coxx. 
Pelton & King, Printers and Book-Binders. 

i88r. 



STATE OF CONNECTICUT. 



Report. 



To His Excellency the Governor, and the General Assembly 
of Connecticut: 

The Commissioners on Fisheries respectfully present their Fifteenth 
Report. 

The past year shows no abatement of interest in the culture and 
increase of food-fishes in the United States. The example set by 
Massachusetts and Connecticut but a few years ago has been rapidly 
followed by most of the other States and some of the Territories. 
The manifest success of these two pioneer States has been a great 
stimulus to this wide extension of fish-culture. But the encourage- 
ment and invaluable aid afforded by the United States Fish Commis- 
sioner, Prof. Baird, have contributed beyond all other influences to 
produce these results. The thirty-two States and Territories that 
have appointed Commissioners and made appropriations for the 
protection and increase of food-fishes, have an aggregate area of land 
exceeding a million and a half (1,568,889) square miles. Through- 
out this vast extent of territory are scattered immense bodies of water, 
rivers, creeks, brooks, lakes and ponds, which will in time be brought 
under judicious protection and management — and it cannot be many 
years before good edible fish will be produced in such abundance as 
to be within the means of the poorest. The more recently settled 
States have a great advantage in the fact that few, if any, of their 



4 FISH COMMISSIONERS' REPORT. [Jan., 

waters have been depleted, as in the older States ; and their task will 
be to regulate and protect rather than to cultivate and restore. 

The territorial extent of Connecticut, only 4,674 square miles, is 
insignificant in comparison with that of most of her sister States, 
only three being smaller than herself. Her waters, therefore, are not 
so numerous nor so extensive for varied cultivation ; but the Com- 
missioners believe that in the progress made towards a complete 
development of her limited resources she is second to no other 
State. This work began with the introduction of full-grown black 
bass into the principal ponds of each County in the State, and it 
proved an encouraging success. About the same time an attempt was 
made to restock the depleted rivers of the State with such fish as had 
been known to thrive there in earlier times. It was believed that the 
shad and salmon, for example, could be restored to the Connecticut, 
the Housatonic and the Thames rivers, where they once abounded. 
The experiments with shad resulted in a rapid and positive success. 
With salmon, however, the processes were much slower and more 
laborious ; but the result was all that had been anticipated by the 
most sanguine. The experience gained in these triumphs encouraged 
the Commissioners in the further work of procuring new species — 
fish suited to the larger ponds. So land-locked salmon, a superb 
fish, was introduced, and it is doing well. Finally the past year, 
trout have been artificially raised and distributed ; and carp, sup- 
plied by Prof. Baird, have been introduced. The trout occupy the 
smaller brooks scattered among the hills and valleys ; while the carp 
finds his home in the swampy and muddy ponds of the lowlands. 
The Commissioners are confident that within a very Few years these 
two species will abound in every town in the State. 

As far as practicable all sections of the State have been favored 
alike in the distribution of the fry of the fish above named ; and all 
seem to be reaping beneficial results from them. So that Connecti- 
cut is obviously in a fair way of utilizing all her waters to an extent 
not anticipated at the beginning of the Commissioners' work. In a 
very few years the people of the State will doubtless have a variety of 
fish-food abundant and cheap. But to make this desirable end ccr- 



lS8l.] FISH COMMISSIONERS' REPORT. 5 

tain and sure, it requires a continuance of the fostering care of the 
State as heretofore, and a due respect oh the part of the fishermen 
for the laws governing the taking of fish. 

Few people are aware of the great' nutritive value of the flesh of 
fish. The fact that it has been a favorite food of all nations, in all 
ages, and with many the principal food, would be sufficient evidence 
of its nutritive and health-promoting properties. But within the last 
few years considerable attention has been given to the subject by 
scientists, and their chemical analyses of the flesh of fish clearly 
demonstrate it to be nearly if not quite as nutritious as beef ! 

Prof. W. O. Atwater, of YVesleyan University, working under the 
auspices of the Smithsonian Institution and U. S. Fish Commission, 
has made fish-food a subject of special scientific investigation — and 
although he claims that his labors, so far, are but a beginning, the 
Commissioners deem them of sufficient interest and importance to 
entitle them to an extended review in this Report. Want of space, 
however, restricts the Commissioners to the briefest statement of 
his most valuable results. The following facts are condensed from 
papers kindly furnished by Prof. Atwater : 

■The albumenoids, such as wheat-gluten, white of eggs, lean meat, 
curd, etc., are the nitrogenous constituents of foods, which make the 
lean flesh of the human body, the muscle, the connective tissues, skin, 
etc., and are the most important of the nutrients. Next in importance 
are the fats, such as oil, lard, butter, etc.; and last in importance are the 
carbo-hydrates, such as sugar, starch, and the like. With the albume- 
noids alone we might maintain life a good while ; but with the fats 
and carbo-hydrates alone, starvation would soon follow. Now, the 
flesh of fish, like other animal foods, consists mainly of albumenoids, 
with more or less fats and very little of the carbo-hydrates. With this 
preliminary statement the following table of the analyses of some of our 
most common food-fishes will be easily understood : 



4 FISH COMMISSIONERS' REPORT. [Jan., 

waters have been depleted, as in the older States ; and their task will 
be to regulate and protect rather than to cultivate and restore. 

The territorial extent of Connecticut, only 4,674 square miles, is 
insignificant in comparison with that of most of her sister States, 
only three being smaller than herself. Her waters, therefore, are not 
so numerous nor so extensive for varied cultivation ; but the Com- 
missioners believe that in the progress made towards a complete 
development of her limited resources she is second to no other 
State. This work began with the introduction of full-grown black 
bass into the principal ponds of each County in the State, and it 
proved an encouraging success. About the same time an attempt was 
made to restock the depleted rivers of the State with such fish as had 
been known to thrive there in earlier times. It was believed that the 
shad and salmon, for example, could be restored to the Connecticut, 
the Housatonic and the Thames rivers, where they once abounded. 
The experiments with shad resulted in a rapid and positive success. 
With salmon, however, the processes were much slower and more 
laborious; but the result was all that had been anticipated by the 
most sanguine. The experience gained in these triumphs encouraged 
the Commissioners in the further work of procuring new species — 
fish suited to the larger ponds. So land-locked salmon, a superb 
fish, was introduced, and it is doing well. Finally the past year, 
trout have been artificially raised and distributed ; and carp, sup- 
plied by Prof. Baird, have been introduced. The trout occupy the 
smaller brooks scattered among the hills and valleys ; while the carp 
finds his home in the swampy and muddy ponds of the lowlands. 
The Commissioners are confident that within a very few years these 
two species will abound in every town in the State. 

As far as practicable all sections of the State have been favored 
alike in the distribution of the fry of the fish above named ; and all 
seem to be reaping beneficial results from them. So that Connecti- 
cut is obviously in a fair way of utilizing all her waters to an extent 
not anticipated at the beginning of the Commissioners' work. In a 
very few years the people of the State will doubtless have a variety of 
fish-food abundant and cheap. But to make this desirable end cer- 



1 88 1.] FISH commissioners' report. 5 

tain and sure, it requires a continuance of the fostering care of the 
State as heretofore, and a due respect oh the part of the fishermen 
for the laws governing the taking of fish. 

Few people are aware of the great' nutritive value of the flesh of 
fish. The fact that it has been a favorite food of all nations, in all 
ages, and with many the principal food, would be sufficient evidence 
of its nutritive and health-promoting properties. But within the last 
few years considerable attention has been given to the subject by 
scientists, and their chemical analyses of the flesh of fish clearly 
demonstrate it to be nearly if not quite as nutritious as beef ! 

Prof. W. O. Atwater, of Wesleyan University, working under the 
auspices of the Smithsonian Institution and U. S. Fish Commission, 
has made fish-food a subject of special scientific investigation — and 
although he claims that his labors, so far, are but a beginning, the 
Commissioners deem them of sufficient interest and importance to 
entitle them to an extended review in this Report. Want of space, 
however, restricts the Commissioners to the briefest statement of 
his most valuable results. The following facts are condensed from 
papers kindly furnished by Prof. Atwater : 

■The albumenoids, such as wheat-gluten, white of eggs, lean meat, 
curd, etc., are the nitrogenous constituents of foods, which make the 
lean flesh of the human body, the muscle, the connective tissues, skin, 
etc., and are the most important of the nutrients. Next in importance 
are the fats, such as oil, lard, butter, etc.; and last in importance are the 
carbo-hydrates, such as sugar, starch, and the like. With the albume- 
noids alone we might maintain life a good while ; but with the fats 
and carbo-hydrates alone, starvation would soon follow. Now, the 
flesh of fish, like other animal foods, consists mainly of albumenoids, 
with more or less fats and very little of the carbo-hydrates. With this 
preliminary statement the following table of the analyses of some of our 
most common food-fishes will be easily understood : 



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l88l.] KISH COMMISSIONERS' REPORT. 7 

The fish analyzed were gathered from the fishmarkets of Middle town 
and New York — some were dressed, others not dressed. Each sample 
was weighed at the laboratory, then the edible portion of the llesh was 
separated from the skin, bones, entrails, etc., weighed and prepared for 
analysis. The figures in the table show, first, the composition of the 
edible portion of the flesh ; and, second, the calculated composition of 
the whole fish, either entire or dressed. The column headed "water" 
shows the large percentage of water in the different samples. For 
example, in a hundred pounds of the flesh of cod we have 83 per cent, 
of water, and only 17 per cent, of solids ; while in the flesh of salmon 
we have 66}4 per cent, of water, and 33)4 per cent, of solids — that is to 
say, about 1-6 of the flesh of cod and 1-3 of the flesh of salmon consist 
of solids which are actual nutritive substances, the rest being water. 
The reader can readily compare any other fish in the table and so get 
their relative value for food. A good quality of beef — lean meat, free 
from bone — contains about 75 per cent, water and 25 per cent, solids, 
while the fat beef may have as low as 55 per cent, of water. Fish on 
the whole are rather more watery than beef. Still, the difference is not 
very great. 

If we consider now, not simply the edible portion, but the whole 
sample as sold in the markets, either in the entire fish or that which is 
left after it is dressed, we have different figures; just as the percentage 
of edible solids in roast beef would be less than in the meat without the 
bone. The figures are based upon the raw flesh separated in the 
laboratory from the bones. It is not so easy to get the flesh off clean 
from the bones in this way as it is after the fish has been cooked. Bony 
fish are more difficult to strip clean than others. Hence they lose a 
little, and so appear in the table at a slight disadvantage. If the 
economical housewife will cast her eye down the last column of this 
table she will more easily judge which fish is really cheapest in view of 
its nutritive qualities. Then she will see that she can afford to pay as 
much, indeed, a little more, per pound for the best cut of halibut than 
for salmon, and three times as much per pound as for striped bass; 
while there is twice as much nutriment in Connecticut River shad as 
in haddock ! 

The following table, however, is interesting and instructive, as show- 
ing not only the composition of foods but also their nutritive value as 
compared with medium beef, which is placed at 100. This table, for 
meat, fowl, eggs and cured fish, was prepared by Dr. Konig, of 
Germany, who has given more especial attention to this subject than 
anybody else. That portion which comes under the head of "fish" is' 
the work of Prof. Atwater. 

This table will help to a very fair idea of the comparative composition 
and value of our more common animal foods. The percentages refer 
to the fresh substance, except when otherwise specified. In the meats 
and fish the bones are excluded, the calculation referring only to the 
edible portions. 



TABLE II. 










INGREDIENTS. 


as 


COMPOSITION 




.2 








s 3 


AND 




°j3 
o 




1 


4) 


.2.2 


VALUATION 


CD 


u 

CO 


cc 




'•3 

0) 

H 

to 


fa 

eS a) 


OF 




<j3 

'o 


ft 






^a 


ANIMAL FOODS. 




a 




C3 


CD 


■s * 











M 


a 


•«•«! 


(Flesh free from Bone.) 




A3 
< 




w 


u 


rs H 


MEAT. 














Beef, lean, - 


76.71 


20.61 


1.50 





1.18 


91.3 


Beef, medium, - 


72.25 


21.39 


5.19 


— 


1.17 


100.0 


Beef, fat, 


54. 7G 


16.93 


27.23 


— 


1.08 


112.0 


Veal, fat, .... - 


72.31 


18.88 


7.41 


07 


1.33 


92.4 


Mutton, medium, ... 


75.99 


18.11 


5.77 


. — 


1.33 


86.6 


Pork, fat, 


47.40 


14.54 


37.34 


. — 


0.72 


116.0 


Smoked beef, - 


47.68 


27.10 


15.35 


— 


10.59 


146.0 


Smoked ham, .... 


27.98 


23.97 


36.48 


1.50 


10.07 


157.0 


GAME, FOWL, ETC. 














Venison, - 


75.76 


19.77 


1.92 


1.42 


1.13 


88.8 


Hen, - -• - 


70.06 


18.49 


9.34 


1.20 


0.91 


93.9 


Duck, 


70.82 


22.65 


3.11 


2.33 


1.09 


104.0 


MILK, EGGS, ETC. 














Cows' milk, 


87.41 


3.41 


3.66 


4.82 


0.70 


23.8 


Cows' milk, skimmed, 


90.63 


3.06 


0.79 


4.77 


0.75 


18.5 


Cows' milk, cream, ... 


66.41 


3.70 


25.72 


3.54 


0.63 


56.1 


Butter, - ■ - 


14.14 


0.86 


83.11 


0.70 


1.19 


124.0 


Cheese, skimmed milk, 


48.02 


32.65 


8.41 


6.80 


4.12 


159.0 


Cheese, fat, - . - - - 


46.82 


27.(52 


20.54 


1.97 


3.05 


151.0 


Cheese, very fat, - - - - 


35.75 


27.16 


30.43 


2.53 


4.13 


183.0 


Hens' eggs, ----- 


73.67 


12.55 


12.11 


0.55 


1.12 


72.2 


FISH. 














Flounder, ----- 


82.85 


15.24 


0.62 





1.29 


65.0 


Halibut, - - - - 


74.31 


18.20 


6.38 


— 


1.12 


ss.o 


Cod, 


S2.78 


15.67 


0.34 


. — 


1.25 


68.0 


Eels, - 


70.44 


18.66 


il.SO 


— 


1.00 


95.0 


Shad, 


66.93 


19.19 


12.51 


— 


1.36 


99.0 


Striped Bass, ... - 


79.13 


17.59 


2.13 


— 


1.14 


79.0 


Mackerel, - 


76.02 


18.28 


4.60 


— 


1.09 


86.0 


Bluefish, ----- 


78.15 


19.33 


1.25 





1.27 


85.0 


Salmon, 


66.41 


19.72 


12.71 





1.10 


104.0 


Haddock, 


80.63 


18.113 


0.18 





1.16 


78.0 


Lake Trout, - 


68 69 


17.70 


12;26 


— 


1.35 


94.0 


Brook Trout, - 


7.".. 7d 


L9.92 


3.02 


. — 


L.86 


91.0 


"Whitefish, 


69.59 


21.86 


7.11 


— . 


1.61 


103.0 


Ited Snapper, - 


75.45 


22.40 


0.67 


— 


1.48 


97.0 


CURED FISH. 














Salt Mackerel, ... - 


48.43 


20.82 


14.40 


0.38 


16.27 


111.0 


Dried Cod, 


16.16 


78.91 


0.78 


2.59 


1.56 


346.0 


Smoked Herring, ... 


69. 19 


21.12 


8.51 


— 


1.24 


104.0 



1 8Sr .] FISH COMMISSIONERS' REPORT. 9 

On the whole, it will be seen that the fish average about the same per- 
centages of albumenoids as the meats, but have rather less fats : 

Taking the samples of fish at their retail prices in Middletown mar- 
kets, the edible solids, the actually nutritive materials, of striped bass 
cost about $2.30 a pound, while the edible solids of Connecticut River 
shad cost about 44 cents the pound. 

The nutritive solids in one sample of halibut cost 57 cents a pound, 
and in another, $1.45; both bought at the same place at 15 cents per 
gross pound; showing a difference in different cuts of the same fish. 
A little definite knowledge which this table affords will enable the econ- 
omist to furnish his table at great saving of expense. Of course, these 
nutritive valuations are only approximate, since they are based on very 
few analyses, and with little knowledge of digestibility and the influence 
of palatability; but the best chemists and physiologists have investi- 
gated so far, that they feel warranted in asserting the nutritive values 
of foods, and thus arranging them in tables for popular use. The facts 
attained, however, do not exhaust the subject; they are only feeble and 
imperfect beginnings. 

Prof. Atwater claims that the wide-spread notion is unfounded, that 
fish is particularly valuable for brain food, because of its large contents 
of phosphorus. There is no evidence that fish has any more than 
other meats; and if it were so, there is no proof that it thereby becomes 
more valuable as a brain food. 

PENOBSCOT salmox. {Salmo Salar.) 

The number of salmon introduced into State waters, the past year, 

was much smaller than in previous years. This was owing to an 

accident at Dead Brook, in the town of Bucksport, Me., where the 

adult fish had been impounded in the early summer of 1879, by 

Mr. Atkins. His account of this accident, taken from his report to 

the Commissioners, is as follows: — 

"About 250 breeding salmon .were purchased in June, and placed in 
the enclosure. About 30 of these died from one cause and another, 
and in August came a destructive freshet, which burst our enclosure 
and let loose the majority of those remaining. The men in charge 
were carefully guarding the upper barrier, which, of course, bore the 
brunt of the onset, and intercepted all floating rubbish. Meanwhile, 
fine weeds, and grass, and lily leaves, growing within the enclosure, 
were torn from their roots, and borne down against the lower barrier, 
which was soon matted up like a piece of cloth. Not being built with 
a view to withstanding a complete choking up like this, the racks gave 
way, and before the mischief was discovered the majority of the fish 
had departed. There will be no difficulty in guarding against the 



IO FISH COMMISSIONERS' REPORT. [Jan., 

recurrence of such a disaster, for had the manner of it been foreseen, 
the racks might easily have been kept from clogging up. 

" When the spawning season arrived, only 58 of the fish could be 
captured, and of these 39 proved to be males, and only 19 females. The 
harvest of eggs was therefore very small, only 178,000 instead of the 
million that we counted on. 

" However, the eggs obtained are of uncommonly good quality, and 
were exceedingly well impregnated. Your share of 60,000 has already 
been forwarded to your agent, Mr. Henry J. Fenton, at Windsor, and I 
trust will turn out well. Another season, doubtless, greater results will 
be obtained. Very truly yours, 

" Chas. G. Atkins." 

Of the 60,000 eggs received, 226 were dead when unpacked; 880 
died in the hatching troughs; and 610 fish died before the absorp- 
tion of the yolk-sac. The 58,000 fish left, were placed in the fol- 
lowing named tributaries of the Farmington River, which is a branch 
of the Connecticut : — 

West Brook, - - - - - - - ' - 10,000 

Birch Brook, 6,000 

Thrall's South Brook, 10,000 

Thrall's North Brook, ------ 10,000 

White Brook, 10,000 

Trout Brook, - 12,000 

It was deemed best, not to divide so small a number with the 
other rivers of the State, but to concentrate them where they would 
be likely to produce the most decisive results. 

Ten years ago, one great ambition of the Fish Commissioners 
was to determine practically whether salmon could be restored to the 
Connecticut, and to this end much time and money were spent. 
Many obstacles were met and overcome, from time to time, through 
a period of five or six years. At last, in the winter of 1878, the 
Commissioners had good reason to believe, and they so announced 
to the Legislature, that there would be a run of salmon in the fol- 
lowing spring ; and they asked for a law to protect them against 
rapacious fishermen. The idea of a return of salmon was laughed 
at and ridiculed as chimerical, and the Commissioners were looked 
upon as enthusiasts and dreamers. As for legislating to protect fish, 
that existed only in the brains of the Commissioners, it was too 



l88l.] FISH COMMISSIONERS' REPORT. II 

absurd ! So, no law was passed. But it was only a few days after 
the Legislature had adjourned, when the predicted fish began to 
arrive ; and in three months, more than five hundred full grown 
salmon were taken in the river by the fishermen ! Nearly the whole 
run must have been destroyed, as not more than half a dozen were 
known to have reached the Holyoke dam. 

In March, 1879, however, the following law was enacted : 

AN ACT FOR THE PROTECTION OF SALMON. 

Be it enacted by the Senate and House of Representatives in General 
Assembly convened: 

Every person who shall take from any of the waters of this State any 
salmon or grilse, or any of the young fry thereof, prior to the first day 
of May, 1883, shall be fined not less than fifty nor more than five hun- 
dred dollars, or imprisoned not less than two nor more than six months, 
or both ; unless he take such fish unintentionally and immediately 
restore it to the waters from which it was taken. 

Approved, March 26, 1879. 

It is a suggestive fact that all the salmon since seen by the fisher- 
men were found dead in the net ! Of course, when a salmon was 
thus caught it would be useless to "immediately restore it to the 
waters from which it was taken." In truth, the capture of salmon 
goes on as if there were no laws ; nearly all the "dead" fish being 
sent to New York, where they bring from a dollar to a dollar and 
fifty cents a pound — more than any other salmon in the market. Only 
a few have been reported as caught by the fishermen the past season. 
It is a gratifying fact, however, to know that these few weighed from 
16 to 30 pounds apiece, and were in excellent condition. 

The resolution making the usual appropriation for the use of the 
Fish Commissioners called for $3,000, of which $500 was for this 
branch of the work. The Committee on Fisheries, however, struck 
out the $500, alleging that it would be useless to propagate salmon 
if the fishermen were to take all the mature fish on their first return 
from the sea. In deference, therefore, to the expressed opinion of 
the Committee, the Commissioners have spent no money in the 
propagation of the Penobscot salmon the past year. They have done 



12 FISH COMMISSIONERS' REPORT. [Jan., 

this with great reluctance : for the decided success which crowned 
this part of their work could be made permanent and lasting only by 
continuing the planting of the salmon-fry, procured on the Penob- 
scot ; and, above all, by passing suitable laws and rigidly enforcing them. 
It seemed unwise to let the work drop at the moment when all 
doubts had been dispelled ; for it had been already demonstrated : 
ist, That salmon can be propagated at slight expense ; 2nd, That 
they find ample feeding grounds beyond the mouth of the river ; 
and, 3d, That after leaving the river they return in due time — in 
size and quality, superior to all others. The Merrimac River was 
stocked by Massachusetts and New Hampshire about the same time 
as the Connecticut. The fishermen there refrained from catching 
the returning fish, and the result was that last fall 100,000 eggs were 
taken from the salmon which had returned and passed successfully 
through fishways provided for them over many high dams. The 
Commissioners have no doubt that by continuing salmon-planting 
in the Connecticut they could have ultimately accomplished similar 
results. It is true, the dam at Holyoke still prevents the passage of 
the fish to the headwaters of the river for spawning, as the fishway 
built there by Massachusetts is a failure. And inasmuch as the dam 
and fishway are beyond the jurisdiction and control of Connecticut, 
there is little, if any, prospect of improvement in that direction. 
But there are possibilities connected with the Farmington and Aga- 
wam Rivers which encourage the belief that a continuance of the 
work there will be successful. The Commissioners earnestly recom- 
mend that the appropriation be continued for that purpose. At 
Bucksport the work goes on as usual, for the benefit of Massachu- 
setts and the United States Government, but this year, for the first 
time since its inception, Connecticut has no part or lot in it.* 



* Since the above was written Prof. Baird has generously awarded to 
the State 250,000 of the Penobscot salmon eggs belonging to the United 
States Commission — thereby adding another to the many favors hereto- 
fore received at his hands. The Commissioners take this occasion to 
present to Prof. Baird, in behalf of the State and ol themselves, their 
grateful thanks. 



l88l.] FISH COMMISSIONERS' REPORT. 13 

LAND-LOCKED SALMON. 

The land-locked salmon eggs, from Grand Lake Stream in Maine, 

came — 80,000 January 9th, and 10,000 March 10th, 1880. Of these 

710 were dead when unpacked, 4,080 died in the hatching troughs, 

and 1,400 fry died before distribution. The rest were distributed in 

good condition in the following-named waters : 

Pitsquog Pond, Durham, 5,000 

Higganum Reservoir, Higganum, .... 5,000 

Rogers' Lake, Lynn, 5,000 

Limepaug Lake, Guilford, - - - : - 5,000 

Halfway River, Sandy Hook, 5,000 

Canaan Mountain Pond, Falls Village, - 5,000 

Kanesiac Pond, Danbury, - 5,000 

Still River, Brookfield, ------ 5,000 

Pomparaug River, Woodbury, ----- 5,000 

Perry's Pond, Southport, 5,000 

Mianus River, Mianus, ------ 5,000 

Quasepaug Lake, Middlebury, ----- 5,000 

Plainville Reservoir, Plainville, - 5,000 

Black Pond, Meriden, ------ 5,000 

Bolton Reservoir, Bolton, - 5,000 

Scantic River, Windsor, ------ 5,000 

Broad Brook, Broadbrook, ... - 5,000 

Salmon River, Granby. - .._••- 5,000 

Colt's Reservoir, Hartford, ----- 1,000 



Total, -------- 91,000 

The plan hitherto pursued in the distribution of land-locked 
salmon fry has been to select a few such points and lakes in different 
parts of the State as seemed especially adapted to the wants of the 
fish, and to plant a considerable number in each for several succes- 
sive years, so that the failure or success of the experiment might be 
sooner demonstrated. For four years this plan has been followed. 
The same ponds have been stocked each spring with from 5,000 to 
10,000 young fish. The names of these ponds may be found in any 
recent report. During the past year the taking of adult salmon from 
several of them, weighing from 2 l / 2 to 4 pounds each, has been 
reported to the Commissioners, thereby proving that these waters are 
well-suited to the growth of this excellent fish. Snipsic Lake, in 



14 FISH COMMISSIONERS' REPORT. [Jan., 

Rockville, and Long Lake, in West Winsted, have produced fine 
specimens. Mr. James Bill, of Lyme, showed to members of the 
Legislature, last winter, one that weighed z]/ 2 pounds, taken from 
Hog Lake, in Lyme, through the ice. In May, 1880, one weighing 
four pounds was taken from Twin Lakes in Salisbury. The vigorous 
growth of this fish in so many places in the State has created a great 
demand for the young fry, which has been met as far as possible, as 
will be seen from the list of streams and ponds above given. The 
supply, however, was inadequate, and many applicants were put off 
until a new supply could be obtained. For this purpose a sum . 
larger than usual has been devoted to this branch of the work the 
past year, so that a much larger number of fish will be in hand for 
supplying all reasonable demands in the spring. Under favorable 
circumstances the growth of the land-locked salmon is very rapid. In 
May, 1879, 5,000 young fish were placed in a small brook running 
into West Hartford Reservoir, and on July 28, 1880, one was taken 
with a hook which weighed one pound and two ounces ! It could 
not have been more than fifteen months old. Ordinarily at that age, 
in the waters of this State, this fish does not exceed four ounces in 
weight. 

The operations for procuring the land-locked salmon have been 
continued at Grand Lake Stream in Maine, as usual, the past year, 
under the direction of Charles G. Atkins, Esq., for the joint account 
and benefit of the United Slates Commission, and the States of 
Massachusetts .and Connecticut. Mr. Atkins' scientific attainments, 
large experience, and peculiar aptitude for this work, have placed 
him in the foremost rank of successful fish culturists. The Com- 
missioners feel that special acknowledgment should be made in their 
Report as justly due to Mr. Atkins for the essential aid he has always 
afforded the Commissioners in their many years' labors. His great 
intelligence and skill are surpassed only by his uniformly genial and 
obliging temper. 

His success the past season will be seen on perusal of the follow- 
ing letters : 



1 88 1.] FISH commissioners' report. 15 

Grand Lake Stream, Nov. 6, 1880. 
Robt. G. Pike, Esq., Middletown, Conn. 

My Dear Sir: — We have had two nights' fishing and taken 411 
Schoodic salmon, of which 177 are females. Forty-two of these have 
proved ripe and yielded us about 70,000 eggs; those remaining will give 
us some 180,000 eggs more. The fish are larger than usual and yield 
more eggs per fish. Impossible to foretell the net result of the season's 
work — probably not better than last year. Very truly yours, 

Chas. G. Atkins. 

Nov. 14, 1880. 
My Dear Sir: — We have taken, to date, over 2,000 Schoodic salmon, 
averaging 2}i to 3 lbs. weight; 1,243,000 eggs already secured, and I 
have reason to expect, from the fish on hand, enough to swell the 
number to 2,000,000. 

We have had fine weather, and little of the usual discomfort attend- 
ing the work. But we may have severe weather before we get through. 

Very truly yours, 

Chas. G. Atkins. 
Robt. G. Pike, Esq., Comr. Fisheries, Middletown, Conn. 

Nov. 23, 1880. 

Dear Doctor: — About 2,375,000 eggs in all. I hope the losses and 
reserve will not cut this down to lower than 1,530,000. On that basis 
your share will be about 480,000. I have been compelled to revise my 
estimates of expenses. Total now estimated at $2,550, and you have 
WW- Shall begin to ship them in January — early, if possible. 

Penobscot eggs will probably be 1,700,000 or more. Your share — 
oh, no! you are not there. Very truly yours, 

Chas. G. Atkins. 
Dr. W. M. Hudson, Comr. Fisheries, Hartford, Conn. 

It is obvious from these letters that a much larger supply of 
Schoodic salmon eggs has been procured than last year — more than 
double — and the number coming to this State for planting next 
spring will probably meet all demands.* 

trout. {Salmo Fontinalis.) 

This State has long been famous for its trout-brooks. Twenty-five 
or thirty years ago, any fisherman, of ordinary skill, could procure a 

* Since this report was prepared, Mr. Atkins has given notice that 
the share of Connecticut will be 480,000 eggs! 



l6 FISH COMMISSIONERS' REPORT. [Jan., 

fine basket of good-sized trout, in almost any part of the State, in a 
day's fishing. The same causes which nearly destroyed the game 
birds, doubtless, led to the almost entire extermination of the trout. 
The increased demand for luxuries consequent upon increased wealth 
and population, and the improved method of capture regardless of 
future supply, have so reduced the number of these fish, that it is 
with great difficulty they "can be found of any desirable size, and they 
command such a high price in the market that they are virtually 
beyond the reach of all but the wealthiest. 

Most of the States engaged in fish culture have built expensive 
hatching-houses within their borders, and have employed Superin- 
tendents whose annual salaries .exceed the entire appropriation of 
this State for some years. With such States the breeding of brook- 
trout has constituted an important part of the work of the Commis- 
sion. In view of the great expense it would , involve, no State 
hatching-house has ever been built in Connecticut. The Commis- 
sioners have so arranged their work as to enable them to dispense 
with such a building. They have employed experienced local fish 
culturists, who, under the direction and with the aid of the Com- 
missioners, have always been successful in their operations, and this 
with a great saving of expense. For some years past the demand 
for trout has been increasing, and the Commissioners have been 
urged to add to their ordinary work, the cultivation and distribution 
of brook-trout for re-stocking depleted streams. After consultation 
with many prominent Representatives in the Assembly, notice was 
given in the last annual report, that a limited number, in lots of 
5,000 fish, would be supplied this year, delivered free at the hatch- 
ing-house in Windsor. The notice was immediately followed by a 
great number of applications from all parts of the State, and in a 
very short time the whole supply, 1 10,000, was exhausted. Arrange- 
ments have been made by which it is expected that at least 400,000 
fry will be gathered for distribution next spring. All applications 
for them, and for land-locked salmon should be made to some one 
of the Commissioners on or before March 1st. It should be remem- 
bered that land-locked salmon are delivered at the expense of the 



l88 '-] FISH COMMISSIONERS' REPORT. 



17 



Commission at the railroad station nearest to the pond where they 
are to be placed. The expense from the station to the pond must 
be borne by the applicant. But trout and carp are delivered free of 
expense only at the hatching-house, whence they are taken and dis- 
tributed at the applicant's expense.- If applicants desire they can 
hire an expert for this work at the hatching-house. 

The 110,000 young trout were placed in the following named 
streams during April and May, 1880 : 

Hammonassett River, Durham, . . '. . IOOOO 



5,000 



5,000 
5,000 
5,000 
5,000 
5,000 
5,000 



Grass Hill Brook, Lyme, 

Spring Brook, East Thompson, 5000 

Cold Brook, Glastonbury, - 5 ' 000 

Prior Meadow, Enfield, - 

Still River, Brookfield, - 

Ice Pond, New London, - 

Halfway River, Sandy Hook, - 

Whaple Brook, East Windsor, - 

Goodwin's Brook, East Hartford, 

Bissell's Brook, Granby, - . ^'000 

Marsh Brook, Granby, - 000 

Mill Brook, Windsor, - 5 | 000 

Iron Oar Brook, Windsor, .... 5ooo 

Broadbrook, Broadbrook, .... 5 ' 000 

Beebee Brook, East Lyme, - ^ooo 

Beaver Brook Stream, Haddam, - - . 5i0 oo 

Bishop's Brook, New London, - 5 ' 000 

Live Mile Brook, Birmingham, - 5 'oo 

Aspatuck River, Marbledale, ----- r 000 

Silver Creek, Enfield, - 5 ' 000 



1 10,000 



ALEWIVES. (A/osa Tvrauiuis.) 

The alewive fishing in the Connecticut River, and its bays and 
coves, in the early spring, is of considerable importance. The fish 
are caught in large numbers, are immediately salted, packed in hogs- 
heads, and sent to New York; whence they are shipped to various 
countries— some going as far as the coast of Africa. The principal 
run the past year was in April; on the third day of that month two 
thousand dozen (24,000) fish were taken at one haul of a seine in 



l8 FISH COMMISSIONERS' REPORT. [Jan.,- 

Wethersfield Cove ! They generally come when there is a freshet ; 
and always in large schools. Application was made to the Commis- 
sioners by some of the fishermen for permission to use a fine-meshed 
net for the purpose of catching these fish, as provided in Section 4, 
chapter xcviii., page 66, of the laws of 1875. As ve, T ^ ew sr *ad are 
running in April, permission was given to use fine-meshed seines 
until May 15th. A meeting of the Commissioners with the fisher- 
men on their fishing grounds was appointed to be held on the 13th 
day of May, to witness the hauling of the seines, and then to decide 
whether the time for using the small-meshed nets should be extended. 
By that day, however, the cove fishing had been long abandoned and 
the nets put away for the year ; but on the river, while no alewives 
had been taken for several weeks, only a few days before the day of 
the meeting, a new run of fish had commenced, and large numbers 
were being taken by what is known as "keel-hauling" — that is, by 
passing a fine-meshed net outside of the shad seine, when the latter 
is partly drawn in. On examining the catch, of which a wagon 
load was brought for inspection, a good many young shad were found 
among them about the size of the alewives. This was conclusive ; 
and it was determined that no extension of time should be allowed, 
and no fine-meshed net be permitted, in the river in future, later 
than the 1st day of May. It was wasteful to kill so many young 
shad in order to capture so few alewives of so little value ; and this, 
too, after the latter had generally ceased to run. 

SHAD. {Alsosa Pracstabilis) 

Smith's fishing ground at Holyoke, Mass., is the only place on the 
Connecticut River where the artificial hatching of shad has been 
extensively carried on. Success there has been due, doubtless, to 
two causes : 1st, The shad that reach there at the close of the fishing 
season being stopped by the dam, play around in the shallow waters 
below the dam until they become ripe for spawning ; they are then 
easily caught and readily yield their ova in abundance : 2d, The 
mild temperature of the water there at this time of year promotes a 
rapid and healthy development of the ova. For several years, there- 



l88l.] FISH COMMISSIONERS' REPORT. 19 

fore, the ova used for re-stocking the Connecticut were procured at 
this place. But for the past two years no shad have been hatched 
there by artificial means. Nothing, however, has interfered with 
their natural spawning in the river, so that the supply has not entirely 
ceased. 

But artificial hatching is all important for maintaining an abundant 
supply of shad in our rivers ; and there are many reasons why the 
work should be done, if possible, within the State. To accomplish 
this object the Commissioners have made every reasonable effort the 
past year. They have employed Messrs. James Rankin and Robert 
B. Chalker to engage in the work. They were selected for their 
general intelligence, long experience in shad fishing, and thorough 
knowledge of the habits of the fish. Although they failed to procure 
spawn, they, nevertheless, learned many valuable facts necessary to a 
solution of the problem, and it is confidently expected that another 
season's trial will result in success. The following report gives the 
particulars of their work : 

To the Fish Commissioners of Connecticut : 

Gentlemen — 

In respect t<5 our experiments, under your direction, the past season, 
for propagating shad in the waters of the State, we respectfully report : 

On the 25th day of May, seeing that the water in the Connecticut was 
falling very fast, and fearing that any attempt might fail, as in 1876, at 
Holyoke, from the same cause, we agreed, with Messrs. Smith and Hale, 
of Wethersfield, to commence at once, provided the shad were found in 
proper condition. From the 25th of May until the 20th of June the shad 
caught were carefully examined — especially those caught in the night — 
but without finding any ripe fish. The spawn was very backward and 
unripe. Thus far our fishing was without expense to the State. 

After close time commenced, June 20th, we fished at different times 
on the same fishing grounds, until July 6th, and found, during that time, 
only one ripe female shad. We made about thirty hauls, and caught 
250 shad, all of which were carefully examined. Finding them unripe, 
we tried to keep them alive in a pound, but they all died in a few hours. 
The last shad caught were nearly all dead when landed by the seine. 
The eggs obtained from the only ripe shad caught, as above stated, 
which was of a large size, were hatched without loss, and the fry let 
loose into the river. 

June 17 we went to Farmington River and hauled the seine twice, 
catching 18 shad, which were in the same undeveloped condition as at 



20 



FISH COMMISSIONERS' REPORT. [Jan., 



Wethersfield, and of small size. We then tried fishing with gill nets in 
deep water, between Deep River and Chester, on the nights ot July 
I2th 13th, 14th and 15th, using two nets, and each night catching about 
100 shad— but we found them in the same undeveloped condition as at 
Wethersfield. 

Before this we had erected a pound about one mile west of the mouth 
of the Connecticut River and fifty rods from the shore, to see if it were 
possible to hatch shad in salt water. Into this pound, June 4 th, were 
put 8 shad ; June 7 th, 12 shad ; June 10th, 6 shad. They all lived and 
remained bright and lively, and became so gentle as to be handled 
without difficulty. They were thus enclosed until the 25th of June, 
when they were so far developed as to be fit for taking ripe spawn. But 
just at this time an unlooked-for enemy appeared and prevented the 
completion of the experiment. Owing to the previous warm winter the 
sharks appeared on the shores of the Sound about a month earlier than 
usual During the day they attacked the pound and tried to catch the 
imprisoned shad, causing them to become wild. By the repeated biting 
of the sharks some of the meshes of the netting were broken and the 
male shad all escaped. The female shad remained and were nearly all 
ripe for spawning, and their eggs were perfect. Although the expen- 
■ ment was incomplete, it proved that the shad can be impounded in salt 
water until ready for spawning, and then their spawn can be obtained 
in unlimited quantities for transportation and hatching. 

At the commencement of our fishing the water of the Connecticut 
River was very low-about as low as it usually is foimd in August. 
The fishermen say that it is not unusual to find shad spawn in their 
boats after the shad are taken out, but they saw nothing of the kind this 
season We have no doubt that the low state of the river and exceed- 
in. high temperature of the water were the cause of the unusual condi- 
tion of the shad caught in the river. An account of the temperature of 
the air and water will be forwarded herewith. All of which is respect- 
fully submitted. 

James Rankin. 

R. B. Chalker. 

The temperature of the water and air on the days mentioned in 
foregoing letter was as follows : 

At Garner's fish-place, observations taken of the water at 7 o'clock 
A M. showed: May 18 and 19, 52°; May 20, 5 4 \ May 21, 55°: May 22 
and 24, 57 ; May 28, 56 ; May 29, 58°; June 5, 6. ; June 7, 60 ; June 
7 60 ; June 8, 60 ; June 9. 59°! J— ">, 60 . Observations of the 
ame water taken at 7 A- m.. 12 M„ and 6 P. M. showed: July .6 ,0 . 
73 72 ■ July 17. 7i , 73 , 72 ; July .8, 72 , 74°. 73 • Observations 
taken at the same hours of the day at Wethersfield showed: 



1881. 



FISH COMMISSIONERS KKI'ORT. 



21 





AIR. 










WATER. 






June 18, 


72° 


75' 


740 


June 


18, 


78 


78 


7^» 


June 19, 


74 


76 J 


740 


June 


19. 


76 


79 


75 


June 20, 


73° 


.77° 


75" 


June 


20, 


75 


78 


75 


June 21, 


75' 


870 


75' 


June 


21 , 


76 


78 


76^ 


June 22, . 


77 ' 


»3 


74 


June 


22 


77 


7') 


7'' 


June 23, 


76' 


&s J 


75' 


June 


23. 


76 


78 


75 


June 24, 


75 


84 ' 


74 


June 


24. 


74 


77 




June 25, 


79' 


94 


90 ' 


June 


25. 


76 


80' 


82 


June 26, 


77 


92 


77" 


June 


26, 


77 


85 


80 


June 27, 


780 


90 ° 


84 ' 


June 


27. 


79 


84 


82 


June 28, 


76 ' 


870 


7" 


June 


28, 


82 


86 


84 


June 29, 


S2 


83 


7> s 


June 


29. 


84 


8> 


82 


June 30, 


80 


860 


790 


June 


30. 


87 


84 


82 


July I, 


7 80 


82 


79° 


July 


I, 


80 


82 


81 


July 2, 


67 


7^ 


72° 


July 


"> 


77 


79 


So 1 


July 3. 


66' 


72 


68 " 


July- 


3. 


78' 


78 


76° 


July 4, 


70 


840 


72 


July 


4. 


78 


80 ' 


79 


July 5. 


740 


84 


70 • 


July 


5. 


80 


80 


78 


July 6, 


74 


86 


710 


July 


6, 


80 


81 


790 



At Deep River, observations taken in the night at 7 P. M., 10 p. m., 
and 12 midnight, showed: 







AIR. 










WATER. 






July 


12, 


70" 


69 


68 


July 


12, 


80^ 


79" 


78' 


July 


13. 


73 


72 


72 ' 


July 


13. 


8l 


81 


So 


July 


14. 


70 


70 


69 


July 


14. 


8o° 


8o° 


79 


July 


15. 


73 


72 


7i 


July 


15. 


8o° 


8o° 


79 



It was the warm winter of 1879-80 that operated to make the 
water in the river, as above stated, so unusually low and warm 
throughout the summer — a condition not at all favorable for im- 
pounding the fish. If the coming season proves propitious the 
experiments of confining the spawners in both fresh and salt water 
will again be tried, and if they remain in good condition and ripen 
there, the spawn will then be taken and immediately transported to 
waters most favorable for hatching, and thence they will be distributed 
in the. usual way, wherever wanted. 

• The low condition of the water in the river also contributed to 
reduce the catch of shad, generally along the river. A far less 
number were caught than in the year before, and they were not quite 
so good in size and quality. The following are returns from the 
principal fishing places on the river and Sound: 



22 



FISH COMMISSIONERS' REPORT. [Jan., 

POUNDS. SHAD. 

6 at Old Saybrook, caught, - 57.65 1 

9 at Westbrook and Duck Island, caught, - 85,483 

5 at Clinton, caught, - - - - • - - 2 9. 6 50 

9 at Madison, caught, 3.°°° 

29 Caught in all, 175.784 

GILL NETS. 

10 gill nets at Deep River, caught, - ' 8,640 
12 " " " Hamburg, caught, - - - 14.433 

3 •■ " '• Essex, ------ 1 .45 2 

3 " " Estimate of W. H. Parmlee's, caught, - 4.000 

20 '* " at Lyme, l8 - 868 

8 " " Old Saybrook, caught, - - - - 9. 112 

57 " " Caught in all, 56.505 

HAULING SEINES. 

1 1 hauling seines, caught at Essex, - 15.762 
3 .< " •• " Lyme, - 20,667 
1 « » •■ » Saybrook, - - - 1,200 



15 



SUMMARY. 



in all, --- - 37.629 



29 pounds, 175.784 

57 gill nets, 56.505 • 

15 seines, - - 37.629 

Total, - - - - " 269,918 

With one exception the above figures have been obtained directly 
from the fishermen:— that exception is W. H. Parmelee, of Essex, 
who refused information; but the estimate of his fish is probably 
about right. The above figures are below the real number caught in 
the Connecticut, as many seine fishermen failed to make their 
returns. A fair estimate of those thus failing would increase the 
amount caught to not far from 300,000 shad. If the estimated num- 
ber of those caught in the other rivers are added, the total of shad 
caught in the State last season cannot be far from 325,000. The 
year previous the catch in the State was about 490,000. 



l88l.] FISH COMMISSIONERS' REPORT. 23 

CARP. 

No fish is more generally cultivated in Europe than the carp. It 
is ranked there as second only to the salmon and the trout. It was 
introduced into England in the early part of the 1 6th century, as 
appears from the well-known distich: 

" Hops and turkies, carps and beer, 
Came into England all in one year." 

Isaak Walton says: 

" The carp is the queen of rivers, but was not at first bred, nor hath 
been long, in England; but is now (A. D. 1653) naturalized." 

For some unexplained reason it has not received that attention 
there which for centuries it has had in Austria and Prussia, and other 
parts of Central and Southern Europe. 

There are three species which have been principally cultivated — 
the scale carp, with concentrically-arranged scales; the mirror carp, 
with only three or four rows of scales along its sides; and the leather 
carp, with few or no scales. Each of these has its advocates, and it 
is not easy to decide which is the best for cultivation. If genuine 
species, they are all good. For transportation, however, the leather 
carp, having no scales, is the most desirable; as slight bruises would 
work no permanent injury, as with scale fish. 

Carp prefer stagnant or quiet waters, with muddy bottoms covered 
with vegetation, which is their principal food, although they will eat 
aquatic worms and larva:, offal from the kitchen, the barn-yard, the 
slaughter-house and the brewery. In winter they are torpid, hud- 
dling together in the deepest water, with their heads buried in the 
mud. They take no food from the beginning of October to about 
the end of March, the period varying in length with the latitude of 
the place. It grows rapidly in the months of May, June, July and 
August, provided it has plenty of food and suitable water. Too 
much peat acid spoils the water for them. Warm waters are most 
favorable for their activity in search of food, and consequently for 
their rapid growth. They spawn when 3 or 4 years old, beginning 
early in March and ending about the end of July. — sometimes in 



24 PISH commissioners' report. [Jan., 

August— the time varying with the water and the weather, as a cold 
temperature in either checks the process. The spawner does not cast 
her eggs all at once, but in lots of 400 or 500 at a time, at shorter or 
longer intervals. A fish weighing 4 or 5 pounds will yield 400,000 
or 500,000 eggs! These eggs are adhesive, and catch, in masses, 
upon any object against which they happen to fall. They hatch out 
in from 12 to 16 days, but if the water is not warm it may take 20 
days. The yolk-sac is absorbed in from 3 to 5 days, by which time 
they begin to move in search of food. In thre-e years, under favorable 
circumstances, they generally attain to a weight of 3 to 1% pounds, 
but they have frequently been known to reach 2 pounds the first 
season. They are long-lived and hardy, inoffensive to other fish, and 
have no special means of defence. Rivers and large lakes have pro- 
duced the largest fish, weighing 30, 40 and some even 90 pounds— 
but these are rare. 

Mr. J. A. Poppe, of Sonoma, California, in the year 1872, took 
eighty-three carp of various sizes, from Holstein, Germany, with the 
design of introducing them to the ponds on his farm in Sonoma. 
Only five of them survived the journey, and these were the smallest— 
about eight inches in length. They were placed in his pond in the 
month of August, 1872, and in the following May they had grown 
to be 16 inches long, and had produced over 3, 000 young fish! Since 
that time the increase has been very rapid. Two of the original fish 
still live, and they are two feet long, and weigh about 15 pounds 
each. The young have also grown rapidly— in one year reaching 6 
or 8 pounds. The progeny of these five fish are now scattered over 
California— some indeed have been planted in the Sandwich Islands 
and Central America. Mr. Poppe's fish are kept in ponds about 150 
feet square and five feet average depth. They were made by digging 
out marshy and springy land. Mr. Poppe has fed his fish principally 
on curd from the dairy, but they are fond of barley, wheat, beans, 
corn, peas and coagulated blood. The expense of keeping is com- 
paratively small, for they live on what might otherwise go to waste. 
I heir flesh is said to have a delicious flavor. 
The United Stales Commissioner, Prof. Baird, introduced carp lor 



i88i.] fish commissioners' report. 25 

distribution throughout the United States, about four years ago; 130 
living fish were brought from German}- in good condition, and from 
these a large number of young breeders were produced. During 
the past year upwards of 130,000 have been distributed through the 
United States. It is estimated that one pair of healthy fish is enough 
for a one acre pond, producing from 5,000 to 10,000 eggs in a sea- 
son. Any one wishing to know more of the nature and habits of 
the carp, and the best methods of cultivation, will find an exhaustive 
article upon the subject, by Mr. Rudolph Hessel, published in the 
United States Commissioners' Report, 1S75-6 ; from which some of 
the foregoing facts have been taken. 

Great eagerness has been manifested throughout the United States 
to secure them for planting ; and many applications have been made 
to your Commissioners to secure them for introduction into such 
ponds of this State as seemed best suited to their growth. Prof. 
Baird has kindly supplied the Commissioners with blank applications, 
which will be sent to any one who asks for them. It should be well 
understood that the carp is adapted to a class of waters wholly un- 
suited to salmon or trout. Ponds with rock or sandy bottoms will 
not answer. Shallow, quiet waters, with muddy bottoms, yielding 
vegetable growths, are the best ; the larger in extent the better, and 
no other fish should be allowed in the pond. In the ponds made 
for them at Baltimore and Washington they did well, and it is 
asserted by those who know, that they will endure our Xew England 
winters without detriment. 

It is obvious from what has been hereinbefore stated that the carp 
have exceptionally good qualities, — that they thrive in a wide range 
of latitudes, and at no distant day they bid fair to constitute a large, 
if not the largest, proportion of the fish-food of the United States. 

Prof. Baird sent to the Commissioners 400 scale carp and 400 
leather carp, which have been distributed in lots of twenty each in 
different parts of the State; a more particular account of which will 
appear in the next report. 

On the 2 1st day of August last, Mr. G. N. Woodruff, of Sherman, 
Conn., was appointed Commissioner in place of Hon James A. Bill, 



26 FISH COMMISSIONERS' REPORT. [Jan., 

of Lyme. It is due to Mr. Bill that his old associates on the Board 
should place on record in this report their testimony to the great 
intelligence, fidelity and efficiency with which he has always dis- 
charged the duties of his office during the twelve years of his con- 
nection with this Board. In the darkest days of opposition and 
discouragement his counsel was always bold, cheerful and helpful ; 
and no little credit is due to him for the successes which have here- 
tofore crowned the work of the Commission. 
The financial statement is hereto appended. 

Respectfully submitted, 

WM. M. HUDSON, ) Commissioners 
ROBERT G. PIKE, [ on 

G. N. WOODRUFF, ) Fisheries. 



i88i.] 



FISH COMMISSIONERS REPORT. 



27 



FINANCIAL STATEMENT. 



Balance on hand Jan. 1, 1880, - 
Appropriation of 1880, ... - 

1880. 

April 12, Paid Henry J. Fenton, hatching and 

distributing Penobscot salmon, 
April 20, Paid Henry J. Fenton, 40,000 trout, 
May 10, Paid Henry J. Fenton, 70,000 trout, 
May 10, Paid Henry J. Fenton, hatching and 

distributing land-locked salmon, 
May 14, Paid Chas. G. Atkins, land-locked 

salmon enterprise, in Maine, 
May 25, Paid Chalker and Rankin, shad hatch- 
ing operations, - 
Sept. 30, Paid A. Wilbraham, for 1 2 new fish 

cans, and repairing old ones, 
Oct. 30, Paid R. B. Chalker, collecting shad 
statistics, ----- 

Nov. 25, Paid Henry J. Fenton, managing 
carp, ------ 

Nov. 30, Wm, M. Hudson, expenses, 

pay, - 

' Robert G. Pike, expenses, 

pay, - 

' James A. Bill, expenses, - - - 

pay, - 



$810 23 
2,500 00 

$3.3 IQ 2 3 



$84 50 



120 


00 


210 


00 


201 


89 


800 


00 


549 


6 9 


67 


60 



25 00 



20 


00 


313 


60 


408 


00 


70 


95 


222 


00 


124 


00 


93 


00 



$3>3 l ° 2 3 



28 FISH COMMISSIONERS' REPORT. [Jan., 



LIST OF FISH COMMISSIONERS. 



Canada. 
W. F. Whitcher, - Ottawa, Ontario. 

S. Wilmot, Supt. of Fisheries, - - Newcastle, Ontario. 

Nao Brunswick. 
W. H. Venning, Inspector of Fisheries, St. John. 

Nova Scotia. 
W. H. Rogers, Inspector of Fisheries, Amherst. 

Prince Edward Island. 
T. H. Duvar, Inspector of Fisheries, Alberton. 

British Columbia. 

A. C. Anderson, Inspector of Fisheries, Victoria. 

United States. , 
Prof. Spencer F. Baird, - - - Washington, D. C. 

A labama. 
This State had a Commission last year, but we have been unable 
to get a reply to letters addressed to them. 

California. 
S. R. Thockmorton, San Francisco. 

B. B. Redding, - 

J. D. Farwell, .... Niles, Alameda Co. 



i88i.] 



W. E. Sistv, 



W. M. Hudson, 
Robert G. Pike, 
G. N. Woodruff, 



Thomas P. James, 



FISH COMMISSIONERS REPORT. 
Colorado. 



29 



Connecticut. 



Georgia. 



Brookvale. 



Hartford. 

Middletown. 

Sherman. 



Atlanta. 



(Com. of Agriculture and ex-officio of fisheries.) 

Illinois. 

N. K. Fairbank, ... - Chicago. 
S. P. Bartlett, - Quincy. 

(Mr. J. Smith Briggs, of Kankakee, was on the board, but his 
term has expired and no appointment has been made to date.) 



B. F. Shaw, 



D. B. Lou?, 



Iowa. 



Kansas. 



Kentucky. 



Hon. John A. Steele, 
Dr. Wm. Van Antwerp, 
A. H. Goble, - 
Hon. C. J. Walton, 
Dr. S. W. Coombs, 
John B. Walker, - 
Wm. Griffith, President, 
W. C. Price, - 
P. H. Darby, - 
Hon. J. M. Chambers, 



Anamosa. 



Ellsworth. 



Midway. 

Mt. Sterling. 

Catlettsburg. 

Munfordville. 

Bowling Green. 

Madisonville. 

Louisville. . 

Danville. 

Princeton. 

Independence, Kenton Co. 



3 o FISH COMMISSIONERS' REPORT. [Jan., 

Maine. 

E. M. Stillwell, .... Bangor. 

Henry O. Stanley, - Dixfield. 

(Commissioners of Fisheries and Game. ) 

• Maryland. 

T. B. Ferguson, .... Baltimore. 

(Address 1,327 M street, Washington, D. C. ) 

Thomas Hughlett, - Easton. 

Massachusetts. 

Theodore Lyman, - Brookline. 

E. A. Brackett, .... Winchester. 

Asa French, Boston. 

Michigan. 

Eli R. Miller, - - - Richland. 

A. J. Kellogg, - - Detroit. 

Dr. J. C. Parker, - - - Grand Rapids. 

Minnesota. 

Daniel Cameron, La Crescent. 

Wm. W. Sweeney, M. D., Red Wing. 

R.Ormsby Sweeny, Chm., - - St. Paul. 

Missouri. 

Hon. Silas Woodson, Chm., - St. Joseph. 

Hon. H. Clay Ewing, - - - Jefferson City. 

John Reid, Lexington. 

Nebraska. 

R. R. Livingston, - - - - Plattsmouth. 

H. S. Kaley, - - - - Red Cloud. 

W. L. May, ----- Fremont. 

Nevada. 

H. G. Parker, .... Carson City. 



i88i.] 



FISH COMMISSIONERS' REPORT. 
New Hampshire. 



3i 



Samuel Webber, 
Luther Hayes, 
Albina H. Powers, 



Dr. B. P. Howell, 
E. J. Anderson, 
Theo. Morford, 



New Jersey. 



Manchester. 
South Milton. 
Plymouth. 



Woodbury. 

Trenton. 

Newton. 



New York. 



Hon. R. B. Roosevelt, 76 Chambers St., New York. 

Edward M. Smith, - Rochester. 

Richard U. Sherman, ... New Hartford, Oneida Co. 

Eugene G. Blackford, 809 Bedford ave. , Brooklyn. 

North Carolina. 

P. M. Wilson (Acting Com. ), - Raleigh. 

Ohio. 

J. C. Fisher, President, - - - Coshocton. 



R. Cummings, Treasurer, 
L. A. Harris, Secretary, - 



H. J. Reeder, 
B. L. Hewit, - 
James Duffy, - 
John Hummel, 
Robert Dalzell, 
G. M. Miller, 



Toledo. 
Cincinnati. 



Pennsylvania. 



Easton. 

Holidaysburg. 

Marietta. 

Selingsgrove. 

Pittsburg. 

Wilkesbarre. 



Rhode Island. 



Newton Dexter, 
John H. Barden, 
Alfred A. Reed, 



Providence, 

Rockland. 

Providence. 



32 FISH COMMISSIONERS' REPORT. [Jan., 

South Carolina. 

A. P. Butler, Columbia. 

(Com. of Agriculture and ex-officio Com. of Fisheries.) 

Tennessee. 

W. W. McDowell, - Memphis. 

Geo. F. Akers, - Nashville. 

Hon. W. T. Turley, ... Knoxville. 

Texas. 
J. H. Dinkins, . . . Austin. 

Utah. 

Prof. J. L. Barfoot, (Curator Deseret Museum), Salt Lake City. 

Vermont. 
Dr. M. Goldsmith, - - - - Rutland. 
Charles Barrett, - Grafton. 



Virginia. 

M. McDonald, .... Lexington. 



West 1 'irginia. 

Henry B. Miller, ... - Wheeling. 

C. S. White, ----- Romney. 

N. M. Lowry, .... Hinton. 

Wisconsin. 

Gov. Wm. E. Smith, (ex-officio), - Madison. 

Philo Dunning, (President), - Madison. 

J. V. Jones, ----- Oshkosh. 

C. L. Valentine, (Secretary and Treas. ), Janesville. 

Mark Douglas, ... - Melrose, Jackson Co. 

John F. Antisdel, - Milwaukee. 

Christopher Hutchinson, - - - Beetown, Grant Co. 



REPORT 



OF THE 



BOABD OF 



Capitol Commissioners 



TO THE 



General Assembly 



STATE OF CONNECTICUT. 



Printed fey Ofdef of % I<egi#kttrfe. 



HARTFORD, CONN.: 
Press op The Case, Lockwood & Brain ard Company. 

1881. 



REPORT. 



Hartford, November 30, 1880. 

To His Excellency Charles B. Andrews, 

Governor of the State of Connecticut : 

Sir, The Board of Capitol Commissioners have the honor 
to report: 

That since the first of March, 1880, the expenses, in the 
settlement of the accounts of the contract and the finishing 
of the work on the New Capitol, have amounted to the sum 
of one hundred and twenty thousand one hundred and thirteen 
dollars and fifty-two cents. The receipts and expenditures 
for the period above named were as follows : 

Receipts. 

Balance on hand as per last report, - 

From the State of Connecticut on account of Appro 

priations for building, etc., - 
From the city of Hartford, .... 
From the Comptroller for Expenditures for gas fix 

tures, etc., 

From miscellaneous sources, .... 



Expenditures. 

In settlement of claims of J. G. Batterson in accordance with res- 
olution of General Assembly, approved March 
25, 1880, $113,500 

For completion of stone-work, decoration, etc., of 

building, office expenses, etc., - - - - $6,613.52 



- $16,076.97 


88,131.36 


15,000.00 


257.50 


647.69 


$120,113.52 



8120,113.52 



General Statement of Accounts. 

The total receipts and expenditures on the new Capitol build- 
ing from the commencement of the work to the 31st of 
October, 1880, are shown in the following statement. 

Statement of Cash Account, October 31, 1880. 

Dr. 
Amount received from the State of Connecticut on 

account of appropriations for building, etc., $2,028,131.36 
Amount received from city of Hartford, - - - 500,000.00 
sales of materials etc., - 4,608.94 
J. G. Batterson, for freight, etc., 6,461.08 
sundry parties, " " " 402.50 

comptroller for furniture, etc., 38,805.18 
appropriation for grading 

grounds,- - - - 5,138.45 
Amount refunded by T. F. Burke, for gold leaf, - 1,131.00 

« " for Carpet and fittings, - - - 875^89 

$2,585,554.40 



Paid to J. G. Batterson in accordance 
with resolution of General As- 
sembly, approved March 25, 
1880, - - $113,500.00 

Paid to J. G. Batterson for construc- 
tion, etc., prior to March 1, 1880, 

- 1,807,157.03 

Paid to J. G. Batterson for statuary, 17,450.00 



Paid to other parties for construction, $271,358.08 
« ii « « '• statuary, 29,990.85 
" for models for carving, - - 1,843.14 
" " decoration of building, - - 34,410.58 
" " gilding dome, - ■ 2,114.14 
" " heating and ventilating appara- 
tus, 52,368.22 

Paid for elevator apparatus, r - - 4,576.76 
" " fire-place fittings, - - 1,164.49 



Cr., 



$1,938,107.03 



Paid for drinking fountains, - - $1,057.56 
" water, fuel, and gas, - - 7,804.13 
" steam engineer and firemen, 5,084.84 
" watchmen and cleaning building, 6,900.03 
: ' miscellaneous expenses, - - 865.58 
" tools, appliances, etc., - ■ 611.86 
" heating experiments, - - 797.57 
architect and decorators' fees, superin- 
tendence, office expenses, etc., 168,386.18 
Paid for alterations and repairs, - - 2,907.44 
" •' completion of work on building 

after March 1, 1880, - - 2,175 98 

$594,417.43 

Cost of building, $2,532,524.46 

Advanced for freight, models, labor, etc., 

for contractor, - - - $3,414.87 
Advanced for freight, labor, etc., for 

sundry parties, - - - 402.50 

Advanced for dome-pier repairs, - 2,766.44 
" " gold-leaf, - - - 1,131.00 

" furniture, etc., - - 38,805.18 
" " carpet and fittings, - 875.89 

" " grading grounds, - 5,138.45 

" " experiments in Hall of Rep- 

resentatives, ordered by 
Speaker Wright, - 495.61 

$53,029.94 



$2,585,554.40 

The following resolution was passed at the last session of 

the General Assembly: 

State of Connecticut, 
Office of Secretary of State. 

general assembly, january session, a. d. 1880. 

[House Joint Resolution No. 135.] 
[109.] 

Aivarding Compensation to James G. Batterson. 

Whereas, Differences exist between the Commissioners for build- 
ing the new Capitol and James G. Batterson, the contractor, 



relative to the sum which is due to him under his contract for 

the erection of said building: therefore, 
Resolved by this Assembly: 

Section 1. That the sum of one hundred and thirteen thousand 
five hundred dollars ($113,500) be and the same is hereby appro- 
priated and awarded to said Batterson by way of compromise of 
said claims, which sum shall be in full satisfaction and discharge 
of all claims of said Batterson against the State in any way grow- 
ing out of said contract, including the sum awarded by said 
Commissioners. 

Sec. 2. The Comptroller shall draw his order on the Treasurer 
in favor of the President of said Board of Capitol Commissioners 
for such sum as may be necessary to make such payment, beyond 
the sums heretofore appropriated for that purpose by the State 
and by the city of Hartford. 

Sec. 3. That before said payment shall be made, said Batterson 
shall cause all liens upon said building and attachments of funds 
due him in the hands of said Commissioners to be released and 
discharged, and shall also execute a receipt in full of all demands 
against the State arising out of said matters. 

Sec 4. This resolution shall not be binding upon the State 
unless said Batterson shall signify to the Treasurer his acceptance 
of the same in writing within sixty days after the rising of the 
General Assembly. 

Approved March 25, 1880. 

State of Connecticut, ss. 
Office of Secretary of State. 

I hereby certify that the foregoing is a true copy of record in 
this office. 

In testimony whereof I have hereunto set my hand, and affixed 
the seal of said State, at Hartford, this 29th day of March, A. D. 
1880. 

DAVID TORRANCE, 

Secretary of State. 

The following is a copy of a letter from J. G. Batterson to 
the Treasurer of the State of Connecticut: 



\ 



"Hartford, Conn., April 7, 1880. 
Hon. Talljiadge Bakkk, 

Treasurer of the State of Connecticut : 
Sir, — I hereby notify you of my acceptance of the sum of one 
hundred and thirteen thousand five hundred dollars, in settlement 
of my claims against the State growing out of contract for build- 
ing a new State House. 

Respectfully yours, 

(Signed) J. G. BATTERSON. 
$113,500." 

The following is a copy of the receipt given by J. G. Bat- 
terson for one hundred and thirteen thousand five hundred 
dollars paid to him by the President of the Capitol Commis- 
sion, in accordance with the above resolution : 

"Hartford, Conn., April 7, 1880. 
Received from A. B. Burr, Pres., one hundred and thirteen 
thousand five hundred dollars ($113,500), in full settlement of all 
claims under my contract for building a new State House . 

(Signed) J. G. BATTERSON. 
$88,131.36 
15,000.00 
10,368.64 



$113,500.00" 



Since the date of our last report, the following work has 
been done on the Capitol : — 

The carving, trimming, and finish of the marble work has 
been improved. 

Repairs of certain defective parts of the exterior marble 
and granite work have been made. 

The passages, arcades, and interior of the upper part of the 
main tower, and the groined arches of the outer northern 
vestibule have been painted. Certain rooms on the fourth 
floor, including the large one over the Senate Chamber, have 
been finished in color. 

The heating and ventilating apparatus has been completed. 

The iron work of the two circular stairs in the main town 



8 

has been completed, including some additional railings put on 
the lower stair, to make it a safer passage-way for persons 
unaccustomed to such a height. 

The records of the estimates made and received by the 
Commission, and of the letters, papers, &c, sent out and re- 
ceived, have been put into good order for preservation, and 
wherever possible, they have been bound into strong volumes, 
and indices of all these records have been made. 

Record plans of four floors of the building have been framed 
and hung in the office of the State House keeper for the use 
of State officers and visitors. 

The drawings furnished by the architect have been returned 
to him according to agreement, and the most of the other 
drawings and designs used in the construction and ornamen- 
tation of the building have been returned to the sources from 
which they emanated. Many tracings and other copies, 
working drawings, etc., however, remained in the office of the 
Commission, and these have been turned over to the Comp- 
troller. 

The property remaining in the hands of the Commission, 
and the books, vouchers, papers, etc., etc., of the Commission 
have been turned over to the Comptroller. 

The following resolution was passed at the last session of 
the General Assembly : — 

State ok Connecticut, 
Office of Secretary of State. 

General Assembly, January Session, 1880 

[House Joint Resolution, No. 184.] 
[186.] 

To Compensate the Board of Capitol Commissioners. 

Whereas, The Board of Capitol Commissioners have served the 
State for about six years with great industry and with rare fidelity 
to a public trust of the highest importance, and have turned over 
to the State its elegant Capitol, and have thus far received no com- 
pensation therefor, 

Resolved by this Assembly : That the sum of Fifteen Thousand 
Dollars is hereby appropriated out of the Public Treasury to said 
Board of Capitol Commissioners, to be divided as they see fit, and 



9 

the Comptroller is authorized to draw Ins order on the Treasurer 

in tavor of the Chairman of said Board therefor. 
Approved March 25th, 1880. 

State of Connecticut, ss. 
Office of Secretary of State. 

office 1361 "^ 7 Certify that the ab ° Ve 1S a trUe C ° Py ° f record ,n thls 

— — In Testimony whereof, I have hereunto set my hand 
and affixed the Seal of said State, at Hartford, this 



<EAL '- 



j 29th day of March. A. D. 1880. 



DAVID TORRANCE, 

Secretary of State. 



The sum of fifteen thousand dollars appropriated by the 
above resolution to the Capitol Commissioners as compen- 
sation for their services has been divided according to the 
time served and services rendered by each Commissioner. 
The portions due for services of the two deceased members, 
Mess rs . Dunham and Barber, were paid to the administrators 
oi their estates. 



Respectfully submitted. 

[RR, >| 

State 



A. E. BURR. 

J. HALSEY. 

N. WHEELER. I QapUol 

y-n»?525? MI)GE ' 

F. CHAMBERLIX. 



RE POET 



OP THE 



COMMITTEE 



FOR 



4™dmg fhc jjfaM <|roimtk 



Printed by Ofdef of % I<e^tufe. 



HARTFORD, CONN. 

Press of The Case, Lockwood & Bbaisakd Company, 

1881. 



Stntc of Connecticut. 



REPORT. 



To the Honorable General Assembly of the State of Connecti- 
cut. 

January Session, A.D. 1881. 

The General Assembly of 1878 authorized the Capitol 
Commission to lay out and grade the Capitol grounds, and ap- 
propriated for that purpose the sum of ten thousand dollars. 

At the end of the season they had made but little progress, 
and during the session of 1879 a further appropriation of 
twenty-five thousand dollars was made, and a committee 
was appointed, consisting of the Comptroller of the State, 
and the Board of Park Commissioners of the City of Hart- 
ford, with full power to proceed with the work. At t lie 
session of 1880, this committee reported their doings, 
and an additional sum of twenty-five thousand dollars was 
voted for a continuance of the work, by a committee con- 
sisting of the Comptroller, Treasurer, and Secretary of the 
State, together with the Board of Park Commissioners afore- 
said, which committee herewith respectfully submit for 
your consideration a statement of their doings, with an ac- 
count of their disbursements. 

In entering upon our duties, it was understood that, as far 
as practicable, all work should be done by contract, under which 
plan we contracted for the removal of 11,261 yards of earth 
at 24 cents per cubic yard. 

We also contracted for the retaining wall on the river bank, 
for the sum of $2,348.27, and the granite platform and steps 
on the north front of the building for $1,440. . 



These contracts, as was the case with some minor ones, 
were let to the lowest bidder, after public notice had been 
given, asking for proposals for the work. 

In addition to these contracts, there has been a further ex- 
penditure of $8,747.06 on pay-rolls for labor, which can be 
found in detail in the accompanying schedule, together with 
items for tools and material that were necessary for the 
work. 

Included in the pay-rolls is the cost of some 5.000 yards of 
asphalt work for walks, which was done under our own su- 
pervision at a cost of $2,000, which was less than we could 
contract for it. It is our opinion that the walks will prove to 
be durable, as they are sustained by a foundation of stone from 
eighteen to twenty-four inches in depth. 

The walks are all finished, except those on the north front 
of the building, which were delayed for the completion of the 
granite platform and steps for that section of the building, 
which work has been prolonged by detention of the material 
from the quarries in Maine by a marine disaster; they are now 
on the ground, and we trust that on the presentation of this 
report they will be set complete. 

In addition to this, we have paid the city of Hartford the 
sum of $3,613.84, for stoning the roads of the grounds; they 
have done this work for its actual cost, giving us the material 
from their quarries, and the use of tlieir extensive apparatus, 
machinery, and tools free, making no charge except for their 
payments for labor and cartages. 

The roadways are still incomplete, lacking a top dressing 
of fine material that will cost about two thousand dollars, 
which with the heavy foundation will make them of great 
permanence. 

This with the curb work necessary to sustain the roads and 
protect the lawn, as is provided on all the city sti'eets, is all 
that remains of a constructive nature to be done to the 
grounds, the planting and the general care being a matter 
for a separate consideration. 

Directly west of these grounds is a section of unoccupied 
land that forms the bank of the river, and the northern 



boundary of Capitol avenue to Lawrence street, extending 
some 700 feet next west of the west line of the park. 

Its proximity makes its annexation to the Capitol grounds 
almost indispensable, not so much on account of the want of 
additional land, but for the purpose of preventing the grounds 
of the Capitol being marred by the erection of unsuitable 
structures, which must follow, as the land in question is not 
adapted for a good class of buildings. 

The city has taken the preliminary steps to secure this 
land as an addition to the Capitol grounds, and, as the land 
damages cannot be large, we are of the opinion that the State 
should bear a fair part of the cost, as there are no parties 
on whom an assessment of betterments would lie, the 
whole object of the improvement being in the interest of the 
Capitol grounds. 

To delay this project must greatly add to its cost, as at this 
time there are no buildings to remove, the erection of which 
would make the necessity so apparent that a large sum 
would have to be paid to secure the improvement. 

Up to this time there has been expended by the State on 
these grounds the sum of sixty thousand dollars ; this has 
been made neccessary, as has been mentioned in previous re- 
ports, by the necessity of such a change of the grades of the 
ground as would place the building on its summit. To accom- 
plish this, the entire surface of the ground had to be changed, 
necessitating heavy expenditures for grading, and the remov- 
al of the beautiful grove of trees that formerly graced the 
grounds of Trinity College, which wei'e many feet above 
the base of the building. 

The city at a large cost reduced the level of Capitol Ave- 
nue on the south front of the building, so that there is a fall 
of three feet in the six hundred feet from the base of the 
Capitol to Washington street. 

Underlying this large tract is a net-work of drains, gas 
and water-pipes, which are indispensable, but add greatly to 
the cost of the work. 

A comparison of the cost of this work to the State, with 
the cost of construction and grading the thirty-two acres of 



Bushnell Park adjoining, shows that the State has paid sixty 
thousand dollars for laying out and grading fourteen acres, 
and the City of Hartford has paid one hundred and ninety 
thousand dollars for grading thirty-two acres, which in nei- 
ther case includes the cost of the land. This is about six 
thousand dollars per acre paid for construction by the City ; a 
like sum expended by the State would require an appropria- 
tion of eighty-four thousand dollars ; this illustration is made 
to show that the appropriation made by the State for this 
work has not been excessive. 

In estimating for the cost of grading and finishing the 
grounds about a structure of magnitude, where the grounds 
are proportionate to the building, it is usual to estimate by a 
percentage of the cost of the structure, five per cent, being 
the minimum. 

That estimate on the cost in this case would amount to 
over one hundred thousand dollars, forty thousand dollars 
more than lias yet been appropriated by the State. 

In view of the large cost of the grounds, and the structure 
that crowns them, it is our opinion that the plan adopted in 
the beginning of the work should be carried out. This only 
lacks completion in finishing the walks, and some l\\e thou- 
sand feet of curbing for the roads, such as is required for 
all road work in the city, with two sets of granite steps 
on the cast front of the grounds on Trinity street, and 
a top dressing for the roads. The total cost of these 
improvements, including the necessary contribution by the 
State for the contemplated extension of the grounds on the 
west, should not exceed the sum of fifteen thousand dollars. 

Our disbursements, with the vouchers for the same, can 
be found in detail in the Paymaster's report accompanying 
this. They are as follows: 

Cash paid 25 Pay-rolls, - - - $8,747.06 

" " Roads, Sewers, Walks,' and Curbing, 5,694.82 

" " Grading account, - - 4,360.84 

" " Gas-pipes, Posts, etc., - 2,035.59 

" " Water-pipes, etc., - 59.86 



Casli paid Retaining-wall, Engineering and 




Superintendence, 


$2,348.27 


" " Contract for Granite Steps, 


1,440.00 


" " Sundry bills, 


556.78 



$25,243.22 
All of which is respectfully submitted, 

DAVID TORRANCE, Secretary of State. 
TALLMADGE BAKER, Treasurer. 
CHAUNCEY HOWARD, Comptroller. 



S. RUTLEDGE McNARY, 
CHAS. DUDLEY WARNER, 
FRANCIS GOODWIN, 
R. D. HUBBARD, 
GURDON W. RUSSELL, 



Park 
> Commissioners. 



REPORT 



OF THE 



SPECIAL COMMISSION 



ON 



REVISION OF THE TAX LAWS. 



|)rmf*& bg (Drtor of % legislator*. 



HARTFORD, CONN.: 

PRESS OF THE CASE, LOCKWOOD & BRAINARD COMI'ANY. 

1881. 



State of Connecticut. 



REPORT 



To Sis Excellency Charles B. Andrews, Governor. 

Sir: 

The Special Commission, consisting of the Treasurer, Comp- 
troller, Secretary of State, and Commissioner of the School 
Fund, appointed by act of the General Assembly, approved 
March 25, 1880, to inquire into the conditions and workings 
of the tax laws of the State, and to report to your Excellency 
for the information of the General Assembly, what changes, 
if any, should be made in said laws, beg leave to report as 
follows : 

We have investigated the subject with such care as other 
duties imposed upon us have permitted, and with the assist- 
ance of such suggestions as we have been able to gather and 
consider from citizens and tax payers, who to some extent 
have favored us with their views in response to our invitation. 
Our public hearings were held at a time when an exciting 
National election engrossed the first feelings of a large portion 
of the community, so that the presentation of mature thought 
upon the subject from gentlemen who are competent to make 
very valuable suggestions was not as complete as we desired, 
and, as a result, your Commissioners have been forced to 
make more extensive personal investigations than they an- 
ticipated. 

The subject is a vast one, and one in which our State has a 
great interest and which demands from the law-making power 
immediate and systematic attention and a more thorough 
examination of details than it has been possible for us to give. 

The results of our investigation have been reached with 
unanimity, and we submit them with the most entire confi- 
dence. 



CONDITION OF OUR TAX LAWS. 

In framing any system of taxation regard must be had to 
habits and traditions in a government of long standing. A 
new State, like Nevada or Oregon, ought to start with a 
system in harmony with the last and very best results of 
advanced thought and wisest political economy. On the 
other hand, a State like ours, whose tax laws reach back 
through two and a half centuries to the infancy of colonial 
life, and on through the widening of wealth and property, in 
methods and amounts almost surpassing belief, and through 
periods of commercial disaster and most expensive war, from 
times when the wealth of the world was in land and the use 
and profits of land, to this day, when the sum total of wealth 
in personal property is vast beyond the industrious estimate 
of the statisticians, such a State must seek to incorporate the 
best wisdom of the hour into the actual condition of things, 
with the least possible friction, holding in respect a reason- 
able conservatism and still aiming at the blessings of the 
highest progress. 

Property owes a tribute to the State for its protection and 
security. The traditions of our State, — and here we are in 
harmony with the best thoughts of the wisest political 
economy,— admit as a substitute for this tribute some equiv- 
alent results from property which is held for certain uses : as 
church, school, and purely public property. Property which 
is thus held yields to community a duty and benefit fully 
equal to a tax tribute, in establishing the peace, good order, 
and good morals of community, and in the development of 
industrious, enlightened, and useful citizenship. 

The policy of our State has been to make direct taxation 
upon property. Although a large share of our revenue is 
derived from taxation which is in form laid upon franchises, 
as an excise duty owing to community from the. privileges 
and faculty of persons, natural and artificial, enjoying the 
franchises, still the measure of that tax is in nearly even- 
instance regulated and defined by the amount of property 
held by such persons. A State BO dependent upon corpora- 
tions, as is ours, for its revenue, could uol defend for a 



moment its existing taxes upon franchises, excepting that 
the tax upon their franchise exists only as a form, and that 
the real subject of taxation is the property held by the tax 
payers. 

To tax the savings banks of the State a quarter of a 
million dollars a year simply for the privilege of doing busi- 
ness under general or special laws would be an insult to the 
civilization of the age. While, therefore, the baptismal name 
of the taxation of savings banks, railroads, mutual insurance 
companies, etc., is a tax upon their respective franchises, the 
tax is estimated by, and in fact aimed at, the property held by 
these institutions. 

The historic interpretation of the Federal constitution has 
been to leave indirect taxation almost exclusively to the 
National government, and to use direct taxation through the 
government of the States. 

DOUBLE TAXATION. 

The subject of double taxation has been discussed by 
citizens before the Commissioners, and it is claimed by many 
persons of intelligence that our tax laws which compel hold- 
ers of personal estate, secured by property which itself pays 
taxes, to pay taxes upon their investments, are open to the 
censure of double taxation. 

If this claim is correct, it challenges the attention of the 
General Assembly. Double taxation is offensive and against 
the general policy of law, but our highest courts bold that it 
is not void legislation. 

The highest authorities differ somewhat upon the question 
of the liability of these laws to the charge of double taxation. 

Our own Supreme Court in Kirtland vs. Botch kiss, 42 
Conn., 4"26, separates the property of the creditor in his loan 
from the property of the debtor in the subject of the loan or 
its security. The Supreme Court of the United States in 
several analogous cases seems to take a similar view. 

It is to be noticed that loans secured by mortgage of real 
estate in Connecticut, and upon which the debtor lias assumed 
taxes, are by our laws now exempt to the extent of I he value 



of the property pledged. We have also another statute allow- 
ing to a debtor a deduction for his indebtedness to a creditor 
who pays taxes upon the amount of the loan. 

Tbe objection to taxing money at interest secured by mort- 
gage comes from holders of this class of property which is 
secured by real estate outside of our territorial limits. 

It does not seem to your Commission that this class of in- 
vestment is in theory entitled to an exemption, nor that in 
practice the burden of taxation has been onerous upon it 
when its rate of interest is considered. It would certainly 
be unwise to put a premium upon diversions of local capital to 
other fields of employment under the temptation of high rates 
of interest by shielding those diversions from contributions 
to the public expenses. 

There is no debt which an individual can incur more sacred 
than his obligations to pay for the machinery of government 
which protects his fireside and his person. 

SAVINGS BANKS. 

The tax upon savings banks is in form a franchise tax, but 
in fact it is measured by the extent of their assets, and is 
practically a tax upon their property. 

The tax upon these institutions, which night to be used 
only for husbanding and preserving in absolute safety the 
scanty earnings of the poor, was reduced in 1878 from one- 
half of one per centum upon the amount of deposits to one- 
fourth of one per centum upon the same property. 

There is not, to the knowledge of your commissioners, any 
serious complaint on the part of these institutions against the 
results of the present tax, although, as a matter of form and 
method, the taxation of government bonds, and real estate 
which bears local taxes, ought to be avoided. 

MUTUAL INSURANCE COMPANIES. 

A very earnest appeal for relief is made by the mutual 
life insurance companies. 

The rate of tax upon these institutions was substantially 
the same as the tax upon savings banks, until 1878, when the 



savings bank tax was reduced from one-half to one-fourth of 
one per centum, and the tax upon these companies was left 
at the former figure. 

It is urged that the entire tax is a tax upon prudence and 
upon losses ; that the tax bears upon vast amounts of real 
estate, say $12,000,000, located in other states and upon 
which the companies have to pay large local taxes ; that the 
assets of the companies are made up almost wholly by con- 
tributions of non-residents ; that the companies are com- 
pelled by our own laws to hold assets as a reserve against 
policy liabilities sufficient to meet liabilities if the investments 
yield four per centum ; that it is very difficult to obtain safe 
loans at a rate of interest which will protect the reserve and 
pay one-half of one per centum tax; and finally the com- 
panies urged that, as Connecticut is the only state which taxes 
the assets of her home companies, and almost the only one 
which taxes the home companies at all, our companies are 
put to a serious disadvantage and the State is thereby a direct 
loser. 

These companies are of course a great benefit and honor 
to our State, and they have a right to our reasonable protec- 
tion ; and the motive of policy should at least lead us to pro- 
tect rather than destroy our own industries and employ- 
ments. 

We present to Your Excellency for the information of the 
General Assembly some figures which may be regarded as 
significant upon this point. 

PREMIUM INCOME CONNECTICUT COMPANIES. 





1872. 


1879. 


_<Etna Life, 


- $4,751,306 


$2,494,187 


Connecticut General Life, 


288,960 


161,721 


Connecticut Mutual Life, - 


7,715,068 


5,750,442 


Hartford Life and Annuity, 


221,251 


67,188 


Continental Life, 


800,886 


318,976 


Phoenix Mutual Life, 


- 2,942,590 


1,054,526 



PREMIUM INCOME COMPANIES OF OTHER STATES. 

1872. 



Mutual Life, New York, - 
Equitable Life, New York, 
New York Life, New York, 
Manhattan Life, New York, 
Washington Life, New York, 
Mutual Benefit, New Jersey, 
Northwestern, Wisconsin, 
Penn Mutual, Pennsylvania, 
Massachusetts Mutual, Mass., 



$14,386,864 
7,426,862 

6,277.326 
1,635,674 
1,032,413 
5,344.940 
2,939,579 
877,080 
1,320,432 



1879. 

$12,687,882 

6,396,400 

6,003,036 

933,672 

965,383 

3,793,704 

1,860,978 

1,054,861 

780,256 



1,241,188 $34,476,172 



From this statement, it appears that the decrease in the 

Connecticut Companies in seven years was per cent., 

and that of the other companies named, the decrease was 
per cent. 

We would also submit a statement of the number of new 
policies issued by the same companies in the years 1872 and 
1879: 

POLICIES ISSUED BY CONNECTICUT COMPANIE8. 



iEtna Life, - 
Connecticut General Life, 
Connecticut Mutual Life, 
Hartford Life and Annuity, 
Phoenix Mutual Life, - 



1872. 


1879. 


8,791 


4,253 


1,275 


597 


5,520 


5,154 


1,216 


283 


10,690 


1,895 



36,177 14,234 



POLICIES ISSUED BY COMPANIES OF OTHER STATES. 



Mutual Life, New York, 
Equitable Life, New York, - 
New York Life, New York,. 
Manhattan Life, New York, 
Washington Life, New York, 
Mutual Benefit, New Jersey, 
Northwestern, Wisconsin, • 
Penn Mutual, Pennsylvania, 
Massachusetts Mutual, Mass., 



1S72. 


1879. 


12,184 


12,210 


12,491 


7,483 


8,910 


5,524 


1,701 


1,049 


2,268 


1,432 


3,172 


3,368 


6,487 


3,739 


794 


1,732 


3,204 


1,012 



51,211 37,549 



9 

From this it appears that the decrease in the case of Con- 
necticut Companies was over — per cent., and that of other 
companies named — per cent. 

This falling off in business is doubtless due to financial 
depression, and the difficulties which the life insurance com- 
panies of this country have had to surmount since 1872 ; but 
the marked difference in the experience of the companies of 
Connecticut, and of those of other states, must be due to 
some special cause ; and it is earnestly claimed that the tax 
levied by this State upon our companies has contributed 
largely to this result. 

As the business of these institutions is wholly derived from 
soliciting agents, it is claimed that the taxes which our com- 
panies have to bear are formidable arguments against our own 
companies, upon the quick tongues of the agents of their 
rivals. 

The Commission is of opinion that at least the real estate 
of said companies situated outside of this State and acquired 
by foreclosure of mortgages and which bears its full share of 
local taxation should be exempt from taxation in this State. 

RAILROAD COMPANIES. 

The companies pay a tax of one per centum upon the 
market value of their stock and upon the amount of their 
funded and floating debt. The tax is theoretically upon their 
franchise and practically upon the value of their property. 

If other property in the State is appraised at its value as 
this property practically is by the standard established by 
law, and if one per centum is a fair average of general taxes, 
then the law is right. A trading company, like a railroad 
company, should pay equally with and no more than other 
trading companies and individuals. An artificial person in 
trade and a natural person in trade should pay equal tribute 
for the protection of their property. Owing to the under- 
estimates given to personal property, the railroad companies 
are in fact taxed more heavily than prosperous individual 
traders, whose merchandise and other personal property 
scarcely ever gets upon an assessment list at its fair value. 
2 



10 

On the other hand great clemency has been shown in re- 
mitting and postponing taxes due from weak companies. It is 
difficult for us to see why a weak railroad company should 
not pay a reasonable tax as certainly as it pays for its trans- 
portation expenses and officers' salaries. 

REAL ESTATE. 

The real property of the State is listed at very unequal 
rates : in some places a valuation nearly approaching truth 
is made, in other places land goes into the list at less than 
half its true value. 

PERSONAL ESTATE. 

To some extent personal property is unequally and capri- 
ciously assessed. In this connection it is well to remember 
that the Federal laws make void all State laws which impose 
a discriminating or unequal tax upon the shares of National 
Banks. The State therefore has a great interest in having 
the tax laws bearing upon personal property of substantial 
equality and fairness. 

How shall the assessed value of property be equalized? 

This is a wide question. Doubtless much can be done by 
an improved administration of existing laws. But other leg- 
islation is needed. Penalties for failure to make lists and 
for imperfect valuation can be increased. The official term 
of assessors can be lengthened, as it has been, it is thought 
advantageously, in one or two towns. A tax commissioner 
with revisory power may be appointed, and his powers may 
be supplemented by proper laws to make his action effective. 
Very forcible arguments will occur to the members of the 
General Assembly in favor of each of these items, but none 
of them is altogether free from objection. 

In the opinion of your Commissioners, property held for 
purposes of trade and profit, whether owned by individuals or 
companies and whether it be in its nature real or personal, 
should be assessed upon some common and uniform valuation. 
This elemental principle has been wisely incorporated into 
several of our modern State constitutions. It should not be 
forgotton that all operations of tax laws are a part of the 



11 

machinery of State government, whether the Slate ads 
directly through its immediate agents, or whether the tax is 
collected through the machinery of municipalities. 

THE STATE DEBT AND EXPENSES. 

The last twenty years have been years of vast expenses. 
Our own contribution, most generously and promptly met, for 
the expenses of the war for the maintenance of our civilgover- 
ment, and the great outlay for our Capitol, are of course ex- 
traordinary expenses. Each generation should meet its 
ordinary expenses and should contribute freely to meet extra- 
ordinary ones, but there is no sense or propriety in imposing 
upon this generation and its industries the entire burden of 
the immense extraordinary expenses incurred in its day both 
for its own benefit and the benefit of the great and hopeful 
future. The State debt and extraordinary municipal debt 
should be gradually diminished. While there will be earnest 
calls for appropriations from time to time, with fair economy 
and a reasonable increase in the value of our industries and 
property, the percentage of taxation can and ought to be 
reduced. 

In view of the gross inequalities of our valuations, of the 
imperfections of our statutes relating to boards of equalization, 
of the excessive taxes now bearing upon some persons, nat- 
ural and artificial, we earnestly recommend the immediate 
appointment of a wise and competent commission to prepare 
in detail for the consideration of the next Legislature a com- 
plete and perfect tax law in place of our present legislation 
which with many merits and demerits is quite like a piece 
of patch-work. 

Meantime, if the General Assembly will correct any one of 
the evils suggested in this report, they will take one step in 
the line of the best interests of the State. 

Possibly the Legislature may be inclined to make a funda- 
mental change, and adopt a system of taxation upon a basis 
radically new, embodying the theories of men who have made 
taxation the study of a life-time. This may remedy the evils 
complained of by tax-payers everywhere." But should they 
prefer a temporary expedient, and retain the loose system 



12 

now in the Statutes, with the cherished traditions of the 
people, and the experience of many years, — in that case, we 
earnestly recommend the appointment of a Tax Commissioner, 
with revisory powers ; and we herewith submit a bill pro- 
viding for his appointment, with an outline of his powers and 
duties. 

Respectfully submitted, 

TALLMADGE BAKER, Treasurer. 
CHAUNCEY HOWARD, Comptroller. 
DAVID TORRANCE, Secretary of State. 
Hartford, Dec. 1, 1880. 

I fully concur in the foregoing report, and also in the pro- 
visions of the proposed bill for a public act, with the exception 
that I would confer the power of the appointment of the Tax 
Commissioner upon the General Assembly, instead of in the 
manner provided for in said bill. 

HENRY C. MILES, 

Commissioner of the School Fund. 

State of Connecticut, 
General Assembly, January Session, 1881. 

AN ACT CONCERNING TAXATION. 

Be it enacted by the Senate and House of Representatives in General 

Assembly convened: 

Section I. The Governor shall, once in every three years, com- 
mencing in 1881, and within sixty days after the organization of 
the General Assembly, nominate, and, with the advice and con- 
sent of the Senate, shall appoint a Tax Commissioner, who shall 
hold office for three years from the first day of July in the year 
in which he is appointed, unless sooner removed by the Governor 
for cause; and the Governor shall fill any vacancy occurring dur- 
ing said three years, for the unexpired portion of said term, ap- 
prising the Senate, if in session, otherwise at the opening of its 
next session, of such appointment; provided that the person ap- 
pointed to fill such vacancy shall cease to hold the office after sixty 
days from the time when the Senate is apprised of his appoint- 
ment, unless they, within said sixty days, give their consent 
thereto. 



13 

Sec. 2. Said Tax Commissioner shall, before entering upon the 
duties of his office, take the oath by law provided for executive 
and judicial officers; and in the performance of his duties he shall 
have power to administer oaths to any person. 

Sec. 3. The Tax Commissioner shall visit every town in the 
State at least once during his term of office, and inquire into the 
manner in which the laws relating to the listing and assessment of 
property taxable therein are executed by the Assessors and Board 
of Relief, and whether all persons and property taxable in such 
towns are, in fact, justly assessed and taxed, and whether all taxes 
which are due and collectible are, in fact, collected; and for the 
purpose of such inquiry he shall have power to summon any per- 
sons in such town before him, and examine them under oath, to 
be administered by him, and to compel the attendance of any such 
witnesses, and the production of books and papers, by suitable 
process. If any person disobeys such process, or, having appeared 
in obedience thereto, refuses to answer any question put to him by 
the Commissioner, the Commissioner may apply in writing to any 
Judge of the Superior Court, who shall cause such person to come 
before him, and shall inquire into the facts set forth in such appli- 
cation, and may thereupon commit such person to jail until he 
shall comply with the provisions ot this section. 

Sec 4. The Tax Commissioner shall be a member of the State 
Board of Equalization, and shall annually report to said Board the 
results of his official inquiries. He shall also make an annual re- 
port to the General Assembly, in which he shall mention any im- 
perfections in the laws as to taxation, or in their execution, which 
he may think proper to bring to the notice of the Assembly, 
and from time to time may suggest any further statutory provi- 
sions which he may deem desirable. 

Sec 5. The Tax Commissioner shall receive an annual salary of 

dollars, and also his traveling and incidental expenses 

necessarily incurred in the performance of his official duties, his 
account for the same being first audited and allowed by the Comp- 
troller. 

Sec 6. The modes of summoning witnesses before the Tax 
Commissioner shall be the same as practiced by Justices of the 
Peace in summoning witnesses in the trial of a civil action, and all 
fees and mileage due witnesses, or for the service of a subpoena 
or capias issued by the Commissioner, or by a Judge of the Supe- 
rior Court upon the application of the Commissioner, shall be paid 
by him, and allowed him as part of his incidental expenses. 



[nternaticma] Exhibition, Paris, 1878. 



R EPORT 



I'l'ON TI1K 



CONNECTICUT EXHIBITS 



:p^:r,is, 1878. 



BY 

WILLIAM P. BLAKE, 

ll(i\()R\i:v COMMISSIONEB OF THE UNITED STATES. 



Published in accordance with the Resolution of the Legislature of the State of Connecticut. 



NEW HAVEN: 

TUTT I, E, M O R E II O US E & T A V L I! 

1 s s 0. 



His Excellency, 

Governor of thi Statt of Connecticut. 
Sir: 
I have the honor to submit a Report upon the represen- 
tation of the industries of Connecticut at Paris in L878, and 
of the awards decreed to the exhibitors. 
Very respectfully. 

Your obedient servant, 

WM. P. BLAKE. 

Mill Hock, 

New Haven, 

March 1 1. 1879. 



International Exhibition, Paris, 18 7 8. 



HONORARY COMMISSIONERS OF THE UNITED STATES, 

Nominated by the Governor of the State of Connecticut, and appointed 
by the President of the United States. 

WILLIAM P. BLAKE, New Haven. 
HENRY C. WHITE, Hartford. 



CONNECTICUT BOARD OF MANAGERS. 

Ex-officio. 
RICHARD D. HUBBARD, Gov. of Connecticut, Hartford. 
JOSEPH R. HAWLEY, U. S. C. Com'r, Hartford. 
WILLIAM P. BLAKE, U. S. C. Com'r, New Haven. 

JOHN E. EARLE, New Haven. 
CHARLES DURAND, Ansonia. 
LORENZO BLACKSTONE, Norwich. 
JOHN T. ROCKWELL, West Winsted. 
WILLIAM FAXON, Hartford. 

President. 
RICHARD D. HUBBARD. 

Vice Presidents. 
WILLIAM FAXON, CHARLES DURAND. 

7)-easurer. 
■in I IN E. EARLK. 

Seen ku y. 

WII.I.I \M I' BLAKE. 



CONNECTICUT EXHIBITS 



PARIS UNIVERSAL EXHIBITION, 

187 8. 



At the Universal Exhibition at Paris in the year 1878 there 
were fifty-eight exhibitors from the State of Connecticut. In 
some instances objects manufactured in the State were entered 
as from New York. The annexed alphabetical list is believed 
to include all. At the Exhibition in Paris, in 1867, there were 
twenty-five exhibitors, and at the Vienna Exhibition, in 1873, 
there were twenty-nine from Connecticut. 

At the Paris Exhibition, in 1K(>7, the Connecticut exhibitors 
received nineteen awards ; at Vienna, in 1 S73, twenty-seven, and 
at Paris, in 1878, sixty-two. This plurality is accounted for by 
the fact that some of the exhibitors received several medals. 
They sent such a variety of products that these products were 
separately classed and judged by different group juries. They 
were, in effect, so many different exhibits though not sepa- 
rately exhibited in distinctly different cases or in different parts 
of the exhibition. 



LIST OF EXHIBITORS 

At the Paris Exhibition of 1878, from the State 
of Connecticut. 



[in alphabetical or her.] 



ANSONIA Clock Co., Ansonia. Clocks and Movements. 

Bronze Medal. 

Bailey, Leonard and Co., Hartford. Adjustable Iron 
Bench Planes, Try Squares and Bevels, Box Scrapers and 
Spoke-Shaves. Classes 43 and 59. Bronze Medal. 

Barnard, Henry, LL.D., Hartford. "The American 
Journal of Education," 1856-1877, 26 large octavo volumes. 
Class 6. Gold Medal. 

Barnum Richardson Company, Lime Rock. Salisbury 
Iron Ores, Charcoal Pig Iron, Car Wheels, Arc Classes A'.\ and 
64. (iohl Mtdal and Bi'onz< M r edal. 

Baxter Portable Steam Engine Co.," Thos. J. Pales, 

agent, New York. Made in Hartford. Baxter Portable Steam 

Engines, of 2,4,8 and 10-horse power. One 6-horse power 
Engine for \ise of Commission. Class 54. 

Beven" Bros. Manufacturing Co., East Hampton. Hells. 

Sleigh, House, Hand, Gong, Brass Kettles, etc. Class 4.'!. 

Silw r Mi </(//. 
Blake Crusher Co., New Eaven. Working Model of 

Blake's Patent Stone and Ore Crusher; a Machine for reduc- 
ing rapidly and economically large pieces of Stone, or other 
hard and brittle substances, by the use of upright, convergent 
jaws, one of which has a short, vibratory motion. Class 55. 

8il/0i r Mi dal. 
Gold, T. S., West Cornwall. Buckwheat. Class 69. 

Honoi'ilhh Mdit'ioii. 



Connecticut Exhibits at Paris, L878. 7 

Hotchkiss, B. 15., Paris and Connecticut. Revolving Can- 
non. Class 68. Gold Medal. 

Jewel (P.) and Sons, Hartford. Leather and Leather Ma 
chine Belting. Classes 49 and 54. 

McCuRDY, (C. J.), Lyme. Granite. A Rose-colored Granite, 
with large Crystals. WonoraMi Mention. 

Mallory, Wheeler and Co., New Haven. Reversible 

Door Locks, Wrought Iron Padlocks, Door Knobs and Han- 
dles in " Mineral," Porcelain ami Bronze. Class 43. Gold Medal. 

Manning, Bowman and Co., West Meriden. Silver, 
Nickel and White Metal Mountings on Sheet Metal Ware. &c. 
(Mass 43. 

Manville Company, Cambric Linings, ("lass 30. 

S/'/r> /' Mi <1<(1. 

Meriden Flint Glass Works, West Meriden. Cut Glass, 
Table and Decorated Ware. Class lit. Hbnorablt Mention. 

Mower, E., Roxbury Station. Granite. One Twelve-inch 
Cube, sample of Granite used for Building and Ornamental 
Purposes. Honorable Mention. 

New England Granite Works, Hartford. Vase of Pol- 
ished "Westerly" Granite. Three Twelve-inch Cubes of Gran- 
ite, samples of Stone used for Buildings and for Statues. 
Classes 43 and 66. Two Bronst Medals. 

Bradley, G. W., Hamden. Corn, in the ear, on the stalk. 

Honorahh. Mention. 

Brooks, Ezra, Hartford. "Hartford" Automatic Pumps, 
worked by Wind Power or by Steam. Class 54. 

Bronze Jf< //<>/. 

Cask Brothers, South Manchester. Press Boards, tor 
Printers' use. Class 10. BronZi Medal. 

Clarke, E. B., Middlefield. Agricultural Products, class 
69. Bronsi Medal. 

Collender, II. W., New York City and Stamford. Bill- 
iard Table, with Markers, Cue Packs, &c. (Mass 17. 

Silr, r M, ihij. 

Collins and Co., Hartford. Axes. Machetes, and Edge 
Tools. Gold Medal. 



8 Connectktt Exhibits at I'm: is. ls.s. 

Colt's Patent Fire Arms Co., Hartford. Guns and Pis- 
tols. Bronze J/> dal. 

Connecticut Board of Agriculture, Hartford. P. M. 
Augur, Secretary of State Board of Agriculture, Middlefield. 
Oats, Corn, Wheat, I!vi\ Beans, &c. Case of 18 ears of Corn, 
the product of 3 grains. Leaf Tobacco. Classes 46 and 69. 

Connecticut State Department of Public Instri c- 
tion, Connecticut. B. G. Northrop, Secretary of State Board 
of Education, New Haven. Set of Reports of the Board of 
Education, 12 vols. Class 6. 

Douglas, W. and B., Middletown. Pumps of all descrip- 
tions, both Hand and Power ; for house, factory, yard or farm 
use. Hydraulic Rams, Garden Engines, Drive Well Pumps, 
and Points, Grindstone Frames, and Trimmings, Yard Hy- 
drants, and Street Washers. Classes 54 and 85. 

Bro)tz< Medal <m<l Stiver Medal. 

Gatling Gun Co., Hartford. 1 Gatling Gun, mounted on 
Tripod ; 1 Ten Barrel 1-inch Gatling Gun ; 1 Medium-sized 
Gatling Gun on Field Carriage. Class 68. SUvt r 2!< <]<<!. 

New Haven, Connecticut, Public Schools, Ariel Parish, 
Superintendent. City School Reports, 1 vol. Class 6. 

New Haven Wheel Co., New Haven. Carriage, Cart, 
Wagon and Truck Wheels, and Wheel Materials of American 
Woods, for Home use and for Export. Class 62. Silver Medal. 

Northfield Knife Co., Northfield. Pocket Cutlery. Class 
23. Bronze M<<l<il. 

Page (W. H.) Wood Type Co., Norwich. Specimens of 
Wood Printing Type, ami Printing from the same. Class 60. 

HonorahU M<iiti<>n. 
Parker, Joseph and Son, New Haven. Blotting Paper 
in the collective exhibit of Woolworth and Graham. 

Bronze \L<l<iL 
Peters' Combination Lock Co., Waterbury. Combina- 
tion Locks for Drawers, Post Offices, Padlocks, Safes, &c. 
Class 43. Honorable Mention. 

PICKERING, (T. R.) AND Co., Port la ml. Steam Engine Gov- 
ernors with Improved Automatic Stop Motion, and Speed Ad- 



Connecticut Exhibits at Paris, L878. 9 

juster. For use of Commiasion oil Engines in U. S. Section. 
Class 54. Bronse Medal. 

Redpath, F. W., Stony Creek. Granite for Building and 
Monumental purposes. Red Granite. llonorahle Mention. 

RICHARDS, CHAS. B., Hartford. Indicator, for Steam En- 
gines, for presentation to the "Conservatoire des Arts et Me- 
tiers," Paris, at close of Exhibition. Class 54. Silver Medal. 

Rogers, (C. B.) and Co., New York City. Norwich Wood 
Working Machinery, Band and Scroll Saws. Planer, (-lass 
59. Honorable Mention. 

Russell and Erwin Manufacturing Co., New Britain. 
An assortment of all the various qualities and styles of Build- 
ers' Cabinet, and General Hardware and Tools, including a 
great variety of Door Locks, Padlocks, Handles, Bolts, Hinges 
Fire-irons, Pulleys, Sheaves, Chisels, Screw-drivers, Wrenches 
and general tools. Artistic fittings in Statuary, Bronze, Nickel, 
Gold, and Enamel, for Door, Window and Fire-place Decora- 
tion. Classes 11, 25, 43, 59 and 66. Two Gold Medals, one 
Honorable Mention and Ttvo Bronze Medals. 

Seward (M.) AND Son, New Haven. Carriage Hardware. 
Class 62. Bronze Medal. 

Sharp's Rifle Company, Bridgeport. Breech-loading Mil- 
itary and Sportiug Rifles. Classes 40 and 68. 

Two Silver Medals. 

ShoningePv (B.) Piano and Organ Co., New Haven. Uni- 
versal, Upright, or Boudoir Pianofortes. Universal, Cym- 
bella, Chorale, Capella, Eureka and Paragon Organs. Class 13. 

Bronze Medal. 

Slater, John F., Jewett City. Cheviot Shirtings. Class 
30. Bronz> Medal. 

Smith and Egge Manufacturing Co., Bridgeport, Locks 
of various kinds. Automatically made Window Sash Chains, 
Specialties in Hardware, and Light Metallic Goods in general. 
Class 43. Bronze Medal. 

Stanley Rule and Level Co., New Britain. Carpenters' 
Tools. Classes 15 and 59. Class 59, Bronze Medal. 

Stevens (The J. E.) Co., Cromwell. Iron Toys. Class 42. 



10 Connecticut Exhibits at Paris, L8Y8. 

Stephens Patent Vise Co., New York City and Meriden. 
Vises and Attachments, and Planer Chucks. Class 55. 

Brom< Medvl. 

Thomas (Seth) Clock Co., Thomaston and New York 
City. Tower, Church, House and Marine Clocks. Class 26. 

Silver Medal. 

Underwood Belting Co., Tolland. Main Belts, for use of 
Commission. One 24 inches wide ; one 18 inches wide in use 
in Machinery Gallery. Two Angular Belts in Agricultural 
Hall. Classes 49 and 54. Bronze Medal. 

Union Metallic Cartridge Co., Bridgeport, Metallic 
Cartridges. Class 68. Silver Medal. 

Victor Sewing Machine Co., Middletown. Drill Chucks 
and Micrometer Callipers. Class 55. Bronze Medal. 

Waterbury Button Co., Waterbury. Metallic Buttons, 
Army, Navy and other Special Designs. Class 37. 

Honorable Mention. 

Waverly Mills, P. Adams, Burnside, Woolworth and 
Graham, Agents, N. Y. Book Printing Paper. Class 10. 

Wheeler and Wilson Manufacturing Co.. New Fork 
City. Manufactory, Bridgeport. Machines for General Use, 
Attachments for Machines and Cabinet Work, Sewing Ma- 
chines used for Industrial Education. Machines for Sewing 
Books, Specimens of Work made with Machines. Classes 7, 
37 44 54 58 61. Honorable Mention. 

Class 37, Bronze Medal. Class 58, Grand Prize. 

Whiton, I). E., West Stafford. Lathe Chucks, Gear Cut- 
ters, Centring Machines, ('lass 55. 

Willimantic Linen Co., Hartford. Spool Cotton, (lass 
on * sil i\ /• Medal. 

FaleLocK Co., Stamford. Section of Post Office Locks, 
Bronze Hardware, Time and Bank hocks. Classes 43 and 66. 

Sil/ver Mobil ami Gold Medal. 



Connecticut Exhibits at Paris, 1878. II 



SOURfKS AND VARIKTY OF THE EXHIBITS. 



These exhibits, as will be seen by the list, were chiefly from 
the towns of Hartford, New Haven, Bridgeport, New Britain, 
Stamford, Middletown and Meriden, but almost every part of 
the State was represented. The mining and quarrying indus- 
try was shown by ores, iron and ear-wheels from Salisbury ; by 
granite from Roxbury, Stony Creek, Lyme, and the quarries at 
Westerly, of the New England Granite Co. of Hartford. The 
Agriculture of the State was illustrated by the contributions of 
cereals, beans and tobacco, from P. M. Augur, of the Connec- 
ticut Board of Agriculture, and by exhibits from E. B. Clarke, 
of Middlefield, by maize from Hamden, and buckwheat from 
West Cornwall. The educational institutions were made bet- 
ter known through the cooperation of the State Department of 
Public Instruction, B. Gk Northrop, Secretary, and by Barnard's 
Journal of Education, and other publications. The textile 
industry was represented by the Cheviot shirtings from John 
Gr. Slater, of Jewett City; the cambrics of the Manville Com- 
pany, and the thread of Willimantic. The silk manufacture 
was indirectly shown by silken flags contributed for the deco- 
ration of the American Section by the Cheney Brothers, of 
South Manchester, but not entered for exhibition. 

Clocks were sent from Ansonia and Thomaston ; pocket cut- 
lery from Northtield, bells from East Hampton, buttons from 
Waterbury, and wood-working machinery from Norwich. 
The descriptive notices which follow, mention the exhibits in 
their proper order, according to the classification, an outline of 
which is annexed.' 1 ' The Connecticut exhibits in fact, consti- 
tuted a large part of what was sent from the United States, 
and were in every instance highly creditable as products, and 
in a national point of view. 

* Neither time or adequate information have permitted ;i full notice of every 

exhibit. 



12 Connecticut Exhibits at Paris, 1878. 



Value of the Exhibition to the State and Nation. 

We are apt, perhaps, to lose sight of the great national value 
of a well selected exhibition of our manufactures abroad. It is 
not only those who exhibit who are benefited, but the advan- 
tages are universal. The industries of the whole country are 
greatly indebted to the few enterprising manufacturers who 
incurred the great expense and risk of exhibiting. The bur- 
den of sustaining and increasing the reputation of the United 
States as the source of the most novel and desirable practical 
inventions fell chiefly upon them, but the advantages are par- 
ticipated in by all our manufacturers. "We cannot then too 
highly honor the exhibitors by proper notices, for they have 
rendered a great public service, benefiting their neighbors and 
the State as well as themselves. 



Connecticut Exhibits at Paris, 18T8. 18 



SYSTEM OF CLASSIFICATION, 

With a List of Connecticut Exhibitors in each 
Class, and the Awards given. 



First Group. — Works of Art. 

Class 1. — Oil Paintings. 

Weir, John F., New Haven. 
Class 2. — Various Paintings and Drawings. 
Class 3. — Sculpture and Die Sinking. 
Class 4. — Architectural Drawings and Models. 
Class 5. — Engravings and Lithographs. 

Second Group. — Education and Instruction, Apparatus 
and Processes of the Liberal Arts. 

Class 6. — Education of Children, Primary Instruction, In- 
struction of Adults. 

Barnard, Henry, Hartford. Gold Medal. 

Connecticut State Department of Public Instruc- 
tion. New Haven Public Schools, Ariel Par- 
ish, Superintendent. 
Class 7. — Organization and Appliances for Secondary Instruc- 
tion. Wheeler k. Wilson Mfg. Co., Bridgeport. 

Honorable Mention. 
Class 8. — Organization, Methods, and Appliances for Supe- 
rior Instruction. 

Class 9. — Printing, Books. 

Class 10. — Stationery, Book-binding, Painting, and Draw- 
ing Materials. 

Case Bros., South Manchester. Bronze Medal. 
Parker (Joseph) & Son, New Haven. 

Bronze Mi </<//. 
Waverly Mills, I\ Adams. I'.iirnsidc. 



14 Connecticut Exhibits at Paris, 1878. 

('lass 11. — General Application of the Arts of Drawing and 
Modeling. Russell & Erwin Manufact'ng Co., New Britain. 

Bronze M< (ltd . 
Class 12. — Photographic Proofs and Apparatus. 
Class 13. — Musical Instruments. 

Shoninger (B.) Piano and Organ Co., New Haven. 

Bronze J/> rial. 
Class 14. — Medicine, Hygiene, and Puhlic Relief. 
Class 15. — Mathematical and Philosophical Instruments. 

Stanley Bule and Level Company, New Britain. 
Class 16. — Maps, and Geographical and Cosmographical 
Apparatus. 

Third Group. — Furniture and Accessories. 

Class 17. — Cheap and Fancy Furniture. 

Collender (H. W.), Stamford and New York. 

Silver Medal. 
Wheeler & AVilson Mfg. Co., Bridgeport. 

Bronz, Mi ihil. 
Class 18. — Upholsterers' and Decorators' Work. 
Class 19. — Crystal, Glass, and Stained Glass. 

Meriden Flint Glass Works, West Meriden. 

Honorable Mention. 

Class 20.— Pottery. 

Class 21. — Carpets, Tapestry, and other Stuffs for Furniture. 
Class 22. — Paper Hangings. 
Class 23.— Cutlery. 

Northfield Knife Company, Northfield. 

Bronze Medal. 
Class 24. — Goldsmiths' and Silversmiths' Work. 
(-lass 25. — Bronzes and various Art Castings, and Bepousse 
AVork. Russell & Erwin Manufact'ng Co., New Britain. 

Bronze Medal. 
Class 26. — Clocks and Watches. 

Ansonia Clock Co., Ansonia. Bronz< Medal. 
Thomas (Sethi Clock Co., Thomaston. 

S'd ci r Mi did . 
Class 27. — Apparatus and Processes for Heating and Lighting. 
Class 2!». — heather Work, Fancy Articles, and Basket Work. 



Connecticut Exhibits at Paeis, L878. L5 

Fouetb Geoup. -Textile Fabbics, Clothing, and A.cces- 

soeies. 

Class 30. — Cotton Thread and Fabrics. 

Manville Company, Manville. Silver Medal. 

Slater, John Gk, Jewett City. Bronzt Medal. 

Willimantic Linen Co., Hartford. Silver Medal. 
Class 31. — Thread and Fabrics of Flax, Eemp, &C. 
Class 32. — Worsted Yarn and Fabrics. 
Class 33. — Woolen Yarn and Fabrics. 
Class 34. — Silk and Silk Fabrics. 
Class 35. — Shawls. 

Class 36. — Lace, Net, Embroidery, and Trimmings. 
Class 37. — Hosiery and Underclothing and Accessories of 
Clothing. Waterbury Button Company, Waterbury. 

Honorable Mention. 

Wheeler ifc Wilson Manufac'ng Co., Bridgeport. 

Bronze Medal. 
Class 38. — Clothing of both Sexes. 
(/lass 39. — Jewelry and Precious Stones. 
Class 40. — Portable Weapons and Hunting and Shooting 

Equipments. 

Colt's Patent Fire Arms Company, Hartford. 

Bronze Medal. 
Sharp's Rifle Company, Bridgeport. 

Silver Medal. 
Class 41. — Traveling Apparatus and Camp Equipage. 
Class 42.— Toys. 

Stevens, The J. E., Company, Cromwell. 

Fifth Croup. — Mining Industeies, Paw and Manufac- 
tured Peoducts. 

Class 43. — Mining and Metallurgy. 

Bailey, Leonard cv Co., Hartford. (See CI. 59.) 
Barnum Richardson Company, Lime Rock. 

Gold Medal. 
Bevin Brothers' Mfg. Co., East Hampton. 

Silver Medal. 
Collins & Company, Hartford. Gold Medal. 



16 Connecticut Exhibits at Paris, 1878. 

Class 43. — Mining and Metallurgy. 

McCurdy (C. J.), Lyme. Honorable Mention. 
Mallory, Wheeler & Co., New Haven. 

Gold Medal. 
Manning, Bowman & Co., West Meriden. 
Mower (E.), Roxbury Station. 

Honorable M< ntion. 
New England Granite Works, Hartford. 

Bronz> M<<hil. 
Peters' Combination Lock Co., Waterbnry. 

Honorable Mention. 
Redpath, F. W., Stony .Creek. 

Honorable M> ntion. 
Russell & Erwin Mfg. Company, New Britain. 

Gold Medal. 

Seward, M. & Son, New Haven. (See Class 62.) 
Smith & Egge Mfg. Co., Bridgeport. 

Bronze Medal. 
Yale Lock Company, Stamford. Silct r J/< did. 
Class 44. — Products of the Cultivation of Forests and of the 
Trades appertaining thereto. 

Wheeler & Wilson Mfg. Company, Bridgeport. 
Class 45. — Products of Hunting, Shooting, Fishing, and 
Spontaneous Products — Machines and Instruments connected 
therewith. 

Class 46. — Agricultural Products not used for Food. 

Connecticut Board of Agriculture, by P. M. 
Augur, Secretary, Middlefield. 
Class 47. — Chemical and Pharmaceutical Products. 

Day, Austin G. (See Class 65 also.) 
Class 48. — Chemical Processes for Bleaching, Dyeing, Print- 
ing, and Dressing. 

Class 49. — Leather and Skins. 

Jewell (P.) & Sons. Hartford. (Sec also CI. 54.) 
Underwood Belting Company, Tolland. (See 
also 01. 54.) 



Connecticut Ex hi mrs at Paris, 1878. 17 

Sixth Group. — Apparatus and Processes used in the 
Mechanical Industries. 

Class 50. — Apparatus and Processes of the Art of Mining 
aud Metallurgy. 

I Make Crusher Co., New Haven. (See CI. 55.) 
Class 51. — Agricultural Implements and Processes used in 
the Cultivation of Fields and Forests. 

( 'lass 52.- — Apparatus and Processes used in Agricultural 
Works, and in Works for the Preparation of Food. 

Class 53. — Apparatus used in Chemistry, Pharmacy, and 
Tanning. 
Class 54. — Machines and Apparatus in general. 

Baxter Portable Steam Engines, F. J. Fales, Agt. 
Brooks, Ezra, Hartford. Bronze Medal. 

Douglas, W. & B., Middletown. 

Bronze Mc<l<tl. 

Jewell (P.) & Sons, Hartford. 
Pickering (T. R.) & Co., Portland. 

Bronze Medal. 
Richards, Chas. R., Hartford. Silver Medal. 

Underwood Belting Company, Tolland. 

Bronze Medal. 
Wheeler & Wilson Mfg. Co., Bridge] tort, 
Class 55. — Machine Tools. 

Blake Crusher Company, New Haven. 

Silver Medal. 
Stevens Patent Vise Co. Bronze Medal. 

Victor Sewing Machine Co., Middletown. 

Bronze Medal. 
Whitton (D. E.), West Stafford. 
Class 56. — Apparatus and Processes used in Spinning and 
Rope-making. 

Class 57. — Apparatus and Processes used in Weaving. 
Class 58. — Apparatus and Processes for Sewing and Making 
up Clothing. 

Wheeler <fe Wilson Mfg. Co., Bridgeport, 

Grand Prist . 

2 



18 Connecticut Exittrits at Paris, 1878. 

Class 59. — Apparatus and Processes used in the Manufacture 
of Furniture and Objects for Dwellings. 

Bailey, Leonard & Co., Hartford. 

Bronze Medal. 
Russell & Erwin Manufact'ng Co., New Britain. 

llonomhh M< ntion. 
Stanley Rule and Level Company, New Britain. 

Bronze Medal. 
Rogers (C. B.) & Co., Norwich and New York. 

Honorable J/< ntion. 
Class 60. — Apparatus and Processes used in Paper-making, 
Dyeing, and Printing. 

Page (W. II.), Norwich. Honorabl* Mention. 
Class 61. — Machines, Instruments, and Processes used in 
Various Works. 

Wheeler & Wilson Mfg. Company, Bridgeport. 
Class 62. — Carriages and Wheelwrights' Works. 
Seward (M.) & Sons, New Haven. 

Bronzi Medal. 
New Haven Wheel Company, New Haven. 

S,'/r, r Mi >l<il. 
Class 63. — Harness and Saddlery. 
Class 64. — Railway Apparatus. 

Baraum Richardson Company, Lime Rock. 

Bronsi Medal. (See also 01. 43.) 
Class 65. — Telegraphic Apparatus and Processes. 
A. G. Day (Kerite), Seymour. 

Hbnorabli Mention. 
Class 66. — Apparatus and Processes of Civil Engineering, 
Public Works, and Architecture. 

New England Granite Company, Hartford. 

Broiizt Medal. 
Russell At Erwin Mfg. Co., New Britain. 

(it/Id M< dal. 
Vale Lock Co., Stamford. Gold Medal. 

Class 67. — Navigation and Life Saving. 
Class 68. — Materials and Apparatus for Military Purposes. 
Gatling G-un Company, Bartford. Silver Medal. 
Ilotchkiss, I!. B. (Paris and Connecticut). 

Gold Medal. 



Connecticut Exhibits at Paris, L8T8. lt> 

Class 68. — Materials and Apparatus for Military Purposes. 
Pratt, Whitney & Co., Hartford. Gold Medal. 
Sharped Rifle Co., Bridgeport. Silver M<<l<tl . 
Union Metallic Cartridge Company, Bridgeport. 

Silver Medal. 

Seventh Group. — Alimentary Products. 

Class 69. — Cereals, Farinaceous Products, and Products 
derived from them. 

Augur, P. M., Middlefield. 

Bradley, G. W., Hamden. Honorable Mention. 

Clarke, E. B., Middlefield. Bronze Medal. 

Connecticut Board of Agriculture, Hartford. 

Gold, T. S., West Cornwall. 

Honorable Mention. 
Class 70. — Bread and Pastry. 

Class 71. — Fatty Substances used as Food — Milk and Eggs. 
Class 72. — Meat and Fish. 
Class 73. — Vegetahles and Fruits. 

Class 74. — Condiments and Stimulants, Sugar and Confec- 
tionery. 

Class 75. — Fermented Drinks. 

Eighth Group. — Agriculture and Pisciculture. 

Class 7(5. — Specimens of Farm Buildings and Agricultural 

Works. 

Class 77. — Horses, Donkeys, Mules, &c. 

Class 78. — Oxen, Buffaloes, &c. 

Class 79. — Sheep, Goats. 

Class 80.— Pigs, Rabbits, &c. 

Class 81.— Poultry. 

Class 82.— Dogs. ' 

Class 83. — Useful Insects and Noxious Insects. 

Class 84-. — Fish, Crustacea, and Mollusca. 

Ninth Group. — Horticulture. 

Class 85. — Conservatories and Horticultural Apparatus. 

Douglas, W. & P., Middletown. SHvt r .'/< dal. 
Class 80. — Flowers and Ornamental Plants. 



20 Connecticut Exhibits at Paris, 1878. 

Class 87. — Vegetables. 

Class 88.— Fruit and Fruit Trees. 

Class 89. — Seeds and Saplings of Forest Trees. 

Class 90. — Plants for Conservatories. 



Summary of Awards to Connecticut Exhibitors. 

Grand Prize, 1 

Gold Medals, 9 

Silver Medals, 13 

Bronze Medals, -'•"' 

Honorable Mention, 14 

Total number of awards, . . 62 



Connecticut Exhibits at Paris, L878. 21 



the 
INFLUENCE OF EXHIBITIONS AND MUSEUMS. 



We may advantageously consider for a moment the impor- 
tant influence exerted by such an exhibition as that of Paris in 
1S7S upon the industries of the State. 

There were over thirteen millions of admissions to the Exhi- 
bition of 1878. In 18(57 there were nearly nine millions, and 
at Philadelphia, in 1876, nearly ten. The world evidently 
does not tire of such exhibitions. They are too valuable in 
their results and too attractive to be given up. Their educat- 
ing power can scarcely be over-estimated. They are appropri- 
ate to the age of steam, of steel, and electricity. Their influence 
extends beyond the comparatively few who have the privilege 
of visiting and studying them. The press diffuses the infor- 
mation harvested by its agents and by the commissioners of all 
countries. The reports upon the industries and products 
generally present a summarized view of the world's progress 
with details of all notable improvements and discoveries. 

The impression left by the Exposition in comparison with 
our exhibition, the Centennial in 1876, is that it was much 
more compact and full. The grounds lacked the breadth and 
picturesque effects of Fairmount Park, and of necessity the 
buildings were nearer together and were more compactly tilled. 

The French section, particularly, was very closely filled; 
space was economized everywhere. The high finish and artistic 
forms and designs characterizing these exhibits, and the pre- 
ponderance of the art element in French and other foreign 
industries, was a notable and striking feature, especially as 
compared with our more utilitarian products. We can see 
that in France, and other countries, the arts of decoration are 
grafted upon and adorn the essential industries. It is not 
sufficient there to make an article that will merely serve its 
purpose; it must be beautified and adorned. 



22 Connecticut Exhibits at Paris, 1878. 



Importance of Art Museums and of Instruction in Art. 

Art culture is more fully recoguized abroad than in the 
United State as essential to industrial progress. Without it in 
the keen competition for success nations are left behind in the 
race. Exhibitions have done much to arouse public sentiment 
to its importance, and have stimulated art schools and museums 
to increased effort and a broader usefulness. The exhibition 
afforded the very best opportunity of noting the effects in 
different countries of systematic art training and of museums, 
upon producers and consumers. It need hardly be said where 
these effects were most manifest, we had but to walk through 
the British section to feel that the national efforts have not 
been made in vain. We could see on all sides the fruit of the 
seeds so abundantly sown and nurtured since the exhibition of 
1851 — that notable starting point in the history of industrial 
and artistic advancement. And we could note, also, that this 
great advancement is not confined to a favored few, to the 
artists alone, but it is evident that the capacity of appreciation 
by the people has been raised at the same time. This has been 
accomplished in great part by the exhibitions and by the indus- 
trial art nmseums founded and sustained by liberal appropria- 
tions of money by the government and supplemented by art 
schools and lectures and publications. 

With such results it is evident that art schools and museums 
of artistic and decorative manufactures are a good investment 
for any community. They are in themselves great centers of 
attraction, and valuable as such aside from their more extended 
and important educational effects. What is it that constitutes 
the great attraction of the city of London to an intelligent 
stranger? Does it not consist chiefly in the unrivalled muse- 
inns, galleries of art and institutions 1 There is no branch of 
industry, science or art that may not he freely and advantage- 
ously investigated in London through the facilities provided 
by the state and open to all. We name in illustration, the 
British Museum and Library, the South Kensington Museum, 
the Museum of Economic Geology, the National Gallery, and 
Royal Botanic Gardens and Museums at Kew. 



Connecticut Exhibits at Paris, 1878. 2)5 

South Kensington Museum. 

If we ask in regard to the influence exerted by museums we 
have only to consider that at the South Kensington alone, the 
average number of visitors is about 2,500 daily. Since June, 
1857, there have been over seventeen millions of visitors who 
have been permitted to familiarize themselves by close inspec- 
tion with the choicest productions, of human skill in working 
clay, stone, the metals, wood, ivory, and all the workable 
materials. The collections, which were at first but small, 
tilling one or two rooms, have been enormously extended, and 
are now surprisingly rich and varied. It is not strange that the 
potters of Staffordshire should so far surpass their former 
work, if indeed they do not lead the world in potting, when 
they have such magnificent collections of the best productions 
of the fabriques of China, Japan, India and Persia constantly 
before them. No wonder that at Worcester they have achieved 
such a mastery over the spirit of Japanese art, when the story 
of its development is constantly told in case after case filled 
with choice examples of pottery and porcelain of all kinds and 
all styles of decoration. To perfect this collection the Museum, 
not content with its own ability to procure, called the Japanese 
government to its aid, and by the cooperation of that govern- 
ment has now the most complete suite of Japanese ceramic 
products in existence. 

In examples of Persian art also the collection is enormous, 
and is surprisingly rich and beautiful. It is very attractive to 
industrial artists, and cannot fail to find appreciation and 
profitable reproduction. So, also, the greatly extended collec- 
tion of examples of Delia Robbia's work in enamelled terra 
cotta, some of them life-size figures, is full of instruction and 
suggestion to our potters and architects. 

Reproductions of Ancient Glass. 

We can scarcely say how much we are indebted to museum 
collections for the advancement of the arts. Artizans, artists, 
and the public absorb information without knowing it. They 
gather inspiration and new ideas by contact with the master- 
pieces of others. A fragment of ancient Roman glass pre- 



24 Connecticut Exhibits at Paris, 1878. 

served in the British Museum has with Castellani's aid led to 
the recovery of the long lost process of manufacture. It is to 
this museum and to those of Rome and Venice, with the 
private collections of Castellani and his personal efforts with 
the glass blowers at the furnaces in Venice, we are indebted 
for the very interesting reproductions of early Christian and 
Murano glass which constituted one of the chief attractive 
novelties of the exhibition in the Italian section. Thus muse- 
ums preserve and revive art. The Portland vase in the Brit- 
ish Museum is another example. Copies equally beautiful are 
now made at the glass works of Webb, Stourbridge, England, 
and were exhibited in the British section. 

Castellani's Collection. 

It is in this way that really meritorious and comparatively 
rare objects of manufacture become of immense value and are 
eagerly sought by museums. Castellani's lustred majolica 
vases and plaques, which we could have had in the United 
States if we had fairly appreciated them, were sold in Paris at 
auction for nearly twice the amount he asked us to pay for 
them. The specimens were eagerly bought by museums and 
private collectors. The art potteries of Italy, of Europe and of 
the British islands, may be congratulated on the acquisition of 
these treasures by continental collectors. More than one influ- 
ential British potter has been heard to say that it is well for 
them that America did not secure the collection. Its posses- 
sion would have instructed and stimulated our potters to a dan-- 
gerous rivalry. The first two days of the sale brought in over 
400,000 francs. The competition for the choice pieces was 
spirited. Two plates alone, the Charles V. and the tortoise 
shell brought 45,000 francs, one of Gubbio's fine lustred 
plates 10,000 francs. Castellani is happy in being vindicated 
from any suspicion of trying to drive a sharp bargain with the 
Metropolitan Museum in New York. 

Bethnal Green. 

It must not be supposed that the South Kensington is the 
only example of an influential museum of the kind in Britain, 
It distributes its blessings all over the kingdom by sending 



• 



Connecticut Exhibits at Paris, L878. 25 

out selections of its choicesl objects. Even Sevres vases, Lent 
by the Queen, are allowed to adorn the local exhibitions in 
such places as Birmingham and Manchester. In London also a 
large and flourishing branch museum is in operation at Bethnal 
Green, where there is a special loan exhibition of furniture, 
cabinetwork and ornamental wood work. It is enriched by 
numerous examples from the collections of the Queen and the 
Leading families of England. It is in a part of the city where 
there are many manufacturers of furniture and artizans de- 
voted to working in wood. The museum contains in addition 
a large collection of paintings, pottery, armor and other works 
of art. 

Museums at York and Manchester. 

In addition to the well known geological museum of the 
Philosophical society at York there is now a very important 
collection of Roman antiquities exhumed for the most part 
from a Roman cemetery when excavations were made for the 
new railway station. But not content with these treasures, 
already well housed, the foundations are laid for a splendid 
museum building adjoining the ruins of the old monastry. 

In Manchester an attractive loan exhibition was opened in 
May in aid of the Manchester School of Art, which requires 
anew building at an expense of some $17;"), 001). Sir Henry 
Cole (lately honored in London by a substantial testimonial), 
and Lord Derby are among the chief promoters of this under- 
taking. 

At Nottingham the Castle is devoted to an Industrial and 
Art Museum and the Prince and Princess of Wales presided at 
the opening in duly. 

Art Needle-work. 

The Royal School of Art Needle-work is increasing the 
sjdiere of its operations under the patronage of the Princess 
Christian, and a committee of ladies. An exhibition of ancient 
needle-work has been in successful progress at the school in 
South Kensington. The collection sent by this school to Phil- 
adelphia in L876 will be generally remembered. It also sent a 



26 Connecticut Exhibits at Pakis, L8Y8. 

variety of embroideries to the Paris exhibition, including the 
borders of the curtains which adorn the pavilion of the Prince 
of Wales. 

Fanmakeks' Exhibition. 

The Fanmakers' Company of London held a competitive ex- 
hibition, opened on the 19th of June by the Princes Louise. 
The competition was open to manufacturers, amateurs, collect- 
ors and dealers. Five classes of fans were admitted, and prizes 
of gold, silver and bronze medals, and money prizes also, were 
awarded. 

Technical Education. 

The famous guilds of London are awaking to a realization of 
the importance of facilities for special education of craftsmen 
in their respective spheres. Twelve livery companies, including 
the mercers, drapers, fishmongers, goldsmiths and cloth-work- 
ers, have united in appointing a general committee to draw up 
a plan of operations, and have pledged contributions to the ex- 
tent of $60,000 annually, and it is expected that at least 
$100,000 will be made up for the beginning of an experiment. 
So far, it seems to have been agreed that a technical university 
is required for " the improvement of the technical knowledge 
of those engaged in the manufactures in the country," whether 
employed as workmen, managers or foremen, or as principals. 
The training will be such as to impart a knowledge of the sci- 
entific or artistic principles upon which a particular manufac- 
ture may depend. The committee recommend that the course 
of studies shall comprise applied physics, applied chem- 
istry, and applied mechanics, and a department of applied art, 
each branch being in charge of a professor, with assistants. 

European Mi ski ms. 

A notice of the increased efforts making on the continent 
would require considerable space. There is great activity in 
Vienna, Berlin, Hungary and Japan. Besides the expenditure 
necessary to restore the Tuileries, appropriations were made to 
considerable amounts for securing at the Exposition objects ap- 
propriate to the various collections in Paris, notably those of 



Connecticut Exhibits at Paris, L878. 27 

the ficole Centrale. Several appropriations were also made to 
specially appointed commissions of experts to study and report 
upon several departments of the exhibition. It was evident that 
the nation did not intend to let the opportunity pass unim- 
proved. The Prince of Wales also addressed the mayors of the 
chief cities of England urging that deputations of workmen he 
sent to Paris, to study the exhibition. The agents of foreign 
museums all over Europe, and even in Japan, were at the exhi- 
bition buying up the best objects of art work to take home to 
their public collections. The art museum at Buda Pestli, Hun- 
gary, was one of the most active in this direction. 

Opening of the Paris Museum of Decorative Art. 

In the month of August the new museum was opened with 
appropriate ceremonies at the Pavilion de Flore, Tuileries. It 
is to be known as the " Museum of Decorative Arts," and is 
under the presidency of the Marquis de Chennevieres and M. 
Edourd Andre, president of the Central Union of the Fine 
Arts applied to Industry. The Honorary Presidents (and im- 
portant members of administration) are: Cunliffe Owen, C. B., 
director of the South Kensington Museum and secretary gen- 
eral to the British commission, and Sir Richard Wallace, Baro- 
net, M. P. 

The object of this new undertaking, even under the shadow 
of the great Louvre Museum, is confessedly to aid France to 
keep pace with England, Austria, Belgium and America in the 
employment of every possible means for the development and 
progress of art-industry. The supremacy which France has so 
long enjoyed in all the industries where art is applicable is not 
only threatened with competition on all sides, but in many re- 
spects does not now exist. The result of England's great na- 
tional efforts is convincingly shown to all who visit the exhibi- 
tion. Progress in art and its applications characterizes the 
British display. An editorial notice in the Messenger at the 
time tells the story which we too must learn and act upon. " It 
has, therefore, been deemed necessary to create an institution 
similar to the South Kensington Museum in London, and to in- 
itiate the liberal principles that have guided its direction, not 



28 Connecticut Exhibits at Paris, 1878. 

only in the collection of models of architecture, sculpture, 
paintings, drawings, fixed and movable decorations, furniture, 
mosaics, ceramics, glass, clothing, jewelry, arms, scholastic in- 
struments, books, etc., useful for the instruction of artisans and 
others engaged in the study and manufacture of articles of art- 
industry, but also in adopting the English system of sending the 
chefs-d'oeuvre of the museum into the provinces, by arranging 
and encouraging numerous and frequent exhibitions throughout 
the country. The opening of this new institution was limited 
yesterday to five or six picture galleries, exhibiting numerous 
admirable works of the old and modern schools, belonging to 
friends of the undertaking. The exhibition is supported by 
voluntary contribution. The first list of subscription shows a 
total of 132,350fr. The French government has given a lib- 
eral encouragement by placing the splendid Pavilion de Flore, 
at the Tuileries, at the disposal of the association." The mana- 
gers of this museum made many important acquisitions at the 
Exhibition, and gave an order to Tiffany tfc Co., of New York, 
for a complete suite of reproductions of jewelry from the col- 
lections of Dr. Schlieman now in the Metropolitan Museum, 
New York. 

Selections for Other Museums. 

Towards the close of the season at the exhibition the agents 
of many of the continental museums were active in obtaining 
sonic of the choicest objects for their collections. Among 
others Mr. Wagner, the accomplished secretary of the Pennsyl- 
vania Museum of. Industrial Art, spent sonic time at the Exhi- 
bition, having been specially commissioned by the Governor 
of Pennsylvania to visit the museums of Europe and the Exhi- 
bition, lie secured some of the desirable objects from the 
Elkington reproductions, and the beautiful forged iron work of 
Vienna. The new museum at Pesth also made many valuable 
selections. 

Honor to Handicraft. 

It is our duty not only to establish museums and extend the 
knowledge of art, hut to honor and encourage skilled handi- 
craft. In these days of machine wort and the decadence of 



Connecticut Exhibits at Paris, L878. 29 

the apprentice system, it becomes of greater and even vital im- 
portance. The French workman loves his art and is honored 
by it. He is proud of his skill. French locks and holts, for 
example, have the redeeming features of the impress of the 
taste and skill of the makers. They are not made merely to 
fasten doors and windows, hut to decorate them at the same 
time. In the outside exhibition by the workingmen there were 
some good examples of forged iron candle-sticks and candelabra 
from the blacksmith shops of Paris. These smiths are proud 
of their work, and justly so. They are artists. The voice of 
Gladstone has just been heard at the annual flower show at 
Ilawarden in favor of a higher and more general appreciation 
of handwork, and its elevation to the highest excellence of 
which it is capable. He directs attention to the fact that a 
great deal of what is generally regarded as the highest form of 
labor is performed with the hands. He urges ladies to give 
more attention to needle-work as a fine art, commending it as 
not only an improving process, but a gainful process, for 
although needle-work in its lower and common forms is the 
worst paid labor in the country, in its higher forms it is very 
well paid. 

Glass for the Connecticut Museum, 

By the liberality of the Meriden Britannia Company I was 
enabled to secure a small but instructive collection of glass 
ware illustrating the recent advances in the art of making deco- 
rative glass, for the Connecticut Museum of Industrial Art, at 
New Haven where it is now deposited. 



30 Connecticut Exhibits at Paris, 1878. 

SPECIAL NOTICES OF THE EXHIBITS. 
Group I.— WORKS OF ART. 



Oil Paintings. 



In the classification, paintings and sculpture take precedence 
of other works of art, and of the products of industry. 

The high reputation of the State in the annals of art develop- 
ment in the United States is well sustained by the picture sent 
by Professor John F. Weir, of the Yale Art School, known as 
" Forging the Shaft? It is a canvas, about four feet by si\ 
feet, and represents in an accurate and vivid way the interior 
of a great iron establishment with a massive crane and a steam 
hammer, and a large iron shaft for a steamboat being drawn 
from a glowing furnace preparatory to its being forged under 
the heavy hammer. This shaft, one end of which has been 
brought to a white heat in the furnace, is slung in the loop of 
a heavy chain, and a dozen or more swarthy men are exerting 
their strength to move the mass of iron. 

It is evidently a study from life. Visitors to West Point 
who have seen the Cold Spring Foundry may recognize in tins 
picture a faithful study of the interior. Any observant iron 
metallurgist may see that such a representation of white-hot 
iron required other inspiration than the surroundings of an 
artist's studio. The incipient redness, the white heat, the 
dripping slag, the black scale, and the glow of light upon the 
beams and rafters all tell of a close study of the forge. It is 
an admirable picture. It was hung rather too high to be seen 
to the greatest advantage. 

At the time of my inspection of this picture I had fortu- 
nately just returned from a visit to the great iron and steel 
works of the Schneider's at Creusot, the largest establishment 
of the kind in France, and ranking next in importance to 



CoNKEcncuT Exhibits at Paris, L878. 31 

Krupp's gigantic works in Prussia. Tlie visit was made in 
company with the Iron and Steel Institute of Great Britain, 
and in order to show the working of the great eighty-ton steam 
hammer a forty-ton steel ingot had been heated up and was 
forged under it. AYith the recollection of this glowing mass 
of steel fresh in my mind, I could write with confidence npon 
the merits of this particular picture of our gifted painter and 
could make a critical comparison of it with the only other 
picture that I knew of in the Exhibition with a similar subject. 
This other picture, a little larger than Wier's " Forging the 
Shaft," is from the easel of Adolphe Menzel, of Berlin, and 
was taken from the walls of the Imperial National Gallery 
there to receive a special place of honor in the Prussian Art 
Gallery. It is evidently a favorite picture. 

It represents the interior of a rolling mill and the rolling of 
rails. The canvas is crowded with figures. There are too 
many men at work in a narrow space. In the foreground a 
hot ingot, looking like a bit of armor plate, has just been 
brought from the furnace to the grooved rolls. Beyond this a 
long red-hot rail is passing through the next train in most dis- 
tressing proximity to the men grouped together by the artist. 
The hot ingot is too large. It lacks glow. The men are close 
upon it with comparatively delicate pincers, too light for 
handling such a mass of metal. The whole picture is too much 
crowded to be real. Such grouping of men and hot iron can 
hardly be possible in a rolling mill. The artist is less success- 
ful with his technics than with his figures. Weir succeeds 
with both. Menzebs figures are good ; the muscles of the arms 
and hands are capitally well drawn and painted, but the com- 
position is forced and unnatural. Groups of workmen in one 
place are washing for dinner, while another group is eating 
dinner and other workmen are busily at work at the rolls. No 
such incongruity is found in Weir's picture. 

The catalogue of the pictures by American artists contains 
the titles of one hundred and twenty-seven oil-paintings by 
eighty seven different artists. There were, in addition, sixteen 
water colors and seven engravings. 



32 Connecticut Exhibits at Paris, 1878. 

Group II. ' 
EDUCATION AND INSTRUCTION, APPAKATUS 
AND PKOCESSES OF THE LIBERAL ARTS. 

Education. 

Iit this somewhat comprehensive group there were at least 
nine exhibitors from the State. Class <>, includes educational 
works, school books, etc. Here we find " The American Jour- 
nal of Education," edited by Henry Barnard, LL.D., Hartford, 
in twenty-six large octavo volumes, from the year 1856 to 1877, 
inclusive, to which the jury awarded a Gold Medal. 

The Connecticut State Department of Public Instruction 
was represented by twelve volumes of reports sent by the sec- 
retary, B. G. Northrop. These filled an appropriate space on 
the shelves in the complete set of reports from most of the 
States of the Union, collected together and arranged under the 
direction of Mr. Philbrick, of Boston, in charge of the Educa- 
tional display. There was, also, a volume of the New Haven 
City School Reports from Ariel Parish, Superintendent. 

The educational department was a center of attraction to ed- 
ucators of all countries, and was creditable to the country, 
though the space which could be spared for it was extremely 
limited. A special catalogue was issued containing statistical 
information concerning our educational institutions. 



*?s 



Mark Twain's Scrap-book. 

The patent scrap-book, for which we are indebted to the au- 
thor by whose nom <le plimw it is known, is a valuable adjunct 
to the acquisition and preservation of knowledge. It is intended 
chiefly for the preservation of slips cut from newspapers, en- 
gravings, cards, etc., etc., and consists of a blank hook with the 
pages already gummed in lines or squares, so that it is only 
necessary to moisten the slip and put it into place in order to 
attach and secure it permanently. It is made in a great variety 
of sizes and styles of binding, by Slote, Woodman & Co., of 
New York, the publishers, and was exhibited by them. Four 
or more invoices of this hook were sold during the summer. It 
is especially useful to authors, editors and druggists, and is also 
used by children. 



Connecticut Exhibits at Paris, 1878. 33 

Paper. 

Case Brothers, of South Manchester, sent a superior descrip- 
tion of press hoard for printers' use. These hoards are also 
used by manufacturers of woolens. 

Parker's Treasury Blotting Paper. 

Joseph Parker & Son, of New Haven, exhibited a variety of 
styles and grades of their superior ." Treasury Blotting Paper." 
The manufacture of such paper is now an important industry. 
For this special brand of blotting paper the fibre is selected and 
the paper made with direct reference to its absorbent qualities, 
while all loose lint is avoided. Samples were freely distribu- 
ted to the Commissioners and others, by the agents, Messrs. 
Woolworth & Graham, of New York, who had a collective ex- 
hibit of papers, made by twenty-eight different establishments. 

Waverly Mills, Burnside. 

The book-printing paper of these mills, also, was represented 
by Woolworth & Graham. They supplied the paper upon 
which the Official Catalogue of the United States Section was 
printed at the Chiswick Press, London. 

Stanley Eule and Level Company. 

Class fifteen includes not only physical apparatus, as generally 
understood, but try-squares, gauges, scales and carpenters' rules, 
and standard measures. The most important contributor in the 
United States section of this class of goods, is the Stanley Rule 
and Level Company of New Britain. This company sent over 
the same glass case that was exhibited by them at the Centen- 
nial, and about the same selection of rules, squares and carpen- 
ters' tools. The finish and accuracy of these goods are well 
known. These qualities combined with cheapness are causing 
a considerable foreign demand. The company is also doing 
good service in making the metric system better known in the 
United States and abroad. Their carpenters' tools were en- 
tered, also, in class 59, and received a Bronze Medal from the 
jury of that class. 

3 



34 Connecticut Exhibits at Paris, 1878. 

Group III.— FURNITURE AND ACCESSORIES. 
Collender's Billiard Tables. 

The peculiar classification takes us next in order to billiard 
tables. The only one here is from Collender's factory at Stam- 
ford, but it is entered as from New York. It is a small carom 
table finished in light wood. It received a Silver Medal and 
was sold before the close of the exhibition to an appreciative 
amateur. 

Meriden Flint Glass Works. 

The Meriden Flint Glass Works, West Meriden, which were 
started after the close of the Centennial exhibition, sent a small 
but good sample of their cut-glassware. It consisted chiefly of 
goblets and champagne glasses, with one or two trays all deeply 
cut in the geometrical style, in vogue a century ago and now so 
generally revived. The cutting is excellent and the form and 
" metal " good. Great credit is due to the enterprising found- 
ers of this important industry at Meriden. They already man- 
ufacture largely, and in addition to standard articles for house- 
hold use, make a great variety of small objects suitable for 
mounting in silver or white metal by the Meriden Britannia 
company. Decorated lamp shades, which are shown here with 
the cut-glass, are also successfully made in large quantities. 
Although the company was averse to making any exhibition, 
and did not attempt a display commensurate with the present 
and expected magnitude of the works, the jury have decreed 
an honorable mention. This, under the circumstances, may be 
regarded as a high award. Great advances have been made at 
the works during the progress of the exhibition and the "metal" 
is now much whiter and more brilliant than it then was. 

At no previous exhibition has there been such an extensive 
and varied display of glass of all kinds and from many coun- 
tries. The French and Austrian displays were particularly 
brilliant. England had also many exhibitors of blown and col- 
ored glass as well as costly cut and engraved glass. We there 
find copies of the Portland vase which have required the pa- 
tient labor of the artist for years in sculpturing the outer layer 
of opal glass, producing all the effects of the finest stone cam- 
cos upon the inner or blue glass body of the vase. 



Connecticut Exhibits at Paris, 1S78. 35 

By the liberality of the Meriden company, I was enabled to 
purchase about two hundred dollars worth of typical examples 
of erlassware of various countries and makers to add to the 
collection of glass in the Connecticut Museum of Industrial 
Art, for the instruction of the workers in glass at the Meriden 
works and the public. 

NORTHFIELD KNIFE COMPANY. 

The case of cutlery sent by this company was nearly the 
same as they exhibited at the Centennial. It contained over 
eight hundred styles of pocket cutlery, each piece differing 
from the other in form, material and style of finish. They all 
show thorough work and good materials. The finish of the 
blades is excellent, and the forms are good. The handles are 
well attached and finished. The jury awarded a Bronze Medal. 

B. Shoninger Organ Company. 

In Class 13, " Musical Instruments," the B. Shoninger Organ 
Company, of New Haven, was the only exhibitor from the 
State. The exhibit was in every respect creditable to the 
industry of organs and pianos. 

Tins firm, established in New Haven in the year 1850, has 
assumed considerable importance as a large manufacturer of 
organs and recently of pianos. It was fully represented at 
Paris by organs of three or four different styles and by pianos 
of the cottage or upright pattern. Of organs there are some 
thirty or more different patterns made, ranging in cost from 
$100 to $600, and over. More than fifty thousand of these 
instruments have been sold in the past twenty-eight years. 
These are all known as " reed " instruments in distinction from 
the " pipe " organs which are much more cumbrous and costly. 
The reporters upon musical instruments at the Centennial 
observe as follows regarding reed instruments or parlor organs. 

" They belong to a class of comparatively recent invention, 
which, growing rapidly into favor, because supplying a want 
not met by any other instrument of this variety, have assumed 
a positive commercial importance, and summoned great inven- 
tive talent and skill in their manufacture and progressive im- 
provement. 



36 Connecticut Exhibits at Paris, 1878. 

« Their tones are produced by the passing of **"»£*£ 

reeds brass tongues being fixed at one end and left free to 

vibrate at the ofher on impulse of air, and so yielding _1 

tones Their peculiar characteristics are volume, compass, 

dehcacy and sustained expression, with ease of producing 

"'or diminution of utterance The wind is suppli ed by 

arrangements controlled by the player, or, as m ^e larger 

ones, for vestries or small churches, by an assistant at the rear 

or side. 




Universal Cymbella Organ. 

••The importance to ,1,1.1, the ^^^."f^ 
Under the general oame of reed-orga* are mduded 



Connecticut Exhibits at Paris, 1878. 37 

ments played upon by keys like those of the piano-forte, and 
yielding their tones by the vibration of their reeds." 

The firm of B. Shoninger & Co., by concentrating its atten- 
tion upon this manufacture, by carefully studying its require- 
ments and providing every facility, has carried the parlor- 
organ to great perfection, so that it compares and competes 
with pipe organs for home use, for Sunday schools and for 
churches. The simple " melodeon " or " harmonium " of a 
few years ago has been replaced by these instruments. The 
melodeon was the first reed instrument, but it had only one set 
of reeds and no stops. Now, the Shoninger organs are made 
with four sets of reeds besides sub-bass and octave couplers, 
permitting a power equal to ten sets of reeds. There are 
also accessories which greatly extend the capacity of the 
instruments. Thus the " Universal Cymbella Organ," one of 
the finest instruments shown at Paris, has five octaves, four 
sets of reeds, one set powerful sub-bass, chime of bells, octave 
couplers, fourteen stops, melodia, cymbella, full organ dulci- 
ana-triple, flute, piccolo, dulciana-bass, vox humana, viola, forte, 
celeste and trombonet attachments. The case is elaborately 
made and finished. It is so constructed with a " trumpet 
throat " that it gives freedom to the sound, increases its power, 
and qualifies the tone, producing the effects of a pipe-organ, 
from which it can scarcely be distinguished. It is the aim of 
the manufacturers to give all the important and desirable 
qualities possible in a reed-organ by using the very best 
materials, employing skilled labor, availing of every improve- 
ment and exercising the greatest care and ingenuity. 

Much attention has been given to the form and construction 
of the case, so as to give freedom to the sound and to ensure 
softness without loss of power. The sounding boards of the 
instruments at Paris, and as usually made by the manufactur- 
ers, were formed of three sheets of wood with the grain 
running in opposite directions, and firmly united by glue so as 
to form one solid sheet. This construction prevents splitting 
or cracking. The same material is used for the wind chest, 
preventing all loss of air by leakage through the wood. Special 
provisions are made to prevent the entrance of mice, which 
frequently destroy organs. The vacant spaces of the case are 
utilized so as to give dust-proof receptacles for music books. 



38 Connecticut Exhibits at Paris, 1878. 

The pianos also contained some novelties of construction. 
The sounding board was attached to and made a part of the 
case. The use of metal in the action was avoided so as to 
prevent any disagreeable metallic sounds. The piano was in 
use for a great part of the time during the summer. Its tone 
was sweet but powerful, and it always drew a crowd of de- 
lighted listeners. 

The jury awarded a Silver Medal. The judges at the Cen- 
tennial Philadelphia Exhibition, 1876, commended these reed- 
organs for award " because the company manufactures good 
instruments at a price rendering them possible to a large class of 
purchasers, the instruments having a combination of reeds and 
bells producing novel and pleasing effects." 

Art Castings. 

Under Class 25, "Bronzes, Various Art Castings and Re- 
pousse Work," the Russell & Erwin Manufacturing Company 
claimed a place for their door and window fittings, in bronze 
and enamel. For sharpness and beauty of line and detail, 
with smoothness and almost polished finish of surface their 
sand castings of bronze are probably unequalled. These cast- 
ings were exhibited in plain bronze, as taken from the sand, and 
in several other styles of finish. Some are nickeled, sonic richly 
gilt, and sonic enameled. They consist chiefly of finger and 
key plates and knobs. The enameled pieces are good specimens 
of champleve work, and show a decided mastery of the art. 

The lmlk of the exhibit by this firm was classed as General 
Hardware in Class 43, and is more fully noticed under that 
head. Their show-case — or the installation, in exhibition par- 
lance — was an exceptionally good one, and was well located. 

Seth Thomas Clock Company. 

There were two exhibits of clocks from Connecticut, one 
from the Seth Thomas Clock Company, and the other from the 
Ansonia Clock Company. The Thomas exhibit was well placed 
upon one of the main avenues opposite Marcotte's richly fur- 
nished alcove. The large church or town-hall clock, with its 
ponderous pendulum, was the prominent object in the midst of 
an array of familiar clock-faces. On the other side there was 



Connecticut Exhibits at Paris, L878. 39 

a great variety of "movements," without rases or dials, on a 
velvet back-ground behind plate glass. These movements were 
finished ill various ways, nickel plated, silvered and gilt, and, 
being in motion, formed an attractive display. It is pleasing 

to note that the manufacture by this old established house is not 
confined to the cheapest and most ordinary clocks. Sonic of 
the eight-day, long pendulum, office clocks are highly finished 
pieces of mechanism, and are no doubt furnished at moderate 
prices. The agent lived in Hamburg, and this made it a little 
inconvenient for the average visitor, whose interest happened 
to be excited, to get the information about the clocks when he 
wanted it. Thousands of these clocks could have been sold, 
said an agent of another exhibitor, if there had been some one 
in attendance. 

Ansonia Clock Company. 

The Ansonia company had a case about ten feet by four, in 
which it exhibited a variety of clocks in fancy mountings. 




Night Lamp Clock. 



The cases were elaborately worked and decked with gilding 
and brass. In some, the circular wooden cases were replaced 
by spun metal, nickeled. There were a few tolerably neat 



40 Connecticut Exhibits at Paris, 1878. 

portable clocks with beveled plate glass cases in nickeled frames 
with handles at the top. A night-lamp clock, so arranged as to 
illuminate the dial and show the time, is simple and ingenious, 
and will no doubt have a large sale. The dial, which is made 
of opal glass or of porcelain, is advanced far enough beyond 
the wheel-work to, allow of placing a small lamp or a gas-jet 
inside. The arbor carrying the hands is elongated sufficiently 
to traverse the space. This, it will be seen, adds very little to 
the cost of the clock, and no modification of the movement is 
required. 

Foreign Clocks. 

It may be advantageous to note some of the peculiarities of 
foreign clocks in comparison with ours. The French display 
was very extensive. There was one pyramid of brass clock 
movements, four yards high and four yards square at the base. 
There was a great variety in the forms and styles of clocks. 
The industry appeared to be much divided. Some establish- 
ments make the dials, others the hands, the wheels, or the 
cases. There was a great variety in the mountings, but in gen- 
eral they were more tasteful than ours. 

There is manifestly great need of improvement amongst our 
clock manufacturers as respects the style and ornamentation of 
clock cases. It is time that the flimsy, veneered pine cases, in 
gothic and other fantastic shapes, with tawdry painted glass 
fronts should give way to something less odious. We have 
much to learn in this direction, and the Exposition was a good 
place in which to take a few lessons. 

The most fascinating and satisfactory clock dials and clock 
cases were to be seen at the stand of Howell, James & Co., in 
the British Section. They produce a variety of styles of early 
English and Queen Anne clocks, designed for them by emi- 
nent art authorities, and adapted to dining or drawing rooms, 
libraries or halls. The cases are made in ebonized or other 
woods, black and gold, satin-wood, walnut, oak, or mahogany, 
and are inlaid with art pottery, with silver, brass, or marble 
panels, or with decorated tiles. The dials also are of porcelain, 
and are hand-painted, generally by amateurs, either with orig- 
inal designs or from those supplied by eminent authorities — by 



Connecticut Exhibits at Paris, 1878. 



41 



Walter Crane or others. These clocks are made to harmonize 
with the prevailing domestic decoration in early English and 
Qneen Anne styles. They are especially well adapted for pres- 
ents, inasmuch as panels with monograms, crests, inscriptions, 
or devices suited to any occasion can be introduced with com- 
paratively little expense. 

The clocks of this description shown at Paris were decorated 
with small hand-painted tiles, chiefly the work of female ama- 
teurs. The firm of Howell, James & Co., of London, has 
greatly aided and encouraged this class of work, by giving it a 
market through their salesroom on Regent street. These 
clocks appear to be very popular. They are for the greater 
part in ebonized wood, with turned corner posts, beaded, and 
sometimes incised and gilt. There is usually a small balus- 
trade at the top, giving a shelf-like space for some object of 
art-pottery. Some are in the form of wall or corner bracket- 
shelves, or cases, with the clock in the center and a space above, 



under a roof-like covering for one or more vases. 



Suclr hang- 



iug wall clocks are from 36 to 50 inches long, 10 to 12 inches 
wide, and from 5 inches to 7 inches deep. The tiles and the 




Early English Style — Design No. xvi. 

dials are generally executed in blue on a white ground, and 
represent conventionalized flowers, the seasons, or the signs of 
the zodiac. Some of the movements run for sixteen days, and 
strike the hours and half-hours. They are all objects of luxury, 



42 



Connecticut Exhibits at Paris, 1878. 



and the price is somewhat high. The 16-day movement in 
the early English style is sold at eight guineas. The design 
of this clock (Design No. xvi) is prefixed. The wood is 
incised and gilt. Another style of the same period is shown 
in the wood cut, Design No. xvii. This early English 
drawing-room clock has a blue and white china dial and 
pierced brass corners, turned posts and arched top. The 
designs upon the three tiles represent the " Elements," — 
earth, water and air. It stands IT inches high, LOJ inches 
wide, and 7 inches dee]). 




Early English Clock — Design No. xvii. 

Another, and more elaborately decorated front, is 22 inches 
high, 14 inches wide, and 7 inches deep, with panels painted 
in blue, representing the twelve months. These and the other 
tiles, and the dial, were designed by Walter Crane, and the 
case by L. F. Day. 



Connecticut Exhibits at Paris, 1878. 43 

All of these, and some thirty more designs, are specially reg- 
istered in England, to preserve the property in them to the 
house of Howell, -lames & ( !o. 




Queen Anne Clock. — Designed by Day ; Panels by Walter Crane, 

Willim antic Linen Company. 

Under the head of Textile Fabrics, Cotton Thread, &c, 
Class 33, we find the exhibit of spool cotton in a great variety 
of colors and degrees of fineness, sent by the Willimantic 
Linen Company, of Willimantic and' Hartford. 

Either the climate of New England has changed, or British 
opinion of it must be modified, for here we have thread rival- 
ing in fineness, evenness, and finish the world-renowned thread 



44 Connecticut Exhibits at Paris, 1878. 

of the British Isles, notwithstanding the belief that our cli- 
mate would not permit of its manufacture. Some of our good 
forefathers in old England who had factories and wanted new 
markets were disposed to prohibit the establishment of com- 
peting industries in the colonies. Some of the royal edicts on 
broadside sheets sent out to be posted on the barns and shops 
of the Massachusetts Bay colony, and William Penn's farms, 
tell the whole story, and would be instructive reading. What 
could not be kept back by prohibition, they sought to destroy 
by defamation, and as respects the thread industry in America, 
in order to completely exterminate it and forever prevent the 
growth of the manufacture in America, our climate was 
declared to be such that its manufacture would be impossible. 
But we have not only made the thread, but have had the bold- 
ness to show it here to all the world, and to bear off a prize 
award for superiority. 

The thread commands appreciation. By common consent 
the sewing machine representatives would not take any other 
thread for the trials upon their respective sewing machines. 
They insisted upon having the Willi mantic as a standard thread, 
and the best adapted to their use. All of the available dupli- 
cate specimens in the exhibit were handed over to them. The 
recorded judgment at the Centennial, where the company was 
also an exhibitor, was : " Spool Cotton, Fine Yarns, and 
machines for winding and ticketing spools for sewing-threads," 
" commended for originality and completeness of system, 
excellence of machinery and appliances, the winding frame 
being the invention of Hezekiah Conant, and for superiority 
and economy of production, also for excellence of material and 
variety of colors of threads." With this recorded opinion of 
the Centennial judges before them, the jurors at Paris in lsTs 
were the better able to form a correct judgment, and they 
gave a Silver Medal. 

Cotton Piece Goods. 

In the line of cotton goods and cambrics, Connecticut has an 
honored place in the large collective exhibit made by Lewis 
Brothers & Co., who are agents for most of the New England 
mills. The Manville company have a large assortment of col- 



Connecticut Exhibits at Paris, 1878. 45 

ored cambric linings in rolls at one end of the case. Fine cam- 
bric muslin is shown in the piece, both unbleached and bleached, 
by the Ponemah mills, Taftville, and the mills of John F. Sla- 
ter, of Norwich, are represented by a full line of fancy striped 
cheviot shirtings. 

Embroidery and Sewing Machine Work. 

Under Class 36 we had one entry from Connecticut — the 
Wheeler & Wilson Manufacturing company, Bridgeport, who 
displayed a variety of specimens of sewing machine work, em- 
broidery, etc., by Mrs. Winn, and received a Bronze Medal 
from the jury of Class 37. This award is distinct from those 
given in other classes and is a special recognition of the excel- 
lence of the work accomplished by the aid of the Wheeler & 
Wilson machines. This work includes all grades of sewing, 
from the coarsest and strongest on heavy goods for men's wear, 
on thick woolens, on canvas and leather down to the softest 
and finest fabrics of satin, silk and cambric muslin. Specimens 
of leather belting and boot soles are contrasted with gossamer 
shirts for babes and embroidery on satin, all showing precision 
of work throughout this wide range of application. One little 
shirt of the finest fabric is stitched with No. 400 Willimantic 
cotton scarcely heavier than a spider's web and as fine as the 
thread of the tissue itself, yet under a microscope the stitches 
are seen to be even and regular. An embroidered white satin 
mouchoir case shows the capacity of the ordinary machine for 
this work by a simple variation of the lower tension, permit- 
ting work which it is said cannot be accomplished with a shut- 
tle machine. 

Waterbury Button Company. 

This company sent a case of metallic buttons in great vari- 
ety, including army, navy, railroad, police, state, school and liv- 
ery buttons. The company also manufactures ladies' belt buck- 
les and clasps, medals, badges and other small articles from 
sheet metal. 

The jury awarded an Honorable Mention. 



46 Connecticut Exhibits at Paris, 1878. 

Colt's Patent Fire Arms Company. 

The Catling gun made at the Colt's Patent Fire Arms com- 
pany's armory, in Hartford, is shown here in several forms 
and sizes. One is a short, five-barreled gun mounted on a tri- 
pod, and two others have ten barrels and are mounted on 
wheels in the usual gun-carriage form. The Centennial judges 
considered this one of the best machine guns known, and re- 
ported upon it in the following terms : 

" Eminently entitled to recognition not only as one of the best 
machine guns in existence but also as the first really service- 
able weapon of its class. A new five-barrel gun is exhibited, 
showing improvements over the usual pattern in respect to sim- 
plicity, the automatic spreading of the shot, the feeding ar- 
rangement, and adjustments for adapting the gun to receive 
metallic cartridges having rims of varying thickness ; dimin- 
ished weight ; increased facility in extracting the locks ; and, 
generally, in separating the gun for cleaning, etc." These 
guns, when mounted on wheels, are provided with the Patent 
Sarven Wheel made by the New Haven Wheel company. The 
gun scarcely needs description here. It still stands in the 
front, and has gained a higher recognition and reputation by 
this exhibition at Paris in competition with all other makers of 
machine guns. The jury accorded it a Gold Medal. 

Sharp's Rifle Company. 

The Sharp's Rifle company, of Bridgeport, exhibited breech- 
loading military and sporting rifles for which a Silver Medal 
was awarded. 

Gardner Machine Gun. 

The Gardner machine gun was exhibited by Pratt, Whitney 
& Co., of Hartford, and received a Gold Medal. 

IlnTcnKiss Revolving Cannon. 

The gun of Mr. B. B. Hotchkiss, although made in France, 
was shown in operation during the exhibition and may be 

claimed as a Connecticut invention, Mr. Hotchkiss being from 
this State. The jury of (Mass 68 decreed a Gold Medal. 



Connecticut Exhibits at Paris, L8T8. 47 

Union Metallic Cartridge Company. 

A full suit of samples of the metallic cartridge shells made 

by this company was exhibited in a wall ease along side of the 
space assigned to Mallory, Wheeler & Co., of New Haven. 
The jury awarded a Silver Medal. At the Centennial the 
award was given for "Metallic cartridges for Military purposes 
and especially the Berdan patent central fire cartridge." "Com- 
mended for the system of constructing the cavity in the head 
of the shell, the anvil in the same on which the primer is ex- 
ploded being formed from the same metal from which the 
shell is drawn, the conical form of the anvil assisting the effect 
of the blow of the firing-pin when striking the cap to ignite 
the fulminate ; the primer perfectly water-proof and formed 
complete from one piece of metal, avoiding all danger from 
additional pieces dropping out and causing miss-fires ; the 
whole forming a perfect and complete system for exploding 
centre-fire cartridges and for rendering them perfectly imper- 
vious to temperature and water, and adapting them to ready 
reloading: after firms:." 



*& 



J. E. Stevens Company — Toys. 

Of the six exhibitors of toys in Class 42, only one is from 
Connecticut. The extent to which this industry has been 
developed in the United States is surprising. Considerable 
capital is invested in it and a large market is opening abroad. 
.The J. E. Stevens Company, of Cromwell, exhibits a variety 
of cast iron toys, chiefly toy pistols and savings banks, highly 
colored to educate and meet the popular taste of the rising 
generation. A greater measure of success would probably be 
secured for this manufacture if more care and taste were be- 
stowed upon the designs and coloring. There is room for 
improvement in an artistic way. Lovers of art can do a little 
missionary work in this direction. 



48 Connecticut Exhibits at Paris, 1878. 

Group V.— MINING INDUSTRIES, RAW AND 
MANUFACTURED PRODUCTS. 

Class 43. — Mining and Metallurgy. 

This class, as may be inferred from its title, was one of the 
most comprehensive in the Exhibition, for under the head of 
"Metallurgy" nearly all the forms of hardware, hollowware 
and edge tools were included. There were nearly seventy 
exhibitors from the United States in this class, fifteen being 
from the State of Connecticut. We here found the edge tools 
of the Collins Company ; the saws and other tools of Disston ; 
the locks of Mallory, Wheeler & Co., of the Russell & Erwin 
Mfg. Co., of the Yale Lock Company, and of otber makers. 
The American lock and hardware industry was unusually well 
represented abroad by these exhibits, most of them from this 
State. The extent and variety of our locks attracted much 
attention. The forms and method of manufacture differ 
greatly from the European. Early in the operations of the 
international jury, considerable prejudice was manifested against 
cast iron lock cases and American locks, but solely on the 
ground that cast iron does not possess the requisite strength. 
To an American the French appear to be prejudiced in favor 
of the old-fashioned sheet iron boxes or lock cases, the material 
which we in the United States discarded long ago in favor of 
the more rigid and really stronger cast iron. The foreign 
prejudice is due in great part to ignorance of the superior 
quality of the iron which our manufacturers produce by a 
judicious mixture of pig of certain brands, and its treatment. 
Our castings are made with more care and precision than an 
ordinary observer or a foreign manufacturer, unused to our 
methods, would suppose. We may claim, perhaps, that the 
superiority of our magnetic and specular ores has something to 
do with the result. We are at any rate able to produce sharp, 
clean castings with smooth surfaces requiring little or no finish- 
ing. This perfection of form and surface extends also to the 
small working parts of locks and other pieces of hardware, so 
that each piece is a counterpart or duplicate of another, and 
may be substituted for it without alteration or fitting. This 



CONXEOTKTT EXHIBITS AT PARIS, L878. 4!) 

interchangeability of parts is an important matter to both the 
manufacturer and the consumer. 

The American mixed iron used by our manufacturers is an 
alloy which differs essentially from the ordinary cast iron of 
Europe. Instead of being hard and brittle it is soft enough 
to be cut and filed with ease. It is more or less ductile and 
malleable, partaking of the qualities of malleable iron. It has 
the needed toughness and strength for all the parts of locks 
and may be fashioned and proportioned in the pattern so as to 
distribute the material where it is needed, and especially 
where bearings and pins are required for the working parts. 
This is impracticable in the sheet iron case, where the pins and 
supports are riveted into holes and are always liable to work 
loose. Besides, no two pins can be inserted and riveted in ex- 
actly the same way, while in the casting there is no variation, 
all the pieces from the same mold are alike. 

The French are, however, in some instances, beginning to 
make cast frames and working parts, chiefly however where 
highly decorative and elaborate rim-locks are required. Some 
castings are converted into " malleable iron," others are made 
of steel. There is great progress in this direction — the utiliza- 
tion of crucible metal for decorative objects and hardware gen- 
erally. 

It is interesting to note that the industry of house-builders' 
hardware in the United States was initiated, at least in respect 
of mortise locks, in this State, and with wrought or sheet iron 
for the cases and the working parts.* This was for a mortise 
lock with one or more tumblers. The French locks are, how- 
ever, to be highly commended for good workmanship and a 
high degree of finish of the internal parts. These arc gener- 
ally ground or draw-filed to a bright surface. The bolts are 
heavier and stronger usually than ours, and have the double 
throw by which the bolt extends nearly two inches beyond the 
lock and will reach across a wide crack or open space between 
a door and the plate on the jamb. More attention is bestowed 
upon the springs than is given to them in our cheap locks. 
Instead of brass wires or little coils of wire as many of our 
common locks have, the French make a thoroughly good steel 

* At Westville, near Now Haven, at the works of Blake Brothers. 
4 



48 Connecticut Exhibits at Paris, 1878. 

Group V.— MINING INDUSTRIES, RAW AND 
MANUFACTURED PRODUCTS. 

Class 43. — Mining and Metallurgy. 

This class, as may be inferred from its title, was one of the 
most comprehensive in the Exhibition, for under the head of 
"Metallurgy'''' nearly all the forms of hardware, hollowware 
and edge tools were included. There were nearly seventy 
exhibitors from the United States in this class, fifteen being 
from tbe State of Connecticut. We here found the edge tools 
of the Collins Company ; tbe saws and other tools of Disston ; 
the locks of Mallory, Wheeler & Co., of the Russell & Erwin 
Mfg. Co., of tbe Yale Lock Company, and of other makers. 
The American lock and hardware industry was unusually well 
represented abroad by these exhibits, most of them from this 
State. Tbe extent and variety of our locks attracted much 
attention. The forms and method of manufacture differ 
greatly from the European. Early in the operations of the 
international jury, considerable prejudice was manifested against 
cast iron lock cases and American locks, but solely on the 
ground that cast iron does not possess the requisite strength. 
To an American the French appear to be prejudiced in favor 
of the old-fashioned sheet iron boxes or lock cases, the material 
which we in the United States discarded long ago in favor of 
the more rigid and really stronger cast iron. The foreign 
prejudice is due in great part to ignorance of the superior 
quality of the iron which our manufacturers produce by a 
judicious mixture of pig of certain brands, and its treatment. 
Our castings are made with more care and precision than an 
ordinary observer or a foreign manufacturer, unused to our 
methods, would suppose. We may claim, perhaps, that the 
superiority of our magnetic and specular ores has something to 
do with the result. We are at any rate able to produce sharp, 
clean castings with smooth surfaces requiring little or no finish- 
ing. This perfection of form and surface extends also to the 
small working parts of locks and other pieces of hardware, so 
that each piece is a counterpart, or duplicate of another, and 
may be substituted for it without alteration or fitting. This 



Connecticut Exhibits at Paris, 1878. 49 

interchangeability of parts is an important matter to both the 
manufacturer and the consumer. 

The American mixed iron used by our manufacturers is an 
alloy which differs essentially from the ordinary cast iron of 
Europe. Instead of being hard and brittle it is soft enough 
to be cut and filed with ease. It is more or less ductile and 
malleable, partaking of the qualities of malleable iron. It has 
the needed toughness and strength for all the parts of locks 
and may be fashioned and proportioned in the pattern so as to 
distribute the material where it is needed, and especially 
where bearings and pins are required for the working parts. 
This is impracticable in the sheet iron case, where the pins and 
supports are riveted into holes and are always liable to work 
loose. Besides, no two pins can be inserted and riveted in ex- 
actly the same way, while in the casting there is no variation, 
all the pieces from the same mold are alike. 

The French are, however, in some instances, beginning to 
make cast frames and working parts, chiefly however where 
highly decorative and elaborate rim-locks are required. Some 
castings are converted into " malleable iron," others are made 
of steel. There is great progress in this direction — the utiliza- 
tion of crucible metal for decorative objects and hardware gen- 
erally. 

It is interesting to note that the industry of house-builders' 
hardware in the United States was initiated, at least in respect 
of mortise locks, in this State, and with wrought or sheet iron 
for the cases and the working parts.* This was for a mortise 
lock with one or more tumblers. The French locks are, how- 
ever, to be highly commended for good workmanship and a 
high degree of finish of the internal parts. These are gener- 
ally ground or draw-filed to a bright surface. The bolts are 
heavier and stronger usually than ours, and have the double 
throw by which the bolt extends nearly two inches beyond the 
lock and will reach across a wide crack or open space between 
a door and the plate on the jamb. More attention is bestowed 
upon the springs than is given to them in our cheap locks. 
Instead of brass wires or little coils of wire as many of our 
common locks have, the French make a thoroughly good steel 

* At Westville, near New Haven, at the works of Make Brothers 
4 



50 Connecticut Exhibits at Paris, 1878. 

spring, generally, for the latch-bolt, in the form of a flat or 
volute spiral with a brass tip or roller at the end where it bears 
upon the latch. It has great elasticity and strength and rarely 
gives out. Such springs constitute a special branch of manu- 
facture and are made in a great variety of sizes. 

Mallory, Wheeler & Company. 

This firm, established since 1834, manufacture exclusively 
door locks, padlocks, door knobs, and bronze trimmings for 
doors. They make this description of goods their specialty, 
and bend their energies to the improvement and cheapening of 
the objects. They sent a large selection to Paris, using the 
same large show case, 26 feet long by 15 feet high and 2J feet 
wide, that they had at the Centennial. The exhibit was taken 
to Paris by the company's agent, Mr. Elliott Littlejohn, and 
was the first installation completed in the United States sec- 
tion. Upwards of five hundred different samples were dis- 
played in this case, all of them arranged upon a smooth back- 
ground of bird's-eye maple veneering. There were some four 
hundred locks and about fifty different styles of padlocks. 

This display of locks, of so many different styles, and all of 
them so accurate in workmanship and moderate in price, at- 
tracted great attention from the French and others unaccus- 
tomed to the manufacture of locks on a large scale by machin- 
ery and of cast iron chiefly. Most of the European locks are 
made by hand, unaided by automatic machinery, and the sizes 
and varieties are few compared with ours. The interchangea- 
bility of parts, or rather the production of large numbers of 
any one part each so exactly similar to the other that one 
might at any time be substituted in the mechanism instead of 
the other, as is the case with our American cast and machine- 
made locks, was a feature which elicited many commendations 
from members of the jury. 

The "hotel lock," one of the specialties of this company, was 
another novel and somewhat surprising feature of the exhibit. 
In these locks, which are apparently all alike, the keys are not 
interchangeable. Each lock requires its proper key, so that in a 
house, we will say with one hundred and forty locks and keys 
for as many rooms, no two keys can be found that will open 



Connecticut Exhibits at Pakis, 1878. 51 

the same lock, while a single master key is applied that will 
open all. These locks are marvels of mechanical skill and arc 
very cheap considering the accuracy of the work and internal 
mechanism. They are supplied in sets of from fifty to one 
hundred and forty and are safe as against any of the keys ex- 
cept that fitted to each lock separately, and the master key, 
which will pass all. 

Reversible Door Latches. 
The Reversible Door Locks for either right hand or left 
hand doors were also an interesting novelty to most of the for- 
eign visitors. This lock is so made that by simply pulling the 
latch holt forward and turning it half way round the sloping 
surface of the latch is turned in the opposite direction, thus 
adapting the lock to any door opening right or left. This can 
he done by the joiner when fixing the lock on the door, and 
without in any way deranging the mechanism of the lock. It 
readjusts itself as soon as the turn is made. "When fixed to the 
door the latch cannot be again reversed without dismounting 
the knob and withdrawing the spindle. It is thus secure from 
accidents due to meddling. The internal mechanism of this 
reversible lock is shown by the accompanying wood engraving. 




Reversible Door Latch. 

It will be seen that the result is accomplished by means of a 
movable yoke on the spindle, which yoke is held securely in its 
place by the spindle when inserted, bearing against the end of 
the pin shown on the right. This pin prevents the latch being 



52 Connecticut Exhibits at Pakis, 1878. . 

drawn forward while the spindle is in its place. "When it is 
removed the pin is free to move and tlnis permits the yoke 
to he drawn forward far enough to allow the square head 
of the latch to extend heyond the case and to turn around. 
The little spiral spring around the pin serves to draw the yoke 
hack to its place and with it the pin, leaving the socket free for 
the insertion of the spindle. The mechanism is thus automat- 
ically readjusting, requiring no effort or care on the part of the 
workman. All the parts readjust themselves and none of the 
mechanism is displaced. This and the simplicity of the con- 
trivance is the hasis of a strong claim for superiority hy the 
manufacturers, who challenge comparison and trial with any 
other form of reversible latch. 

Exhibit of Padlocks. 
Messrs. Mallory, "Wheeler & Co. were the first to manufac- 
ture padlocks extensively in the United States. They now 
make over one hundred different styles and sizes, and use both 
iron and brass. A good selection from these styles was shown 
in Paris. For beauty of finish and cheapness they appear to 
be unrivalled. The lacquered or " japan " work on the pad- 
locks as well as on the door locks, is unequalled by any foreign 
manufacturer for lustrous black, a high polish, and durability. 
The only padlocks in the foreign sections of the Exhibition 
comparable with those of Mallory, Wheeler & Co. were in the 
Austrian section, in the exhibit made by a Moravian firm. 
These attracting the attention of Mr. Littlejohn by reason of 
the unusually good quality of the black japan, and their general 
resemblance to Mallory & Wheeler's locks, were closely exam- 
ined by me, and proved to be in reality some of Mallory & 
Wheeler's locks, from which the trade-marks had been inten- 
tionally removed by filing down the brass drop, which covers 
the key-hole, and by dissolving off the lettering in white lead 
paint which had been put upon the samples when sent out 
from the works.* 

* The manufacturers of this State have had a somewhat similar experience in 
several othor instances. I have been told of a similar case at a former exhibition 
where the famous pumps of Douglas had the name filed out, and were shown as a 
foreign product. Such frauds are too odious and open to detection to be common. 
They are, nevertheless, a tribute to the superiority of American hardware, and 
will go far in dispelling the plausible objections raised in some quarters to tho 
importation and use abroad of our manufactures. 



Connecticut Exhibits at Paris, 1878. 



53 



Decorative Rim Locks. 

The decorated rim locks of which a few samples were shown 
served to indicate the possibilities of manufacture in this direc- 
tion. From an art point of view, locks as well as all other door 
trimmings should be decorative as well as merely of use to hold 
the door. There is no good reason for hiding the lock in a 
mortise unless it is to make it inaccessible and to get its uncouth 
and unfinished shape out of sight. The French and most Eu- 
ropean architects use rim locks and finish them in sumptuous 
styles, adorning them with carvings and gilded mouldings. 




They are effective objects in the decoration of the interior. So 
also the window bolts are in full sight upon the sashes and are 
elaborately finished. The contrast between the cases of locks in 
the French section and those in the United States section was 
strongly marked, the French being decidedly the most brilliant 
and ornamental. The effort to decorate our American rim 
locks is to be hailed with pleasure, and should be encouraged 
by consumers. 

There was some discussion amongst the members of the jury 
familiar with the hardware trade of France and Belgium, upon 



54 Connecticut Exhibits at Paris, 1878. 

the relative cost and prices of European and American hard- 
ware. It thus became interesting to learn something of the 
ability of such an establishment as this, devoted exclusively to 
locks, to compete with the French in the same line of industry. 
It was shown that the prices at the place of manufacture were 
much lower than the French. Messrs. Mallory, Wheeler & Co. 
were ready to furnish a good reversible knob lock, complete 
with knobs, escutcheons, screws, etc., ready for the door at 
twelve cents per door, and a padlock with a spring shackle and 
key as low as four and a half cents each. This was a surprise 
to many of the foreign manufacturers who made goods at ex- 
tremely low prices and fancied that they could not have hurt- 
ful competition. 

The firm has received awards at several exhibitions. At the 
Centennial, 1876, Philadelphia, their award was given for the 
following reasons : — " Commended as very superior goods, fine 
in finish, and tasteful in design." After a careful examination 
by the jury at Paris a Gold Medal was awarded. 

PvUSSELL & ERWIN MANUFACTURING COMPANY. 

The goods exhibited by this firm were diverse in object, form 
and finish, but are referable to three chief divisions : 

1. Builders' and general hardware. 

2. Carpenters' and cabinet-makers' tools. 

3. Wood-screw6. 

The first included a great variety of door locks, latches, pad- 
locks, handles, bolts, hinges, pulleys, sheaves, fire irons and fire- 
place fittings, besides artistic fittings in bronze, nickel, gold 
and enamel for doors, windows and fire-place decoration. Under 
the second head may be mentioned chisels, gouges, screw-driv- 
ers, braces, wrenches, and general tools ; and under the third, 
flat and round-head screws of all 6izes, both of brass and iron, 
bright and blued. Of these objects, some were entered in Classes 
11, 25, 43, 59 and 66, but were chiefly judged by the jury of 
Class 43 and the jury of Class 66. 

The claims of the firm as presented to Class 43 in response to 
the official inquiries are as follows. In respect of peculiarities: 

1st. The novelty and practical simplicity of the improved 
and patented mechanisms. 



Connecticut Exhibits at Pakis, 1^7\ 55 

2d. The interchangeability of the machine-made parts or 
members and the precision and uniformity with which they are 
fitted and finished. 

3d. The manner in which the parts are proportioned to the 
strains brought to bear upon them for the purpose of obtain- 
ing the greatest amount of strength and durability with the 
least expenditure of labor and material. 

The particular merits claimed were : 1. The comprehensive- 
ness of the display, embracing as it did 4,000 distinct represen- 
tative specimens of all classes and grades, from ordinary goods 
of cast iron to the finest descriptions of artistic bronze fittings, 
finished in gold, nickel and enamels. 

2. For door, cabinet and padlocks the combination in the 
highest degree of simplicity and durability of mechanism with 
scientific distribution of materials and of the labor upon them ; 
also, the lightness, strength, and convenience, with grace and 
beauty of form, of their steel keys. 

3. The practical utility of their pull-out reverse latches, 
" which possess the only mechanism that satisfactorily accom- 
plishes this object without seriously impairing the strength 
and durability of the movement." 

4. For the Patent Anti-friction Latch, novelty, and the 
effective manner in which it serves to lessen the friction of 
latch bolts, and increase the durability and usefulness of the 
mechanism. 

5. For Wood Screws, their improved form, sharpness of 
thread, smooth finish and uniform quality. 

6. For Pmilders' Tools, superior quality of metal, smoothness 
and precision of finish and improved forms and proportions 
better adapting them to the uses for which they are intended. 

Some of the products were repeatedly and closely examined 
with great interest by the members of the jury of Class 43, 
familiar with hardware of European manufacture. Surprise 
was expressed at the accuracy of the mechanism and, in general, 
at the low prices. 

The enameled and gilt goods are obviously exceptional and 
of high cost. They are objects of luxury, and are suited only 
to the finest and most elaborately finished doors of hard wood. 
The enamel is of the champ leve variety and is highly satisfac- 



56 Connecticut Exhibits at Paris, 1878. 

tory as to quality. The composition is evidently good, and the 
colors are pleasing. The result shows a power over the details 
of this art which should give success if it were applied to the 
manufacture of objects of a purely decorative nature. 

The castings in bronze deserve a special mention as choice 
examples of sharp casting with a perfectly smooth and finished 
surface, so smooth that it would at first seem that the metal 
had been worked over and engraved after being removed from 
the mould. The fine details of the engraved design are 
brought out satisfactorily, and do not require any finishing 
operation, Such castings are appropriate for door butts, 
knobs, escutcheons and finger plates for doors. They are used 
in plain uncolored bronze, or they are nickeled or gilded 
according to the fancy of the purchaser. 

The jury upon bronzes, art castings, and repousse work, Clas6 
25, made special note of these bronze castings, and in addition 
to the gold medals given by other classes awarded a bronze 
medal in recognition of their excellence. 

liusselPs Reversible Latches. 

A few of the more important novelties shown by the firm 
in the way of locks and tools will be briefly noticed. 

Reversible latches, as is well known, are so made that they 
may be adapted to either right or left hand doors, by simply 
pulling out and turning the latch or bolt before or after the 
lock is fixed in its place upon the door. Some of the objec- 
tions which have been made to these latches are that their deli- 
cately formed parts and springs rendered them liable to break 
and to get out of repair, or that the bolts could be reversed at 
pleasure after mounting by mischievous children or malicious 
persons to the injury of the door and lock. These difficulties 
the firm claims to have overcome by Russell's patented im- 
provements. 

To illustrate this, the firm exhibited a six-inch mortise lock 
with the cap plate removed so as to expose the working parts. 
The latch bolt has a head bolt of the ordinary form, but the 
shank is round and has a shoulder and button at its small end 
which serves to connect it with the yoke in such a way that 
the movement of the latch longitudinally is controlled by the 



Connecticut Exhibits at Paris, 1878. 57 

yoke, but after the bead of tbe bolt has been drawn forward 
beyond the face plate of the lock, it can, by reason of its swivel 
connection with the yoke, be freely turned to the right or left. 
A spiral spring restores the latch to its proper position after it 
has been reversed or operated on by the knob. 

With the ordinary construction of follower it would of 
course be impossible to draw the latch bolt forward, but it is 
seen by an inspection of the lock that this follower consists of 
three parts, — the two parts are hubs provided with ears which 
dovetail into each other, so as to form of the two a compound 
hub, having a slot in the center through which the T before 
the knob spindle has been inserted, is free to slide sufficiently 
to allow the latch bolt to be drawn forward and reversed ; but 
after the spindle has been fixed in its position, this T can no 
longer be moved, and the three parts are united to form a solid 
hub, which operates through the yoke upon the bolt in the 
usual way, and of course prevents the reversal of the latch. 

Instead of the spiral spring, a heavy flat steel or brass spring 
can be used with equal facility. 

The T is the part of the mechanism upon which most of 
the wear and strain fall, and is made of wrought iron or steel. 
The pieces called hubs are made of cast-iron or gun-metal. 

From the description it will be seen that this invention 
provides, at very moderate cost, a mechanism which is fully as 
strong as the old form of latch, and not likely to become 
deranged easily, and which, before it has been placed upon the 
door, can be reversed at will by simply pulling out the head of 
the bolt and turning it half way round, but once fixed in 
position upon the door it becomes impossible to reverse and it 
operates as an ordinary latch. 

Anti- Friction Latch. 

In closing a door unless the latch bolt is in the very best 
condition as respects lubrication, and in the position of its 
sloping surface upon the " striker" or plate of the jamb there 
is a great amount of friction, and often a serious shock and jar, 
causing the flat side of the latch to bear directly against the 
lock case, thus producing a great amount of friction, so that 
frequently the bolt binds and refuses to move unless violence 



58 Connecticut Exhibits at Paris, 1878. 

and slamming is resorted to. To obviate this difficulty, Messrs. 
Russell & Erwin have invented and patented a supplemental 
bolt placed just below the ordinary latch bolt and connected 
with it so as to control its motion. It is a strong and effective 
arrangement for reducing to a minimum the friction of latch 
bolts, and giving them a smooth, uniform and easy action. 

The improvement, by an exceedingly simple, strong and 
durable mechanism, causes the striking plate to act directly and 
without loss of power to force back the bolt, which, in its 
motion, is entirely withdrawn from contact with the lock case, 
so that the slightest motion imparted to the door causes it to 
latch surely, gently and noiselessly, and renders slamming alike 
difficult and unnecessary. 

The operation is as follows : — beneath the latch bolt of the 
ordinary form is placed an auxiliary latch or controlling lever, 
which is pivoted so as to swing in a horizontal plane. It is 
provided with a pin, on its upper surface, which projects into 
a grooved recess in the under side of the latch, and connects 
the two in such a way that the slightest swinging motion of 
the lever pushes the bolt back, and so guides it in its motion 
that it is entirely withdrawn from contact with the lock case. 
It will be observed that the face of the auxiliary latch is in 
advance of the nose of the bolt, and consequently in operation 
it comes first in contact with the staple fixed upon the doorway, 
and acts directly and without any mechanical loss of power 
to force back the latch. 

This mechanism transforms the rubbing into rolling friction 
upon the nose of the bolt, prevents the extreme pressure upon 
its face, increases the durability of the lock, and is of especial 
value for glass or heavy doors. 

This improvement was shown not only in detached locks 
and latches, but by mounted samples upon doors so that their 
action could be witnessed and tested. 

Steel Keys. 
Two important qualities of keys are strength and lightness, 
a combination which can best be secured by making them of 
steel. A full assortment of such keys was exhibited, and some 
of them for doors and padlocks were illustrated in full size 
engravings in the circulars issued by the Company. 



Connecticut Exhibits at Pa his, 1878. 59 

The peculiar feature common to them all is that the bow, 
stem and hit of the key are made in one piece, from spring 
steel. Owing to their form and method of construction they 
are produced entirely by machinery at a very moderate cost. 
The advantages of these keys are : they are nickled to prevent 
rusting, they possess light, convenient and graceful forms, and 
combine the highest amount of strength and durability with a 
minimum expenditure of labor and material. 

Anti-Friction Pxdleys. 
With the increasing use of heavy plate glass windows and 
large window sash, a pulley with a strong and well-made axle 
becomes a necessity. The ordinary sham axle or steel pin pul- 
ley may answer very well for light sash which are not often 
raised, but even with light sash, if much used, there is a disa- 
greeable amount of friction and wear. One of the principal 
defects, also, in the ordinary form of door and window pulleys 
is that, after they have been fixed in position, the axis of the 
pulley is not accessible either for cleaning or oiling, and the 
result is that the gradual gumming of the oil and the accumu- 
lation of dust and grit upon the axis, cause it not only to grind 
out the bearings, but to work with a great deal of noise and 
friction. These difficulties some inventors have attempted to 
overcome by providing various forms of oil passages with reser- 
voirs leading from the face of the pulley to its axis, but these 
have proved only a partial success, from the fact that they great- 
ly disfigure the face of the pulley, do not effectually prevent 
gumming or grinding, and require frequent cleaning. The pe- 
culiar feature of the invention shown in the exhibition, is that 
the wheel or sheave is mounted upon a series of small anti-friction 
rollers, made of steel, and fitted so as to run freely around a 
fixed central pin or axis. These anti-friction rollers are quite 
free at their ends, and therefore there is no friction at these 
points, as is the case where such rollers are supported in revolv- 
ing rings. It is obvious from the construction that there can 
be no sliding friction ; and the inconvenience and unpleasant- 
ness arising from the use of oil is overcome. As there is none 
but rolling friction, the accumulation of dust makes but little 
difference in the operation of the mechanism, for the steel pins 



60 Connecticut Exhibits at Paris, 1878. 

roll about in it as readily as wheels upon a carriage road. The 
inventor does not claim that this system of anti-friction rollers 
is new, hut that the simplified construction, and improved 
system of manufacture enable him to produce a greatly im- 
proved pulley without the objectionable feature of grinding, 
and vastly more durable than the old form. It can be produced 
by machinery at a cost permitting it to be sold for about the 
same price as a first-class pulley of the ordinary style. 

Universal Hollow Auger. 
.The hollow auger exhibited by the firm in the collection 
of carpenter's tools of their manufacture is similar in prin- 
ciple to a scroll chuck and is intended for use either in a 
bit stock or a lathe. It differs from a chuck, however, in 
this, that two of the jaws are replaced by cutters and are pro- 
vided with a clamp for holding them, while the other two jaws 
serve as guides. The four pieces are moved simultaneously 
from or towards the centre, by means of a scroll thread, 
which is furnished with a chuck nut, that prevents the slipping 
of the jaws after they have been adjusted for any particular 
sized tenon. For use as a universal chuck, it is not necessary to 
remove or in any way derange the cutters, as they are clamped 
so that the points are a little behind the holding face of the 
jaws, and cannot touch work that can be fixed in them. 

It replaces the whole series of the old form of hollow augers, 
and from its facility of adjustment, and the readiness with 
which the cutters can be removed for sharpening, it is more 
efficient as a cutting tool, while at the same time, and without 
any change, it answers all the requirements of a universal 
chuck. 

This exhibit was the first appearance of this firm at any of 
the great international exhibitions. In the most important 
matter of the installation and arrangement it was a model wor- 
thy of imitation. A case, rectangular in plan, 25 feet by 12 
feet upon the floor, presented two broad sides. The ends were 
recessed, so as to form at one end an alcove somewhat secluded 
from the crowds of visitors, and at the other a small but con- 
venient office where special explanations and exhibitions of the 
goods could be given to those specially interested. The doors 



Connecticut Exhibits at Paris, 1878. 61 

also to this office were fitted with the butts, locks, bolts and 
bronze trimmings made by the firm. A line of narrow table 
cases with inclined glass tops projected some eighteen indies 
beyond the upright oases and gave room for the display of the 
goods in the packages as put up for trade. The monogram 
of the firm was neatly executed upon a velvet back-ground in 
the central division of one of the vertical cases, by means of 
the wood screws of brass and iron arranged so as to form the 
letters. The number and brilliance of the bronze, nickeled, 
brass and plated screws gave this monogram the appearance, at 
a little distance, of rich gold and silver embroidery. The per- 
sonal attention and supervision of Mr. II. E. Russell, Jr., the 
secretary of the company, was given to the preparation and 
installation of this exhibit. On Mr. Russell's return to Con- 
necticut the company was represented by an agent, Wm. R. 
Comings, who was constantly in attendance to answ r er ques- 
tions and give information. 

The business of the Russell & Erwin Company was com- 
menced in the year 1839. Now from 650 to 1000 hands are 
employed. Steam engines with an aggregate of 450 horse- 
power move the machinery. The factories have seven acres in 
area of floor space. The buildings are of brick. They are 
substantially built, are well ventilated, heated by steam, lighted 
by gas, and protected from fire by the best system of extin- 
guishers and fire escapes. 

The jury of Class 43 awarded a Gold Medal for the locks 
and hardware, including wood screws. The jury of Class 66 
awarded a Gold Medal for the builders' hardware. The jury 
of Class 25 gave a Bronze Medal for the beauty and per- 
fection of the bronze castings. 

Collins & Compaxv. 
Exhibition of Axes and Edge Tools. 
Amongst the many interesting exhibits from the State, the 
display made by Collins ife Company, Hartford, of axes, min- 
ing tools and cane knives, was one of the most beautiful and im- 
portant. These tools, though of homely use and best known 
in practice in the backwoods, in the depths of the mine, and 
in the jungles of the tropics, were so perfectly finished and 



62 Connecticut Exhibits at Paris, 1878. 

polished and so tastefully arranged that they drew the atten- 
tion of every visitor, whether workman or prince, who passed 
before them. The axes were generally recognized as the types 
of the true American or Yankee axe, the best in the world. 

This exhibit was attractive by reason of the quality rather 
than the quantity of the tools displayed. Limited as to space, 
the company was content with a case of moderate dimensions, 
about eight feet long and eight feet high, much smaller than 
the case which was shown at the Centennial. But it was well 
proportioned and in good taste. Being made of plain, uncol- 
ored ash wood, it contrasted very well with the adjoining cases 
made of black walnut and ebonized woods. Every portion of 
the space was utilized. In the front, which was made in two 
divisions or panels, axes of the chief typical forms were 
grouped in one division, and a selection of machetes, cutlasses 
and hunting-knives in the other. At one end of the case min- 
ing picks and stone hammers were artistically grouped, and at 
the other, axes and hatchets with their white and beautifully 
proportioned hickory handles. No part of the case was too 
high to permit of the contents being conveniently examined, 
and all the objects were placed so near to the plate glass fronts 
that every detail could be distinctly seen. It was a model ex- 
hibit in these respects. 

All of the tools were superbly finished, and polished to such 
a degree that they were like mirrors. The surfaces were as 
faultless as that of a telescope speculum, and so lustrous and sil- 
very that a special notice was necessary to inform the public 
that the tools were neither silvered or nickeled. This high pol- 
ish was not only ornamental but it served also to show the 
homogeneity of the metal, its solidity, and freedom from Haws. 
Commercial samples in ordinary finish, were also shown. The 
under part of the case was filled with boxes of axes in the state 
in which they are shipped to the trade and consumers. 

Much might be written of the excellent qualities of the 
American axe; of its perfection of form, its studied adapta- 
tion to the work it has to do, the proper distribution of the 
weight of metal, the form of the eye and the shape of the 
helve. One cannot tell exactly why the lines should be just 
as they are, but we know from use and results that the axe of 



Connecticut Exhibits at Paris, 1878. M 

to-day is far superior in Bhape to those made a generation ago. 
Only those who have had to use the foreign forms of the axe 
can appreciate the wide difference that exists between them and 
ours. The woodsmen of the United States and other countries 
seldom realize how much their labor in chopping is facilitated 
and rendered comparatively light by the thoughtful care and 
skill of Samuel W. Collins and his successors. The perfection 
which characterizes American axes is due, in great part, to 
their efforts, extending over a period of fifty years. But the 
manufacture as seen by the variety in the Collins case is not 
confined to the Yankee form. It includes a great variety of 
foreign forms, such as choppers have become accustomed to 
in other lands and prefer to any other. 

Thus, in the collection, we find, besides a variety for use in 
the United States, such as the Kentucky and Yankee patterns, 
axes specially made for the Australian market, axes with oval 
and with round eyes, axes for Spanish countries and Mexico, 
for French settlements, and for South America and the trop- 
ics. The form of the eye of an axe must be adapted to the 
handles that each country supplies, for it is not the good for- 
tune of other lands to have our beautiful white and tough hick- 
ory helve turned and fashioned to the hand, and nicely fitted to 
the axe. A round, rough pole cut in the forest, must suffice in 
many regions, and in such countries the narrow, accurately- 
formed elliptical eye of the Yankee axes w T ould be compara- 
tively useless. For green wood handles, a large full eye is 
required. 

Typical Forms of Axes. 

The annexed wood-cuts represent some of the chief types of 
axes shown by the Collins Company, and in use in various 
parts of the world. 

The Yankee Axe is placed first in the series. This pattern 
is made in various sizes, from one and a half pound weight 
to seven pounds, and is used chiefly in New England. 

The Kentucky pattern differs slightly, and is made of the 
same weight as the Yankee axes. 

The Turpentine pattern is a long-bitted axe, especially use- 
ful in cutting soft woods. The sizes are from Z\ to 3|, 4, 4£ 
and 5£ lbs. 



64 Connecticut Exhibits at Paris, 1878. 




387. 



118. 



154. 



Connecticut Exhibits at Paris, t878. 68 

Tlic "Oval Eye Axe," with a rounded hack and a broadly 
expanded bit, is like an ancient form known in France as the 
Haohe Dcmoise. The weights of this pattern vary from 3 to 
5 lbs. 

Fig. 219 also represents an oval eye axe hut with a square 
head, and the upper edge straight. These are made to weigh 
from 4 to 5 pounds each. 

The De Tumha pattern, shown by the next figure, also has 
an oval eye, hut has a round, smooth head like No. 11, but the 
upper edge is not curved as in Fig. 1 1, hut is straight as in Fig. 
219. The usual weight is from 4 pounds to 4f pounds. 

Similar axes are made with round eyes, Fig. 387 weighing 
from 4 to 4§ pounds. A longer and narrower form is shown 
in Fig. 118. 

There is also the triangular eye, Fig. 154, allied in form to 
the French axes, with a long, thin hit. "Weight about 4 pounds. 

Historic Axes. 
It is only just to this subject to at least note the very inter- 
esting series of historic and pre-historic axes in the galleries 
devoted to historic art at the Trocadero. It afforded material 
for a very interesting monograph upon the axe and its uses in 
peace and in war. A comparison of the forms of axes of various 
countries becomes more interesting when we consider that the 
axe is par excellence a tool of universal use in all countries, and 
by all races whether savage or civilized. It antedates all his- 
tory. In fact it, more than almost any other object, reveals to 
us the existence and habits of prehistoric races. Stone axes 
form a large part of every collection of prehistoric relics. And 
it is interesting to note that as great a diversity of form existed 
in the remote periods of the stone age as we now find in the 
age of steel. Some of the old stone axes at the Trocadero exhi- 
bition of historic art are well-formed, and even have the me- 
dial ridge so important in diminishing the frictional resistance 
in the chopping. Some of the stone axes from Denmark are 
perforated to receive a handle, but, generally in pre-historic 
times, and even to-day in the South Sea islands, the handle is 
bound about the stone, or the stone axe is inserted in the wood. 
In New Zealand, axes have been made from time immemorial 
5 



06 Connecticut Exhibits at Paris, 1878. 

of the beautiful green jade which abounds there. Such imple- 
ments, wrought with difficult toil and patient care for months, 
were almost beyond price. They became heirlooms and evi- 
dences of power. But the polished jade of the Maori handed 
down so reverently from father to son is fast becoming a relic 
sought by museums and by lapidaries. It is being rapidly sup- 
planted by steel. 

The axe is the pioneer tool in the work of civilization. It 
precedes the plough and the hoe. Whoever improves and 
cheapens it lightens the burdens of humanity. In this great 
work the Collins Company 6tand foremost. Their axes are not 
only the best but they are the cheapest, and they are sent by 
thousands of dozens all over the world. Connecticut steel is 
thus prominent in subduing the earth. In other countries the 
pre-historic methods of making axes, one at a time, a few bere 
and a few there, are still maintained. The manufacture has 
not become specialized and raised to the rank of a great indus- 
try. In Europe no one concern is responsible to any serious 
degree for the quality of the product. There is no vital neces- 
sity for the maintenance of a high standard of excellence, as 
with us where the reputation of half a century and millions of 
capital are involved. No such established manufacture can 
afford to send out an axe that has not been subjected to the 
severest inspection, and is not as perfect as can be made from 
the best materials and with the best appliances. 

Collins Cast Steel. 

It may not be generally known that the Collins Company 
makes the superior grades of steel which it employs and to the 
extent of hundreds of tons annually. The crucible steel ingots 
of this establishment were greatly admired in the government 
mineral and metallurgical exhibit at the Centennial, and the 
able experts of the metallurgy of steel upon the international 
jury at Paris this year were not unmindful of this when they 
made their inspection of the Collins tools. On comparing the 
fractures of the steel of the Collins axe with fractures of 
French axes, the most marked diiTerence was found in favor of 
the American steel. It was found tit he more homogeneous, 
compact and strong, and consequently could receive a superior 



Connecticut Exhibits at Paris, 1878. 67 

temper. There is also more of it. In two axes of the same 
weight, French and American, the American axe is found to 
have by far the greatest weight of steel. 

In respect of uniformity of temper also the comparisons were 
in favor of the Collins axe. This results not only from the 
superiority of the steel hut from the appliances used by the 
company for hardening and tempering on a large scale by 
which uniformity is secured. The company has also a system 
of testing and inspection which makes it almost impossible for 
tools faulty in make or temper to be sent out from the works. 

Machetes, Cane Knives and Hunting Knives. 

In addition to axes, picks and other tools, there was a repre- 
sentative selection of cane knives and machetes. The form of 
the machete is best shown by the accompanying wood cuts, 
showing not only the shapes of the blade, but some of the 
varieties of the handles, some of horn and others of discs of 
leather. Only those who have traveled in the tropics can 
understand what, and why, a machete is. It combines the 
functions of an axe, a sword, a bush hook, and a scythe. A 
broad, trenchant blade with a thin saw-like edge, it is just the 
thing to cut down sugar cane and bananas, or to slash an enemy 
to shreds. Almost every denizen of the jungles of Spanish 
America carries one. With it, by cutting right and left he 
makes his way along overgrown trails, and through thickets of 
palms, ferns and drooping vines. Some of these knives are 
as long as cutlasses but they are generally broader and shorter 
and very thin. In the manufacture by the Collins Company, 
great attention is given to the quality of the steel and to the 
strength and careful attachment of the handles, which are 
made of either horn, wood, leather, iron, or steel, and are made 
to last, and to fit the hand so as to give the owner of the knife 
a tight grasp upon it. The variety of shapes of machetes is 
almost as great as the diversity of fancies of the consumers. 
Over five hundred different shapes and sizes are made and sold. 

The cane knife of the Louisiana pattern is shown by the 
figure, with a sharp hook at the back. The Cuba patterns differ 
by not having this hook, and they have straight backs. There 
is but little variation in the blades, but the handles vary, as 
will be seen by the illustrations. 



68 " Connecticut Exhibits at Pakis, 1878. 

.4 



(it 






OP^WMl/i^: 



I 



11 
I 






Ni=...iiiil ! 




xS 




Bunting knives, machetes and bush-hook. 



Connecticut Exhibits at Paris, 1 878. 



69 



Bowie knives of different patterns were also shown. The 
handles are thoroughly made and finished, and are worthy of 
the undoubted excellence of the blades. There is no slight, 
cheap work for show merely, but these instruments are evi- 
dently intended for use. 




Collins' Mining Tools. 

The mining picks and hammers of this exhibit occupy one 
of the end panels. They are exhibited in a variety of forms 
and leave nothing to be desired except perhaps a perpetual 
bonanza in which to use them. The picks are remarkable for 
the perfection of the eye, which is shaped with great care, a 
most important feature characteristic of the Collins tools, picks 
and axes alike, and one which foreign imitators would be glad 
to be able to claim honestly. The poll-picks revive in the 
mind of the miner the recollections of snow-white quartz at 
the bottom of the mine, with here and there nests and bunches 
of virgin gold holding the crystal together and yielding up at 
last only to the conquering steel. 

Some of the principal forms of these picks are shown by the 
wood cuts. Pattern No. 484 is made weighing from 4 to 8 
pounds ; No. 485 from 34, to 6 pounds ; No. 486 from 3£ to 
7 pounds. The California pattern is made from 3 to 8 pounds, 
and the pick mattock, very useful among roots of trees, 
generally weighs 6 pounds. 

We can thus only glance at the variety, utility and excellence 
of the products of the Collins Company as shown in 1878 at 
Paris. According to the official data furnished to the jury of 
Class 43, the works were established in 1826 and now cover 
twelve acres of ground. The motive force, consisting of both 
steam and water, is about equal to that of 1200 horses. ( ' p wards 



70 



Connecticut Exhibits at Paris, 1878. 



of 3000 complete tools are made daily — and in addition to the 
tools described there is a large production of agricultural imple- 
ments and steel ploughs. 



WLUNSkC? I ////' HARTFORD 



No. 484. 




No. 485. 




No. 486. 



COLLINS 6cC° J HARTFORD 



California Pattern. 




Pick Mattock. 



The exhibit was carefully examined by the jury and the 
highest award— the gold medal— was accorded. This is but a 
just recognition of the merits of this long established manufac- 
tory. Another tribute, but not so intended, is that some 
foreign manufacturers have of late sought to introduce their 
goods under the Collins name, thus availing of a reputation 
acquired by a half century of honest and successful endeavor. 



Connecticut Exhibits at Paris, 1S78. 71 

The establishment gives employment to about 500 men. It 
is the pioneer in the production of finished edge tools and 
originated the American shapes and tonus now in general use. 
It is generally conceded that American edge tools have not 
only no superior but no equal in the uniform high quality, 
finish, fitness, workmanship and adaptation to public wants. 
These qualities, and their reduced cost, are extending the 
demand for them everywhere. As pertinent to this subject of 
the demand abroad for our American tools, the following 
extract is cited from the " Half-yearly Report " of the Birm- 
ingham (England) Chamber of Commerce, February 3d, 1870. 

" ( 1 onsiderable attention has been drawn by our merchants 
to the mortifying fact that the United States are great exporters 
of edge tools, agricultural implements, and very many articles 
of small ware, not only to South America and the Brazils, but 
also to our own colonies. In Australia a very large proportion 
of the goods in a hardware store is of American manufacture, 
but made out of English iron and steel, paying a heavy duty, 
and manufactured by American workmen, earning fully 75 
per cent, higher wages, and with the value of money much 
greater, thus beating us with charges on the raw material of 
50 per cent., and on wages, &c. of fully 100 per cent., in the 
trades that used to be specially our own." 

" This evidently shows that it is not a question of wages 
alone which is operating so disadvantageously against this 
country. It can therefore be attributed to the greater aptitude 
of the foreign [American] workmen, and their intelligence 
which induce them to seize every opportunity of improving 
their manufacturies by novelty of construction and by excel- 
lence of make." 

The excellence of the axes and tools made by the Collins 
Company, and the high reputation they have gained in the 
markets of the world has led to many imitations, one notable 
instance occurring during the progress of the Exposition at 
Paris, a Sheffield manufacturer claiming to produce the " Col- 
lins axes," and strangely claiming to make a smoother and 
better eye, one of the peculiar points of excellence of the 
Collins tools. 

At all of the great international and local exhibitions where 
the Collins tools have been shown, they have been recognized 
by high awards. 



72 Connecticut Exhibits at Paris, 1878. 

At the great International Exhibition in 1851, London, the 
first of the modern series of great exhibitions, and one of the 
most successful, the Collins Company sent a fine selection of 
axes and edge tools. The jury in reporting and referring to 
American tools said : — "Good as these productions are, they are 
perhaps surpassed by the axes, to which nothing of the kind 
can be superior ; they are admirably finished, and at the same 
time display all those more valuable cpialities which are the 
necessary conditions and evidence of perfection in such com- 
modities. It is evident that the great prevailing want of the 
population has created and carried to perfection in its own 
neighborhood the trade which was to supply it." 

In 1853, the Company received the gold medal for the same 
exhibition of edge tools. At the Centennial in 1876 a splendid 
display was made upon one of the main avenues of axes, adzes 
and edge tools, and the judges gave the following certificate 
to accompany the medal : — 

" Axes, hatchets, picks, adzes, wrenches, cane knives, 
machetes." — " Commended as of best quality and finish." 

At Paris, last year, 1878, the jury was unanimous in giving 
the Gold Medal. 

Ya'le Lock Mfg. Company. 

The Yale Lock Manufacturing Company, Henry R. Townc, 
President, Stamford, made an exhibit not only highly credit- 
able from the artizans' point of view, but one that was also a 
great convenience to every exhibitor in the United States sec- 
tion, to the Commission and to others. Reference is here made 
to the " Yale Lock Box Post Office" or " Yale Postal Bureau," 
established in the midst of the United States Section, where 
letters were received, distributed and mailed during the season. 
Mr. Geo. AY Sillcox, and Ins assistant, were in constant attend- 
ance. Boxes in the most approved form made by the company 
were provided, of different sizes, and were rented out for the 
season exactly as in our home post offices. There was also a 
" General Delivery" and window for the sale of stamps and a 
box for the posting of letters. All this was provided at the 
expense of the company, as the best way of exhibiting its 
locks and other products. 



Connecticut Exhibits at Paris, 1878. 7:5 

The list of the exhibits specifies: tine locks, time and bank 
locks and postal equipments. There were also vault and prison 
locks and decorative house trimmings. 

The specialty of this company is the Yale Lock in its various 
forms. These and all of the products of the manufacture are 
characterized by fine, exact workmanship and finish, with nov- 
elty of design, adaptation to intended use and convenience. 
The locks are secure, the keys are small and light, and are not 
interchangeable. The postal boxes were fitted with these locks 
and gave great satisfaction. 

The chronometer bank locks, of which two were kept run- 
ning during the season, were exquisite specimens of workman- 
ship. The highly finished works were in full view under glass 
and attracted great attention. 

The jury awarded a Gold Medal and a Silver Medal. The 
company has also received awards at Paris. in 1867, at Chile 
in 1875, and at Philadelphia in 1876. The report of the judges 
at Philadelphia was as follows : — 

" Time, Safe-deposit, Prison, Door, Closet, and Drawer 
Locks, Post Office Pox and Locks, Door Trimmings and 
Hinges." 

Report. — " These are well-made, substantial goods ; the 
better grades are very finely finished, and are well adapted to 
their intended purposes. The model post-office, together with 
the boxes and locks, are neat and tasteful in design and a public 
convenience. The time locks are very fine specimens of work- 
manship and possess every element of security and protection 
against being opened except at the stipulated time, and by the 
proper person. The door knobs, handles and trimmings are 
fine and well-made goods." 

Peters' Combination Lock. 

The Peters Combination Lock Company of Waterbury made 
a small, compact exhibit of its peculiar combination locks, con- 
structed upon a principle newly applied for such purposes. 
It is the invention of A. E. Peters, at Moncton, New Bruns- 
wick. They are machine made, the parts are interchangeable 
and they are not liable to get out of order. Keys are not 
required. The locks or combinations may be set as desired and 



74 Connecticut Exhibits at Paris, 1878. 

require for opening a pre-determined sequence of movement of 
the pins which protrude from the outside face of the mechan- 
ism. It is claimed for these locks that they cannot he picked, 
and that it is not possible to see, hear or feel a way to open 
them, and that it is a simple, cheap and secure locking device. 
It is applied to mortise night locks, latches for front and street 
doors, upright rim locks for store doors, rim latch locks for office 
doors, etc., mortise latch locks for office and house doors, trunk, 
chest, drawer, and cupboard locks, mortise desk locks (self- 
locking), for rolling top desks and ticket cases, flush desk locks 
(self-locking), padlocks, and post office box locks. 

The manufacturers also claim the following advantages : — 

" They are the only Combination Locks that can be opened 
without the combination being discovered by persons who are 
watching to get it. 

They can be operated in the dark as well as in the light. 

They are more easily and quickly operated than key locks. 

They dispense with the necessity for carrying a key. 

Innumerable changes of combination may be made by any 
person of ordinary intelligence." 

The jury awarded a Diploma of Honorable Mention. 

Smith & Egge Mfg. Company. 

This establishment, located at Bridgeport, F. W. Smith, 
president, Warren H. Day, secretary and treasurer, had a small 
but well-filled glass case, containing examples of their fine brass 
and nickeled padlocks, sewing machine locks, piano locks, and 
patent sash chain and fixtures. 

The padlock which is known as the " Giant Lock " is simple, 
strong and secure, very smooth in its curves and finish, and is 
especially designed for, and used by, the government postal 
service for locking mail bags. They are made of superior 
wrought metal, with the rivet holes carefully countersunk and 
with from four to seven tumblers. The key is a thin strip of 
metal, and is inserted in a narrow slit at the bottom of the loek, 
so placed that water or dirt can scarcely enter. 

Giant /Sank Chain. 
The company also manufactures a chain for supporting the 
weights of window sashes, which is called the " Giant sash 



Connecticut Exhibits at Paris, 1878. 75 

chain." It is a novelty for which great advantages arc claimed. 

It is a machine-made chain, the links being stamped from sheet 
metal specially made for the purpose so as to give great 
strength. These chains are provided with fixtures^by which 
they may be attached to the sash and weight and be removed 
at pleasure. It has been adopted for the windows of the new 
Capitol building at Hartford, and at other places. A similar 
chain is made for the use of plumbers and others and is both 
strong and cheap. 

The jury gave a Bronze Medal. 

Bevin Brothers Manufacturing Co. — Bells. 

The Bevin Bros., of East Hampton, sent the same case which 
they exhibited at the Centennial, filled with a complete assort- 
ment of hand, house, table, gong, engine and all kinds of hand 
bells and sleigh bells. These last have an improved attach- 
ment to the girdle or strap, by a rivet and collar, believed to 
be much superior to fhe old method of fastening the bells. All 
of the bells shown are characterized by excellent tone and 
finish. The chief market for the sleigh bells is found in the 
United States and Canada. Silver Medal. 

Barnum-Eichardson Company. 

In the important group of " Mining Industry," the United 
States, as a nation, was poorly represented. With the excep- 
tion of a collection from California, and the " bonanza mines," 
in Nevada, due chiefly to the liberality of Mr. Mackey, of 
Nevada, and to Mr. Hanks, of the California Committee, a 
block of anthracite coal from the Reading Railroad Company, 
and nickel and its ores from Joseph Wharton, of Philadelphia, 
the representation was from Connecticut. There was also an 
illustration of the Dupuy process of making iron ; but for iron 
and its ores, " Old Salisbury," in this State, was the redeem- 
ing feature. This is due to the enterprise and energy of the 
Barn um-Pu chard son Company. It sent a very full collection 
of the famous Salisbury ores, the pig iron made from them and 
the car wheels made from the iron. The exhibit was contained 
chiefly in the same case used at the Centennial, in Philadel- 
phia. A supply of descriptive pamphlets was provided, giving 



76 



Connecticut Exhibits at Paris, 1878. 



analyses of the ores and of the iron and important statistics in 
regard to the strength, wear and durability of the wheels. 

The mines, as is generally well known in Connecticut, are in 
the northwestern corner of the State, in Litchfield County.. 
The little black patches in the accompanying wood-cut show 
their location. 




Map of the Salisbury Iron Region. 

As early as the year 1734, a forge was erected in the village 
of Lime Rock, by Thomas Lamb. About 150 pounds of iron 
were produced at one time in what was known as a refining 
tire. In 1748, another forge was erected in what is now the 
village of Lakeville, and in 1762, the first blast furnace was 
erected. This is supposed to have been the first furnace built- 
in the State. Its form and dimensions, as near as can be ascer- 
tained from data in existence, are shown by the annexed wood- 
cut section. 

Its production of iron was about 2^ tons in 24 hours. Three 
tons of ore and 250 bushels of charcoal were required to make 



Connecticut Exhibits at Paris, 1878. 



77 



one ton of iron. . The blast was supplied by an old-fashioned 
leather bellows driven by a water-wheel, in the most primitive 
manner. 




Section of the first blast furnace. 

During the war of the Revolution and afterwards, large 
quantities of cannon balls and cannon were made here for the 
government. In the first part of the century, Messrs. Holley 
and Coffing carried on the manufacture of pig iron and bar iron 
for several years. In 1820, Milo Banram, the founder of the 
present company, settled in Lime Rock, and about the year 
1830 engaged in the manufacture of iron, associating with him 
his son-in-law, Leonard Richardson, and his son, Win. IT. Bar- 
num, now the president of the company, late United States 
Senator. 



78 



Connecticut Exhibits at Paris, 1878. 



The manufacture of railway material at their works dates 
from the year 1840. The excellence of this iron and its chill- 
ing properties render it specially well adapted to car wheels, for 
which it is now largely used. It is believed that 33-inch 
wheels of this iron will average at least 50,000 miles of service 
under passenger cars. Full records of the service of the long- 
est-lived wheels are not yet complete. The report of the Lake 
Shore and Michigan Northern Railway shows that some of the 
wheels made of Salisbury iron have averaged about 200,000 
miles in exceptional cases. 

Experiments made at Horn's machine works, London, with 
wheels manufactured by this company, showed that 395 blows 
from heavy sledge hammers were required to detach a piece 



Jtttrr 



" A r 39S r Miow. 





Railway Car Wheels. 

about nine inches long from the periphery of one of these 
wheels, weighing 026 pounds, and cast in 1868. An elaborate 
investigation of the strength and properties of the Salisbury 
cast iron has been made by Prof. R. II. Thurston, at the 
Mechanical Laboratory of the Stevens Institute of Technology, 
who has reported the results in full, with diagrams, and closes 
with the following general statement : 

" Comparing these tests with the records of tests on irons of 
other manufacturers, it is seen, by examination of this table, 
that No. 2 is far superior in tenacity to English iron of the 
same grade in the several mechanical properties. In transverse 



Connecticut Exhibits at Paris, 1878. 70 

Strength, the ratio is 1/3 to 1 in favor of Salisbury : at tlie elas- 
tic limit they are about equal. The English iron is most duc- 
tile. 

" Tests of American iron are so few and so unsatisfactory as to 
render comparisons difficult. I have computed the records of 
a few from the Report on Experiments made by Captain Rod- 
man, U. S. A., and by Major Wade, and from our records, all 
of which will serve to give some indication of the relative 
standing of Salisbury cast-iron. 

" In tenacity, both in ultimate and elastic resistances, I have 
been able to find no records of iron of the same grade and 
fusion equal to them. The experiments made by Captain Rod- 
man gave greater ultimate strength, the specimens having been 
cut from a gun (second fusion) from near the surface. It is 
not stated how the gun was cast, nor the quality of metal used. 

" In all other mechanical properties, as exhibited in tests by 
tension, Salisbury cast-iron is found far ahead of all others to 
date, not excepting those tested by Captain Rodman. 

" Under transverse stress, No. 2 is slightly below, except in 
ultimate strength, and No. 4 is superior, except in ductility, to 
the only American cast-iron tested by transverse stress of which 
we have found records ; its grade is unknown, and the com- 
parison is therefore of little value. 

" In torsion, the elastic and ultimate strengths of No. 2 cast- 
iron are higher than those of any other iron of which we have 
records. 

" In all valuable qualities the Salisbury irons, as is shown by 
the appended tables and diagrams, are exceptionally excellent. 
In combined strength, elasticity, ductility, resilience, and in 
homogeneousness, both in structure and as to strain, and in uni- 
formity of quality in the several samples, they are proven to 
be very superior metals." 

These wheels showing in their fracture the remarkable chill- 
ing properties of the iron combined with the requisite tough- 
ness of the central parts of the wheel, and the wonderful dura- 
bility of such wheels shown by the record of mileage, were ex- 
tremely interesting to the foreign experts on the jury. There 
was no hesitation in according to the Barnum-Richardson Com- 
pany the Cold Medal. 



80 Connecticut Exhibits at Paris, 1878. 

The judges at the Centennial Exhibition, Philadelphia, 1870, 
reported the pig iron for car wheels as worthy of award " for 
its excellent quality ;" and the jury of the group on railway 
apparatus commended the wheels " for excellence of the mate- 
rial and workmanship, and special adaptation to the construc- 
tion of chilled wheels." 

Connecticut Granite. 

The only granite shown from the United States was sent by 
Connecticut exhibitors. Few persons are aware of the extent 
to which the quarrying of granite is now carried on in this 
state ; both for ordinary building purposes and for decorative 
work and fine monuments. Quarries are to be found along our 
whole water front on the Sound and even in the interior. We 
may place at the head of the list the 

New England Granite Company, 
of Hartford, well known for the magnitude of the work it has 
undertaken and executed, and the excellence of the material sup- 
plied by the extensive quarries at Westerly, upon the Connec- 
ticut line. The evenness of grain and color of this granite are 
best seen in the polished columns and monuments, of which 
many were executed for the State capitol. It was well shown 
also in the large and beautifully turned and polished urn sent 
to Paris. This granite seems to be absolutely free from all in- 
jurious minerals, such as pyrites, which, by decaying, would 
produce rusty stains. The constituent minerals are evenly dis- 
tributed, giving a soft even gray color without the blemishes of 
nodular bunches or accumulations of mica sometimes seen. 
Its solidity and the absence of any decided " rift" or stratifica- 
tion render it susceptible of receiving the highest polish, and 
the most careful and elaborate decoration in detail. It is thns 
suited to the highest order of decorative construction, especially 
for line statuary and monuments. These high qualities of the 
stones were also shown in the sample cubes cut and dressed in 
different ways. Masses can be quarried as large as can be han- 
dled. That this granite has great strength is proved by exper- 
imental trials which showed a resistance of 18,000 pounds to 
the cubic inch. The company has also a fine and compact red 



Connecticut Exhibits at Paris, 1878. 81 

granite, and a very fine white variety. Both of these varieties 
have developed largely since the ledges were opened. Visitors 
to the Centennial will remember the colossal statue of the sol- 
dier cut in the grey Westerly granite, which adorned the ave- 
nue hetween the main building and Memorial Hall. At Paris, 
the statue of the Republic occupying the place of honor in 
front of the chief building was of plaster only. There was no 
statue in hard stone comparable with the New England Gran- 
ite company's soldier at the Centennial, and no specimen of 
turned work superior, or even equal, to the polished urn. It is 
a great pity that this urn could not have had a better position 
than at the entrance to the Machinery Hall. But it was greatly 
admired and the jury gave it two medals, one in recognition of 
the granite and the other for superior workmanship. Two 
medals were given also at the Centennial Exhibition, Philadel- 
phia, 1876, where the Company made a very fine display of 
monuments, of different styles and finish, and also a fine series 
of representative specimens in the Mineral Collection of the 
National Museum, in the Government Building. One large 
slab in particular, is worthy of mention for its evenness of 
grain and color, and its high uniform polish. 



Redpath's Red Granite. 

The red granite of Stony Creek was shown by the proprie- 
tor, F. W. Redpath, in a section of a large polished column. 
It resembles, and is thought to be equal in beauty to, the 
Scotch granite which is extensively imported. The grain of 
this stone is even and the color is rich. Four polished col- 
umns, each twenty-one feet long, and four feet in diameter, 
being the largest ever made, were supplied by this quarry for 
the new capitol building at Albany. This stone, which is also 
admirably adapted for all building and engineering work, is 
obtained in large quantities, and dimensions, convenient to ship- 
ping, and is supplied twenty per cent, cheaper than imported 
Scotch granite. The jury gave Honorable Mention and a Di- 
ploma. 



82 Connecticut Exhibits at Paris, 1878. 

Rose Porphyritic Granite. 

The rose-colored, coarsely crystalline granite from the quarry 
of the Hon. C J. McCurdy of Old Lyme, was shown by a 
beautifully polished block. This stone is remarkable for the 
beauty of the crystalline aggregation and the color, in both re- 
spects closely resembling the anciently quarried and worked 
Egyptian granite, of which we find examples in the Pyramids, 
and in the collection at the Louvre. The polished surfaces de- 
rive an additional beauty from the translucency and pearly lus- 
tre of the large feldspar crystals seen to best advantage in strong 
sunlight. There is a peculiar chatoyant gleam reminding one 
of the Oriental gem known as cat'&eye. All these qualities 
render this a peculiarly beautiful and valuable stone for orna- 
mental work, it being especially suitable for pedestals and pol- 
ished columns* It was greatly admired by the jury and by the 
distinguished chief of the government School of Mines, M. 
Daubree, who has written a letter to Judge McCurdy express- 
ing his pleasure in seeing such a beautiful granite, and desiring 
to obtain a specimen for the government collection in Paris. 
The quarry is situated on the old McCurdy farm about seventy- 
five rods from the New York & Boston Shore Line Railroad, 
and about fifteen rods from boatable tide-water, leading at a 
distance of three-fourths of a mile to a navigable arm of 
the Connecticut river, near its mouth. The stone is easily 
quarried, dressed and sawn, and receives a high polish. It is 
very durable, and is equally well adapted to every form of use, 
rough or ornamental. The jury decreed an Honorable Men- 
tion and Diploma. 

Mine Hill Granite. 

The gray granite of Mine Hill Quarry, Roxbury station, 
Litchfield county, was represented by a polished block from 
Mr. E. Mower. This is a granite of extremely fine grain, and 
light color. It is compact, durable and cheap, and noted for its 
fire-proof qualities. It is largely used for foundations, copings, 
posts, window caps and sills, and for curbing. Unlike the other 
quarries, it is in the interior, and the transportation is by rail. 
To this, as to the others, a diploma was awarded. The jury 
purposely refrained from giving the highest grades of medals 



Connecticut Exhibits at Paris, 1878. 83 

to natural products, such as building stones, slates, and clays. 
Some of the largest and most highly polished granite monu- 
ments received nothing higher than the bronze medal. Under 
these circumstances the diploma is a high award. Many good 
exhibits were not mentioned. The superb green serpentine 
marble from Maryland received a diploma. Our Milford vari- 
ety was not exhibited. There were a few blocks of the Con- 
necticut river sandstone, and one slab containing fossil imprints, 
but this great branch of our mining industry was not as fully 
represented as it should have been. It is highly gratifying that 
all of the exhibitors of granite received awards. 

New Haven Wheel Company. 

This company, of which Henry G. Lewis, for many years the 
mayor of New Haven, is President, and General Edward E. 
Bradley, the Secretary, was organized in the year 1845 for the 
manufacture of carriage wheels on a large scale. The location 
of this now extensive industry is in the city of New Haven. 

The Exhibit at Paris. 

The Company sent to Paris a very full and complete selec- 
tion of carriage, cart and fire-engine wheels, together with hubs 
and spokes, and the timber in various stages of preparation for 
working into wheels. The possession of the best quality of 
wood is, as will readily be seen, an indispensable condition in 
the production of superior wheels. This, fortunately, is possi- 
ble, particularly in Connecticut, where the hickory wood grows 
in perfection. But it is not enough to have the wood at hand, 
the greatest care and skill is required in cutting, seasoning and 
selecting it. The second growth of hickory and white oak are 
preferred and used. The straightest and smoothest trees are se- 
lected and are felled, not by the axe but by a saw, so as not to 
split or injure the solidity of the butts. These butts are then 
cut up to the be6t advantage for spokes, and the rough blanks 
are laid aside, stacked under cover, and frequently turned for 
two years so as to become thoroughly seasoned. This necessi- 
tates having a large stock of wood on hand. 

The variety of styles manufactured is very great. There arc 
" French," " English, 1 ' and " American," and the patent 



84 Connecticut Exhibits at Paris, 1878. 

" Sarven " wheel. Of the American style there are four differ- 
ent qualities, known as the "Extra," "No. 1," "No. 2" and 
" No. 3." Three qualities of the Sarven wheel are designated 
as "A," "B," and " C." Of the foreign styles, the French 
and the English, with "sharp-edged spokes" only one grade, 
and that the " hest " is made. The spokes, rims and huhs are 
all made by machinery, and with such precision that similar 
parts are interchangeable. 

There was a full display of these wheels in parts and com- 
plete, and cut in sections so as to display the construction and 
the excellent workmanship. 

Sarven Patent Whed. 

This wheel has been made and used for over twenty years 
by the Company, and its merits have been carefully studied. 
As a result of this it is commended by the Company as the 
best, strongest and most perfect and durable wheel made. That 
this judgment is correct there is no doubt. Those who have 
used it prefer it to any other wheel. It is adapted to all kinds 
of vehicles, from the lightest skeleton and buggy to the more 
bulky express, peddlers' and brewers' wagons; to massive 
wheels for artillery, for fire-engines and for the heaviest de- 
scription of truck. 

The peculiarity of this wheel is in the construction of the 
hub. It may be said to be a second hub, built around and 
upon the ordinary hub, and formed by the contact of the 
spokes one against another. This contact is ensured by mak- 
ing the spokes wedge-shaped, like the key-stone of an arch. 
They are accurately shaped so that no spaces shall be left when 
the requisite number of spokes is inserted and the spokes are 
driven "home." Each spoke has also a tenon beyond the 
wedge-shaped portion, and this tenon enters the mortises in the 
hub and extends to the box-cavity. The figures annexed show 
the construction and the several parts. 




Spokes. 



CONNKCTK'l'T EXHIBITS AT PABIS, 1878. 



85 



First, the spokes, made with their sides in one direction ac- 
curately parallel to the plane of the wheel, and in the other 
direction (the direction of the axle), the sides are radial to the 
centre and thus are wedge-shaped. This inclination of the sides 
is such that when the spokes are all inserted they will form a 




Section through Hub and Spokes. 

continuous solid disc, as shown in the next illustration, repre- 
senting a wheel in vertical section through all of the spokes and 
the huh. This shows how the tenons enter the huh, repre- 
sented hy the shaded portion, and form a continuous solid arch 
around it. This central huh of selected timber, with mortises 
at regular intervals is represented by Fig. No. 2. It will he ob- 
served that it projects as usual in each direction from the spokes, 






No. 2. 



No. 3. 



No. 4. 



and that it has a slightly conical or taper form each way from 
the circle of mortises. This is designed to receive an iron 
flange on each end, as shown in No. 3. The huh is now ready 
for the spokes, which are inserted one by one and are driven 
firmly "home" in succession around the circle. The Manges 



86 



Connecticut Exhibits at Paris, 1878. 



are then forced together until they come into close contact with 
the flat surface presented by the arch of spokes. (Fig. No. 4). 
The flanges (No. 4) have a flat or plane surface to corres- 
pond, hut the portion winch comes into contact with the huh 
has a bevel to exactly correspond with it, so that when the flan- 
ges are finally forced into position they uot only reinforce and 




8 



No. G. 



No. 



sustain the arch of spokes around the huh, but they clasp and 
strengthen the hub so as to prevent it from splitting. These 
flanges are like two strong bands and they form, as it were, a 




Section showing interior of genuine "Barren" wheel. 



Connecticut Exhibits at Paris, L878. 



87 



third or iron hub, or armor, covering and sustaining the wood. 
Each band, as shown in the figures, is connected with and 
held tightly to the other by means of bolts passing through 
from side to side between every alternate spoke. 

Tbe illustration, p. 86, shows a completed hub with one half 
part in section so as to exhibit the interior of the hub, the ten- 
ons, the arch of spokes, and the hub flange in position. The 
appearance of the complete wheel with rim is here shown. 




Complete Sarven Wheel. 

It is impossible to conceive of a stronger and more simple 
construction than this. The point of greatest strain upon each 
spoke is at the hid), and in this wheel it is met by the greatest 
thickness of the spoke. The material is left where it is most 



ss 



Connecticut Exhibits at Paris, 1878. 



wanted, and with the grain or fibre of the wood uncut and fully 
supported by the adjoining spokes on each side. In the ordi- 
nary form the strain comes upon the spoke at just the place 
where it is weakened by cutting in order to form the shoulder 
of the tenon fitting into the mortise of the hub. 

But practical use and long trial fully sustain the only conclu- 
sion to which one must arrive on analyzing the construction of 
this wheel — that it is the most scientific, thorough and durable 
wheel known. It is in use for fire-engines, where so much de- 
pends upon the reliability of a wheel, and for gun-carriages. 

All, or nearly all, of the carriages for the Gatling gun are 
supplied with this Sarven wheel, made by the New Haven 
Wheel Company. 

Rubber-cushioned Axle. 

This modern improvement was also exhibited and is largely 
used by the Wheel company. It was one of the most recent 
of the novelties shown at the Exhibition, although it has been 
in use, on trial, for about two years. It -consists of a vulcan- 
ized rubber cushion in the form of a thick band interposed be- 
tween the axle-box and the wood of the hub, as shown by the 
figure, giving a sectional view of an ordinary hub, to which the 
cushioned axle is applied. 




A — Hub. B — Axle Box. C — Axle Arm. T> — Rubber Cushions. E — Com- 
pression Nut. F — Cavities in Compression Nut admitting points of the Wrench 
when compressing Cushions. G — Slotted Retaining Sleeve. II — Spur on Axle 
Box. J — Space between Axle Box and Huh. 

It can be used on any vehicle, from the lightest road-wagon, 
to the heaviest truck. It saves a great amount of wear and 
tear upon the wheels and on all parts of the vehicle, and adds to 
both comfort and safety. Its form, and the method of apply- 
ing it, are still further shown by two cuts, one representing 



Connecticut Exhibits at Paris, 1S78. 89 

Miller's patent axle not fitted for rubber cushions, and the 
other the same axle made to carry the rubber cushions, as shown 
in place at each end. 



Miller's Patent Axle, with Rubber Cushions, Complete. 

The award at the Centennial to the New Haven Wheel 
Company was as follows : Wheels and Wheel Stock — " Com- 
mended for good quality and good workmanship." 

At Paris the jury gave a Silver Medal. 

Seward & Sons, Carriage Hardware. 

The iron fittings, straps, bolts, etc., for carriages, shown by 
Seward & Sons, of New Haven, were unequalled for nicety of 
forging, lightness and finish. They deserved a more conspicu- 
ous position than was given to them in the annex, and a higher 
award than the Bronze Medal. 

Blake Crusher Company. 

The well known rock-breaker, or crusher, invented and pat- 
ented by Eli Whitney Blake, of New Haven, was exhibited by 
means of the smallest, or " laboratory size," in which all of the 
latest improvements were fully shown. This exhibition of the 
invention in Paris was the first made on the part of the inven- 
tor in Europe, though the machine was shown at the Paris ex- 
hibition in 18(57, by some French manufacturers, and at other 
exhibitions by the English and German manufacturers. At 
the exhibition in 1878, it was exhibited by two or more manu- 
facturers in the French section, and two or more in the British 
section. 

This is a labor-saving machine of the first order, and is now 
used in all parts of the world. It has cheapened and improved 
the construction of roads and railways ; has facilitated the con- 



90 Connecticut Exhibits at Paris, 1878. 

struction of foundations, and has cheapened the reduction of 
ores, and consequently the cost of the precious metals. 

The jury gave a Silver Medal to the " Laboratory Crusher," 
having already recognized the larger machines by Gold Medals 
in other sections. 

Wheeler & Wilson Manufacturing Company. 
Sewing Machines. 

The exhibits of this company were, under the classification, 
found in six different classes though not distributed in differ- 
ent parts of the exhibition. The sewing and embroidery work 
by the machine (Class 36), have been noticed. The Company 
had besides, samples of improved methods of finishing wood, 
and a newly-invented machine for book-binding, or rather book- 
sewing. 

The company had space in the Machinery department, ten 
feet by twenty-five, and erected a raised platform covered with 
crimson carpet. Three large black walnut show cases con- 
tained the samples of the machine-work and were tastefully dec- 
orated with flags and fac similes of medals received at former 
exhibitions. 

The machines included the well-known family machine, of 
which more than a million have been made, with all the recent 
improvements. There were also newly made straight needle 
machines designed for the use of manufacturers, tailors and 
shoe-makers, as well as families. Three numbers, Nos. (!, 7 and 
8, of these were exhibited. Two of the machines were run at 
a very high speed by steam power — a speed which could be 
maintained only with the rotating hook. 

Wood Finish . 
The wood finish is a new method of tilling the pores of the 
wood, preserving the grain and color of the wood perfectly and 
is both rapid and economical. 

Book-sewing Machhn v. 
The Wheeler & Wilson company also exhibited a novel and 
interesting machine for sewing books for binding. This is a 
great desideratum. It is compact, simple and efficient, and 



Connecticut Exhibits at Paris, 1878. 91 

gives a book with a very flexible back and an even strain upon 
all parts of it. It is claimed that it will accomplish, in an 
equal time, work that would require ten or twelve hands. 
The folded sheets are fed to the machine by hand. Three or 
more sets of needles carry the thread up into the fold of the 
paper or " signature " and over a short piece of tinned wire 
which is afterwards drawn tightly down by the thread into the 
angle of the fold and holds the signature securely. A little 
crinkling or corrugation of the wire prevents its falling out. 
This wire bears evenly along the surface of the paper and, 
unlike a thread drawn through the nick, or cut, in the signa- 
ture, has no tendency to tear out, or cut the paper. 

This company received a medal at London, in 1862, at Paris, 
in 1867, Vienna, in 1873, and at Philadelphia in 1876. This 
record is now extended by the Grand Prize Medal at Paris in 
1878, a Bronze Medal and an Honorable Mention. 

Enameled Granite Ware. 

The St. Louis " granite " enamel, now so largely applied to 
all forms of iron hollow ware for household use, is not yet a 
Connecticut product, but it is sent to the State in large quanti- 
ties to be mounted in silver and nickel and decorated at the 
establishment of Manning & Bowman, in West Meriden, by 
whom the complete mounted objects were shown in connection 
with the St. Louis Stamping Company. It is a stone-like 
enamel of a gray color and is remarkably adherent to iron, 
coating it so thoroughly that no metallic surface is left exposed, 
and the vessels so coated are, to all intents, as indestructible by 
acids as porcelain or glass. Uidike ordinary enameling it does 
not crack or scale off and is free from poisonous qualities. The 
tea and coffee services mounted in silver attracted great atten- 
tion, and were easily disposed of. Before the exhibition had 
been open a month the large manufacturing firm of Japy freres 
had purchased the right of manufacture for France, paying 
a handsome sum to the American inventors, the JNeidringhaus 
Brothers, of St. Louis, Missouri. This is another tribute to the 
estimation in which really useful American inventions are held 
abroad. The mamifacture is to be commenced at once on a 
large scale, not only in Prance, but in Belgium and England. 



92 Connecticut Exhibits at Paris, 1878. 

The jury unanimously awarded a Gold Medal and some were 
in favor of giving a grand prize in recognition of this notable 
advance in the enameling art, for it is far superior to anything 
of the kind in Europe. 

The mountings by Maiming & Bowman were chiefly applied 
to tea and coffee-pots, to urns, water-pitchers and table furni- 
ture. The combination of the grey enamel with its ever varied 
mottling, and the silver or nickel mountings is very pleasing, 
and these objects drew great attention from all classes by rea- 
son of their novelty and beauty. 

Enameled objects of this description are also made by the 
firm of Lalance & Grosjean, of New York, who also received 
a Gold Medal. 

Leather Belting. 

P. Jewell & Sons, of Hartford, made in this Class, 4!>, a fine 
display of leather belts, consisting of several rolls of huge belt- 
ing, a yard or so in width and of great length. All the belts 
were characterized by the uniform good quality of the selected 
leather, its evenness in texture, thickuess, and finish, and the 
neat and skillfully executed joints. Considering the perfection 
to which this manufacture has been carried, and the evident 
want of accurately made belting in the foreign sections, where 
they seek substitutes in canvas and in hempen cables, there 
ought to be a good demand in Europe for such belts as we, 
with our superior leather and skill in working it, can supply 
at moderate cost. 

Douglas Pumps. 

The exhibition of the Douglas lb-others, of Middletown. was 
a sort of museum of hydraulic apparatus, comprising over 
three hundred and titty different sizes and styles of lift and 
force pumps, for both hand and steam power, garden and fire 
engines, and hydraulic rams and hydrants with their appliances 
and fittings. The above were all of the most approved patterns 
and finish, and were adapted for all climates as well as situations. 
One of the most gratifying features in the construction of the 
Douglas pump is the facility with which repairs can be made, 
owing to the interchangeability of parts. These are made of 



Connecticut Exhibits at Paris, 1878. 



03 



standard forms, showing great care in manufacture and atten- 
tion to details. On even the smallest and most cheaply 
constructed pumps, each part is made so carefully that new 
parts for repairs will always replace and interchange with the 
old, and make a perfect fit. 




Pendulum Pump. 
Among the many novelties may he noticed a new kind of 
house force pump, styled " Pendulum," from the swing of the 
hrake, which heing attached to a rocker shaft in the pump, 



94 



Connecticut Exhibits at Paris, 1878. 



gives great leverage and ease of working. The pump can 
readily be converted from force to lift, by simply loosening an 
air plug, and the working parts are easily removed for repairs. 
A new style of ship, or deck pump (fig. 23fi) attracted much 




Brass-lined Ship I'unip. 

attention, from its ease of working and facility of making 
repairs. This pump is constructed of iron and is most ingen- 
iously lined with brass, so that all the advantages of a brass 
pump are secured with great, saving of cost. 



Connecticut Exhibits at Paris, 1878. 95 

Hydraulic Rams. 

Messrs. W. & B. Douglas were also the only exhibitors in 
the Exposition of a successfully working water-ram. It is 
strange that, while in France the ram is a philosophical toy, 
with us, thanks to the Douglas firm, it is an effective and 
economical water engine of great utility. Although made 
with great accuracy and high finish of the working parts, 
anyone can have one of these valuable machines for raising 
water at small cost, and, if properly set, they need little 
attention. 

Variety of improved Pumps. 

Space will not admit of more than a passing notice of their 
various improved house force pumps, boiler pumps, yard 
hydrants, and street washer ; also a general line of pumps for 
drive-well use, which were most satisfactorily used in the 
British Abyssinian Expedition. Should the question be asked 
— why this enormous variety ? the reply is, this house 7nakes 
goods for all sections of the world, and must meet the tastes as 
well as the requirements of all nationalities. 



Imitations of the Douglas Pump. 

The renown of the Douglas pumps leads to many imita- 
tions, and instances are known where foreign makers have 
obtained and placed the real article made in Connecticut on 
exhibition so as to establish a reputation for their inferior 
imitations. This is analogous to the Moravian manufacturers' 
exhibition of Connecticut locks as their own, and the Sheffield 
makers' production of what they are pleased to call the 
" Collins axe." But most manufacturers now have the frank- 
ness and honesty to say in their catalogues, that their pumps 
are made after the celebrated Douglas system. The Douglas 
pump is the standard, for quality in all markets of the world. 

The jury awarded a Silver Medal and a Bronze Medal. 



96 Connecticut Exhibits at Paris, 1878. 

Hartford Pumps. 

But before leaving the subject of pumps, mention should be 
made of the " Hartford automatic pumps," to be worked by 
wind power or by steam, which received a Bronze Medal. 

Pickering Governors. 

In the same class, also, we find the steam engine governors of 
T. R. Pickering & Co., of Portland, Conn., which received a 
Bronze Medal. 



Group VII.— ALIMENTARY PRODUCTS. 

Class 69. — Cereals, Farinaceous Products and Pro- 
ducts Derived from them. 

The representation in this Class was made chiefly by the 
Department of Agriculture of the United States, to which 
there were several contributors from Connecticut. The State 
Board of Agriculture, by P. M. Augur, the Secretary, for- 
warded a selection of oats, corn, rye and beans. Mr. T. S. 
Gold, of West Cornwall, sent buckwheat, which received the 
award of Honorable Mention. Mr. G. W. Bradley, of Ham- 
den, sent a remarkable exhibit of Indian Corn, being three 
stalks, together bearing eighteen perfect ears, the product of 
three grains, or kernels, of seed. This was raised by Mr. Brad- 
ley in Hamden, near New Haven. It was handsomely 
mounted in a glazed mahogany case and occupied a conspicu- 
ous place in the large trophy built in the annex by the De- 
partment of Agriculture. The jury of Class 69 gave the 
award of Honorable Mention. 



INDEX 



A 

Agricultural Exhibits, 11, 10 

Alimentary Products, . . -- 96 

American Axe, its perfection, — 62 

Ancient Glass, 23, 24 

Ansonia Clock Co., . . . 39 

Anti-friction Latch, 55, 57 

Anti-friction Pulleys, . _ 59 

Art Castings, 14, 38 

Art Museums and Instruction in Art, .^. 22, 26, 27 

Art NeedleWork, School of. 25 

Augers, Hollow, . 60 

Augur, P. M., Secretary, 96 

Awards, Number of _. 5, 20 

Axes and Edge Tools. Collins Co., 61, 66 

Axes, various forms of, illustrated, 64 

Axles, Rubber Cushioned, 88 

B 

Barnum, Milo, founder of iron industry, . 76 

Barnum-Richardson Co.. 75 

Barnum. Wm. EL, Pres't B. & R. Co., 77 

Bells, Bevin Bros., 15. 75 

Bethnal Green Museum.... 24 

Bevin Brothers, Bells, 75 

Blake Brothers, founders of hardware industry, .. 49 

Blake Crusher Company, New Haven, 89 

Blake. Eli Whitney, Rock Breaker, 89 

Blast Furnace, first in Connecticut, . _ 77 

Book Sewing Machines, 90 

Bowie Knives, 62, 68, 69 

Bradley, G. W., Indian Corn, 1... 96 

Bronze Castings, 56 

Buttons, 45 

7 



98 INDEX. 

C 

Cane Knives, 67, 69 

Carpenters' and Cabinet Makers' Tools, 33, 54 

Carriage and Cart Wheels, _ . . . 83 

Cartridges, 47 

Car Wheel Iron and Car Wheels, 78 

Case Brothers. South Manchester, 33 

Cast Steel, Collins Company. Hartford,.. 66 

Castellani's Collections, 24 

Ceramic Collections, . 23 

Cereals and Products, 96 

Champ leve Enamel, .. 55 

Cheney Brothers, Manchester, .. 11 

Cheviot Shirtings, Slater's Mills, 45 

Clocks, 6, 11, 14, 38, 41 

Collins & Company, Hartford, 61-72 

Collins Axes and Edge Tools, 61 

Collins Cast Steel, 66 

Collins, Samuel W.,.__ 63 

Colt's Fire Arms, 46 

Combination Locks, Peters', . . 73, 74 

Connecticut Museum of Industrial Art, Glass for 29 

Corn from Hamden, 96 

Cotton, Piece Goods, 44 

Crusher, Blake Crusher Co., 89 

Cutlery, - 14, 61 

D 

Decorative Rim Locks, . 53 

Douglas Pumps, 92-95 

E 

Edge Tools of Collins Co., Hartford, 61 

Educational, 11, 13, 26, 32 

Embroidery and Sewing Machine Work, 45 

Enameled Hardware, ... .-- -. 55 

Enameled Iron Ware, - - - 91 

Exhibitors, Alphabetical List of - 6 

Exhibitors, List by Classes, 13 

F 

Kaiiinakers' Exhibition, London, . 26 

Flags of Silk from Manchester, 11 

I'hni <ilass, Meriden, -. 34 

Forging the Shaft. Weir's Picture, 30 

Furniture, 14, 34 

Furniture, at Bethual Green Museum 24 



INDEX. 99 

G 

Gardner Machine (inn - 46 

Gatling G uns, - - - - 18, 16 

Giant Lock, Smith-fl Egge Co 74 

Giant Sash chain, .- 74 

Glass and Glass "Ware, --- 14/23, 2-1, 2:1. 34 

Glass for the Connecticut Museum of Industrial Art, 29 

Gold, T. S., West Cornwall, .. 96 

Granite, 7, H. 1(J 

Granite, Exhibits of 80-83 

Granite Enameled Ware, .- 91 

H 

ffamden, Indian Com from. 96 

Hardware, 9i 48 

Hartford Pumps, 96 

Historic Axes, . G5 

Hollow Augers - — '50 

Hotchkiss Revolving Cannon, 46 

Hotel Locks, Mallory, Wheeler & Co., ' - - 50 

Howell, James & Co., Exhibit of Artistic Clocks, 40-43 

Hunting Knives, 62, 67, 68 

Hydraulic Rams, Douglas, 95 

I 

Imitation of Collins' Axes,. 71 

Indian Corn from Hamden, . 96 

Iron, Barnum-Richardson Co., 75 

Iron Forgings for Decoration, 29 

Iron Region of Salisbury, 76 

Iron "Ware, Enameled, . , 91 

J 
Jewell & Sons, Hartford, Leather Belting, 92 

L 

Laboratory Crusher, Blake's, .. _ 90 

Lalance & Grosjean, _ __ 92 

Leather and Skins, .... . 16 92 

Leather Belting, __ 92 

Lewis Brothers' Exhibit of Cottons, 44 

Lewis, Henry G., Pres't Wheel Co 83 

Lime Rock Iron Forge, ... r 76 

Littlejohn, Elliott, ._ __ 50 

Locks, . _ _ 48 

Locks and Bolts, Artistic, 29 



100 INDEX. 

M 

Machetes, Cane Knives, &c, . 67, 69 

Maize (Indian Corn), .- 7, 19 

Mallory, Wheeler & Co., ... ..' 50 

Managers, Connecticut Board of ...... 4 

Manchester Museum, . 25 

Manning & Bowman, Nickel Mountings, 91, 92 

MeCurdy, C. J., Rose Granite, i 82 

Melodeon, ... 37 

Meriden Flint Glass Works, • 34 

Morideu Britannia Company, Glass for Museum, 29 

Miller's Patent Axle, '. . 89 

Mine Hill Granite, Roxbury, . 82 

Mining and Quarrying, _ 11, 15, 16 

Mining Industries and Products, 48 

Mining Tools, Picks, &e., Collins Co., 61, »;:> 

Mower, E. Exhibitor of Granite, 82 

Museums, Influence of 21 

European Museums, 26 

Paris Museum, ' 27 

Musical Instruments, 14 

N 

Needle Work, Artistic, 25 

New England Granite Company, 80 

New Haven Wheel Company, 83-88 

Night Lamp Clock, 39 

Northfield Knife Company, 35 

Nottingham Castle Museum, - - 25 

Number of Exhibitors, 5 

o 

Oil Paintings, - 13 i 30, 31 

Organs. B. Shoninger & Co., — ■ 9. 35 

P 

Padlocks, Exhibit of - - - •"'- 

Paintings, ■■- - - 1,! - ; " 

Paper, - - ' «i 33 

Parker's Treasury Blotting Paper, 33 

Portland Vase, 24 

Pendulum Pump, - --- 93 

Peter's Combination Lock Co., - --■ '3 

Pickering, Thos. E , Governors - -- !)( > 

Picks for Mining and Excavating, - 69, 70 

Ponemah. Mills. Tai'lvillc,. - 45 

Porphyritic Granite, Lyme, 82 



INDEX. 101 

Postal Bureau, Yale Mfg. Co., - 72 

Post Office Locks and Boxes, Yale Mfg. Co., --- 73 

Pratt, Whitney & Co.,. - 46 

Pulleys, Anti-friction, - -- 59 

Pumps and Hydraulic Apparatus, Douglas, 8, 92-95 

Q 

Queen Anne Clocks, . _ 40, 43 

R 

Red Granite, Stony Creek, ... 81 

Red Granite, Lyme, — 82 

Reproductions of Ancient Glass, 23, 24 

Reversible Door Latches, 51 

Revolving Cannon, -- 46 

Rifles, 15, 4G 

Rim Locks, French, - 49 

Rim Locks, American, 53 

Rock Breakers, Blake's Patent, 89 

Roman Glass, reproduced, 23 

Rose Porphyritic Granite, 82 

Rubber Cushioned Axles, .._ — 88 

Rules and Levels, — 33 

Russell & Erwin Mfg. Co., 54 

Russell's Reversible Latches, 56 

s 

Salisbury Iron Ores and Iron, 75 

Salisbury Iron Region, Map of . 76 

Salisbury, First Blast Furnace, 77 

Sarven Patent Wheel, 83-88 

Sash Chains, Smith & Egge Co.,. 74 

Scrap Book, Mark Twain's, 32 

Screws, Russell & Erwin Mfg. Co 54, 55 

Seth Thomas Clock Co., 38 

Seward & Sons, Carriage Hardware, 89 

Sewing Machines, 15, 90 

Sharp's Rifles, 46 

Ship Pumps, , 94 

Shoninger B., Organ Co., 35 

Silk, .". : 11 

Sleigh Bells, Bevin Bros., 75 

Smith & Egge Mfg. Co., 74 

Smith, F. W., Smith & Egge Co., _ 74 

South Kensington Museum, 22, 23 

Springs for Locks, 49 

Stanley Rule and Level Co., 33 



102 INDEX. 

Steam Engine Governors, 96 

Steel Door Keys, _. 58 

Stevens, J. E., ( lompany, Toys, 47 

St. Louis Stamping Company, 91 

T 

Technical Education, 26 

Textile Fabrics, 11, L6 

Thread, Willimantic, - 15, 43 

Time Locks, Yale Mfg. Co., 7:s 

Towne, H. R., Yale Locks, 72 

Toys, Stevens Company, - 47 

Troeadero Exhibit of Axes, . . 65 

u 

Union Metallic Cartridge Co., 47 

V 

Visitors, Number of, at Successive Exhibitions,. . 21 

w 

Waterbury Button Co., - 45 

Waverly Mills, Burnaide, 33 

Westerly Granite. - 80, 81 

Willimantic Linen Co., 43 

Willimantic Thread, 15, 46 

Wheeler & Wilson Mfg. Company, ... _ 90 

Wheels for Carriages and other Vehicles 18 

Wood Finish, - !>0 

Wood Screws, Russell & Hnvin Mfg. Co., 54 

Woolvvorth & ( 1 raham, 33 

Y 

Yale Lock Mfg. Co.,.. - 82 

Yale Postal Bureau, - - 12 

Yankee Axe, Collius & Co., 62, 63 

York Museum, 25 



Fifteenth Report 



Board of Trustees 



{^QjwprHruf liospifal for f^p jjnxflnp 



FOR THE 



STATE OF CONNECTICUT, 

WITH 

SUPERINTENDENT'S AND TREASURERS REPORTS; 

Presented lo the General Assembly at its Session in January, iSSl. 



By Order of the General Assembly. 



MIDDLETOWN. CONN.: 

Pelton & King, Steam Printers and Bookbinders, 
1881. 



Officers of the Hospital. 



BOARD OF TRUSTEES. 

CHARLES B. ANDREWS, Litchfield. 

H. SIDNEY HAYDEN, ------- Windsor. 

LUCIUS S. FULLER, ------- Tolland. 

SAMUEL G. WILLARD, Colchester. 

RICHMOND M. BULLOCK, ------ Putnam. 

RICHARD S. FELLOWES, ----- New Haven. 

HENRY WOODWARD, ------ Middletown. 

ROBBINS BATTELL, ------- Norfolk. 

EZRA P. BENNETT, M. D., - - - - - - DANBURY. 

JOSEPH W. ALSOP, M. D., - Middletown. 

E. B. NYE, M. D., - - - - Middletown. 

BENJAMIN DOUGLAS, ------ Middletown. 



M. B. COPELAND, Middletown, ----- Treasurer. 



RESIDENT OFFICERS. 

ABRAM MARVIN SHEW, M. D„ Superintendent and Physician. 

JAMES OLMSTEAD, M. D., - - First Assistant Physician. 
WILLIAM E. FISHER, M. D., - - Second Assistant Physician. 
CHAS. E. STANLEY, M. D., - - Third Assistant Physician. 

J. W. THAYER, - - Clerk. 

CLINTON W. WEATHERBEE, Farmer. 

.Mrs. MARGARET DUTTON, Matron. 

MRS. M. A. WEATHERBEE, - Assistant Matron. 



All communications relative to the admission, etc., of Patients should 
be addressed to the Superintendent. Blanks will be furnished on appli- 
cation. 



frusta' PLpporh 



To the General Assembly of the 

State of Connecticut : 

The Trustees of the Connecticut Hospital for the Insane have 
the honor to present herewith their Fifteenth Annual Report, with 
the Reports of the Superintendent, and Treasurer, etc. 

Your attention is respectfully invited to that part of the Superin- 
tendent's Report which alludes to the new buildings and additions in 
connection with the existing annex hospital, as well as to the altera- 
tions and improvements which are rendered needful by the extension 
of the annex hospital and consequent increase of the number of the 
patients. You will observe that changes are necessitated for the 
supply of food from increased population, as well as for laundry and 
workshop accommodations, and for adequate protection from fire. 

You are, therefore, asked for an appropriation of $10,000, our 
first application for several years, viz. : 

$3,000 for protection from fire (outside of buildings). 
$3,000 for purchases of additional cows, and erection of a barn fo.v 
them. 

$2,000 for needed workshops. 

$2,000 for additional laundry apparatus. 

As detailed in Superintendent's paper. 



4 

The total number of patients who have been treated during the 
year has been 654. Number remaining 30th Nov., 1880, 528, of 
which were 251 men, and 277 women. Total of deaths for the 
year, 30. 

General health has prevailed, and the deaths have occurred from 
maladies usual to the hospital, in which it is ever the same painful 
story of diseases of that delicate and easily deranged part of the 
human system — the brain, — diseases proceeding from the many vary- 
ing conditions of men's lives: neglect of ordinary sanitary laws of 
living ; indulgence of passions ; overwork. The well-known disap- 
pointments, and harassments of commercial, professional, religious 
and domestic conditions are all constant factors in producing insanity, 
even when hereditary predisposition is not taken into account. 

There come to your hospital, from time to time, very sad instances 
of mental decay, which are a lesson to us who have to know about 
them. Melancholy, indeed, is it to see a decline from professional 
activity and prosperity ; from some eminent position in the scientific 
world as a respected teacher ; a fall, with loss of intellect, which 
brings a poor, imbecile old man the inmate of your walls, without 
whose protection he would soon pass, in helpless misery, to a miser- 
able death, while, by your bounty, his declining days are succored 
in cleanliness and with provident care. 

Temporary accommodations have been recently made in separate 
buildings for 20 women and for 30 men. Those most unlikely to 
give trouble have been moved to these buildings, making room in 
the hospital proper for new cases immediately needing medical care. 
In addition to these, there are applications for admission of 80, 
sixty of which number arc for men. 

We wait with deep interest the delivery to your Board of the new 
hospital now in course of construction, under the care of the State 
Committee appointed by the Governor. 



5 
The terms of service as Trustees of the members 
and Tolland Counties expire at this time. Their 
is respectfully asked. 

Respectfully submitted, 

Charles B. Andrews, 
H. Sidney Hayden, 
Lucius S. Fuller, 
Samuel G. Willard, 
Richmond M. Bullock, 
Richard S. Fellowes, 
Henry Woodward, 
Robbins Battell, 
Fzra P. Bennett, M. D., 
Joseph W. Alsop, M. D., 
E. B. Nye, M. D., 
Benjamin Douglas, 



from Hartford 
reappointment 



Litchfield. 

Windsor. 

Tolland. 

Colchester. 

Putnam. 

New Haven. 

Middletown. 

Norfolk. 

Danbury. 

Middletown. 

Middletown. 

Middletown. 



jSupprinfanbEiiFs JRpprt 



To the Beard of Trustees of the 

Connecticut Hospital for the Insane : 

Gentlemen — This Fifteenth Report covers the fiscal year com- 
mencing December ist, 1879, and closing November 30th, 1S80. 

The period has been one of quiet, active labor, free from exciting 
incidents, pestilence or unusual sickness. When measured by the 
number of changes in the population, and the character of cases 
presented for treatment, it shows progress in legitimate hospital 
work. 

There were, at the commencement of the year, five hundred and 
ten patients. Applications were made for the admission of three 
hundred and seven. Only one hundred and forty-four of these 
could be admitted for want of room. The number received would 
have been much less than reported, but for our practice of returning 
to friends or placing out all who could be so disposed of without dis- 
advantage to themselves. This custom reduces the list of those 
reported Recovered, and swells the list of those reported Improved. 
Candor compels us to tabulate as simply improved, many persons 
who would be reported as fully restored to health if they could have 
remained a short time longer. Such instances come to my notice 
where the subsequent history shows firm mental health. 

The following table exhibits in condensed form the movements of 
the population: 



Males. Females. 



Total. 



No. at the beginning of the year, 
Admitted in the year, - 
Total present in the year, 
Discharged — Recovered, 

Improved, 

Stationary, 

Died, 
Remaining at the end of the year, 
Average present during the year, 



246 


264 


510 


73 


7i 


i44 


319 


335, 


654 


11 


19 


3° 


15 


14 


29 


26 


11 


37 


16 


14 


3° 


251 


277 


528 


250.68 


263.95 


5 '4-63 



Six hundred and fifty persons received treatment during the year. 
The number of admissions — one hundred and forty-four — represents 
so many different individuals. No person is admitted or discharged 
more than once during the official year. Thirty persons were dis- 
charged fully restored to health. Twenty-five of these were recoveries 
from a first attack; four from a second, and one from a fifth. It is 
reasonable to expect that some of the thirty may again require hos- 
pital care. 

Nearly all of the twenty-nine reported Improved, when discharged, 
were hopeful cases, with such evidences of mental stability as to war- 
rant their being sent home "on trial," to make room for more 
urgent cases. Occasionally one of these is returned, but generally 
the trial results in their remaining at home. 

Three male patients were discharged as not insane. One of these 
came from Wetherfield Prison; another was sent to the Hospital by 
the Hartford Police Court, and the third was simply an inebriate who 
remained until the alcohol had evaporated. 

Thirty-four quiet chronic cases were removed by town officials to 
make room for more urgent ones. The custom is justifiable by reason 
of the claim which recent cases have to early treatment. But it is none 
the less depressing to witness the return of demented and often help- 
less invalids to the ordinary almshouse. It will be a source of 
gratification to be able to retain all such cases as soon as the new 
buildings are completed. The usefulness of a hospital is shown as 
much in taking proper care of the chronic and often helpless luna- 
tics, as in the cure of the few acute cases which find entrance. The 
record is, perhaps, less brilliant, but none the less important, in the 
estimation of Christian philanthropists. 

I have already referred to the prevalence of general good health. 
The number of deaths was thirty, or 5.82 per cent, of the total num- 
ber under treatment. Only once — the year immediately preceding 
this, which was exceptionally low — have I been able to report so 
small a death rate. Ten of the thirty were more than sixty years 
old, and five had passed beyond the allotted period of life. One 
female, aged sixty, was brought to the Hospital in a dying condition, 
too feeble to raise her head from the pillow, and the left lower limb 
covered with gangrenous sloughs. Death came as a blessed relief on 
the third day. 

Another, aged forty, was kept alive three days by the liberal use 
of stimulants. Why the authorities should have taken the respon- 
sibility of moving either of these patients, in their extremely 



8 



exhausted condition, is beyond my comprehension. Death was 
caused by apoplexy in three; by epileptic convulsions in three; 
by pulmonary consumption in three; by Bright's disease of the kid- 
neys in two; by cardiac thrombosis in one; by anurism of the 
internal carotid artery in one; by cerebral softening in one; by 
general paralysis in one; by senile decay in three, and by acute 
mania in one. The average age of all who died was 48.46 years. 
Deaths occurred in months as follows: 

In December 4, in January 2, in February 2, in March o, in April 
o, in May 3, in June 4, in July 3, in August 5, in September 2, in 
October 2, and in November 3. The following table shows the 
number of deaths each year, the percentage of the whole number, 
and of the average number present: 

Deaths and their Ratios, from May ist, 1868, to Nov. 30TH, 1880. 



'G 
O 



If 

II 

o 



o 

f> in 

n c 



1868-69, 

1 869-70, 

1870-71, 

1871-72, 

1872-73. 

1873-74. 

1874-75. 

1875-76, 

1876, 8 mos 

Dec. 1, '76, 

Nov. 30, 'yj\ 

1877-78, 

1878-79, 

1879-80, 



DEATHS. 



Women 



Total. 



OJ 













jC 




£ 


C 






c 


nt 





Hi 


■*-* 




V 





U 


O 




z 


PL( 





rS 



<r> 



c 

C ^'^ 

-i_» (LJ — ' 
C > <— 

<u <■ o 




The average number of patients present during the year was a 
fraction less than five hundred and fifteen— seventeen more than 
during the next preceding year. 

Your attention is called to tables IX. and X., which show by 
whose order patients arc admitted. One hundred and twenty-three , 
were sent by order of Judges of Probate Courts; eight by Judges of 



the Superior Court; four by Judges of the Police Courts; eight In- 
order of His Excellency Governor Andrews, and one by bonds fur- 
nished by friends. 

Table X. shows how they were supported, viz. : eighty-eight by the 
State and towns, (paupers); forty by the State and friends, (indi- 
gents); fifteen by the State alone, and one by friends. At this date 
five hundred and twenty-six of the five hundred and twenty-eight 
patients are chargeable to the State and towns. Only two are sup- 
ported entirely by friends. It thus appears that the Institution is 
providing for the charitable patients, while those who have means 
must seek accommodations elsewhere. While a State hospital should 
always give preference to the poor, strict enforcement of the rule ex- 
cluding all paying patients does injustice to many worthy persons 
of limited means, who would rather make great personal sacrifices 
and pay the entire expense — four dollars per week — than to apply for 
assistance to the town or State. I trust that when the new buildings 
are opened, all distinctions as to cfass may be removed. 

It has been said that statistics are not reliable as a basis from which 
to deduce general truths. This may be true respecting some forms 
of deductions, but it does not hold true respecting all. 

For instance, table IV. in the appendix, gives the age at which 
1,914 patients became insane. A study of this table proves that 
insanity is, pre-eminently, a disease of middle life. 

Thirteen hundred and thirteen, about three-fourths of the whole 
number, became insane between twenty and fifty years of age. It is 
during the period of greatest domestic activity and business enter- 
prise, when the intellectual faculties and the emotions are most 
powerfully and continuously excited, that the human mind becomes 
deranged. Now, if death or recovery followed speedily as in other 
diseases, the State would not be called upon to provide for insane 
persons. But, unfortunately, insanity is a disease which tends to 
chronicity. In other words, after the acute stage has been passed, 
insanity tends to prolong life, and its subjects not only cease to be 
producers but become consumers during a long period of time. You 
observe in table XXVI. that nearly one half of the 528 patients 
remaining at the end of the year, were over fifty years of age. Many 
of these have been inmates of the Institution since its opening, thir- 
teen years ago, and they show fewer evidences of the flight of time 
and the approach of age, than do those who have had the laborious 
care of them. 

A careful study of this aspect of insanity has led to the conclusion 



IO 



that the prevalent notion respecting the rapid increase of mental dis- 
eases is at least questionable. Two facts should be remembered when 
considering this subject: Population is rapidly increasing, and the care 
and treatment of insane persons is so much more humane than former- 
ly, that their life is measurably prolonged. Society, by its benevolent 
care, is providing for this accumulation. It can be shown by actual 
records that the proportion of new or recent cases occurring in this 
State during the past year, bears about the same relation to the total 
population, as did the number of new cases to the population twenty 
years ago. The apparent increase is developed by the generosity of 
the State in providing for five hundred of its wards, who were then 
scattered about the State in numerous almshouses. There has been 
a steadily increasing tendency on the part of public officials and the 
friends of the insane to place them under hospital treatment. Of 
the numerous cases classed under the heads of chronic melancholia, 
epilepsy, histero-epilepsy, and imbecility, now sent to hospitals, not 
one in ten was thus provided for twenty years ago. All of these 
facts should be remembered .when considering the question of appar- 
ent increase. 

How to properly provide for this large dependent class is a ques- 
tion of greatest moment. Differences of opinion exist among expe- 
rienced alienists. Many still maintain that expensive hospitals should 
be erected to accommodate all, irrespective of class or condition. 
Without attempting to discuss this question at length, I would sug- 
gest that extreme views are generally untenable, and that a solutio°n 
of the problem may be found. in following a medium course. 

Such a plan is being pursued in New York State, at Ovid. The 
success of the experiment at the Willard Asylum, of erecting plain 
but substantial supplemental buildings, on the grounds near to the 
main asylum, led the Commissioners in this State to recommend a 
similar plan which is now being carried out. At a short distance 
from the central hospital there is being erected a group of brick 
buildings in which provision will be made for 262 of the more quiet 
chronic patients, who require little medical attention. In general, 
the plan contemplates receiving and treating all acute and all turbu- 
lent cases in the hospital proper; from time to time the quiet chronic 
patients will be transferred to the new buildings, where good cus- 
todial care can be maintained at less expense. The plan has worked 
so well at Willard, that it seems to be the best solution yet proposed 
of this most troublesome problem. 

To facilitate the early reception of some of those patients who 



1 1 

were waiting, wc have recently remodeled and furnished a farm house, 
situated one-half mile to the rear of the hospital, which affords good 
accommodations for twenty quiet female patients. This makes the 
third "cottage" in use. Two have served a good purpose during the 
past ten years. All of these are plain farm houses, heated by stoves 
and lighted by ordinary lamps. The doors are unlocked and windows 
unguarded, except by the ordinary green blinds, which were on the 
houses when used by sane families. 

I mention this merely as a matter of record, in view of the fact 
that so much is being said about the " uselessness of bars and bolts." 
We have for ten years treated insane patients in two "open" cot- 
tages. To reason from this that all patients could be thus cared for 
would be illogical. It should be remembered that these patients are 
selected from five hundred, on account of their quiet, harmless 
condition. 

If all deranged persons were of this class, and had homes, the State 
would not be called upon to provide for them. Unfortunately, a 
majority of insane persons are more or less turbulent and unmanage- 
able at home; hence, they require the restriction of liberty which a 
hospital affords. Their own welfare demands it no less than the 
claims of society. The wise provision which is here made for. their 
security, permits a much larger amount of personal liberty than 
could possibly be allowed at home. 

In this connection I may be pardoned for repeating a fact, which 
has been referred to in former reports, that mechanical restraint is 
used at this Institution, only by direction of the physician, to pre- 
vent serious accidents. 

A record of the name, cause, and duration is carefully kept. This 
record shows that less than one per cent, are in any way restrained 
or secluded. Periods of several weeks pass without the necessity for 
using any restraining apparatus, and then, perhaps, we will have a 
half dozen patients all at one time who require it. 

Under authority of the Finance Committee, I have taken the Silver 
Mine Farm for a period of five years, at $100 per year, and am now 
furnishing the large boarding house to receive thirty quiet males. 
This, with the farm house and the two cottages, will make four "cot- 
tages," in which we can treat seventy-eight quiet patients. The land 
at the Silver Mine Farm is valuable only as additional pasturage. 

Since your last annual meeting, the annex has been devoted to the 
object for which it was prepared; namely, to provide for the insane 
convicts and the criminal insane. It has 24 single rooms, two day 



12 

rooms, a dining room, three bath rooms, closets, and the necessary 
store rooms. It is situated 250 feet to the rear of the main hospital; 
is heated by steam and lighted by gas. Three attendants are always 
in charge. Since last March eleven male convicts have been trans- 
ferred from the Wethersfield Prison. Nearly all of these have been 
kept at work about the grounds during the summer months. Two, 
whose terms of sentence had expired, have recovered, and another 
one has been returned to the prison as "not insane." 

In my last annual report I mentioned the completion of an addi- 
tional reservoir, covering two and one-half acres. The severe drought 
of the past summer and the use of a large amount of water in the 
erection of the new hospital, has tested the supply and shown the 
wisdom of having an additional reservoir. Without it we should 
have exhausted the main reservoir. With it we were able to use 
water everywhere freely and continuously. 

While on this subject, permit me to again direct your attention to 
the importance of having greater facilities for extinguishing fire by 
means of outdoor hydrants. Your building is well planned and 
protected so far as the internal arrangements are concerned ; brick 
walls extend from foundation to roof, in the corridors, halls, stair- 
ways and rooms ; all ventilating flues are carried in brick out of the 
roof as separate chimneys ; floors are everywhere deafened by two 
inches of mortar ; iron doors separate the wards ; one hundred and 
fifty feet of water hose is ready for use in every ward, and nearly two 
hundred pails of water stand ready on all landings and space ways ; 
several fire extinguishers are placed at convenient points about the 
building. But the recent terrible catastrophe at the Minnesota Hos- 
pital for the Insane, in which many lives were lost, shows the import- 
ance of having ample provision made for outside protection. 

A line of six-inch water pipe should extend around the Hospital, 
with at least twenty-four hydrants placed at equi-distant points. 

As the water supply is abundant, it would only be necessary to 
connect the new reservoir with the main water pipe at the old, to give 
at all times one hundred and fifty feet head. This pressure would 
throw several streams of water over the highest point of the center 
building. The estimated expense for pipe, hydrants and hose is 
$2,150. 

You have wisely maintained insurance on the Hospital buildings 
to the amount of about $200,000. This involves an annual expense 
of $500, which has thus far been paid out of current receipts. As 
the institution receives no income other than that derived from the 



13 

board of patients, should so large an amount be diverted for insur- 
ance ? Should not the subject be brought to the attention of the 
General Assembly, and have it definitely decided whether the State 
will insure its own buildings, or continue the present system? 

Improvements.— When it was decided to locate the new Hospital 
on the grounds south of the present buildings, it became necessary 
to remove the fruit trees and shrubbery to a new garden spot. This 
work, involving some expense, was done mainly by the labor of con- 
valescent and quiet chronic patients. 

Early in the season a new arbor was erected on the lawn near the 
north highway, for the accommodation of the female patients. It is 
built of cedar, one hundred and twenty feet in length, twenty-four 
feet in width, separated into nine sections, with seats for one hundred 
and fifty persons. At the west end is an elevated band stand, and 
near at hand four large, self-acting wooden swings. Here many of 
our patients have passed the summer evenings pleasantly, while listen- 
ing to the Hospital band. 

Improvements in grading, laying of walks and road building have 
continued. A large permanent horse barn was erected. It will thus 
be seen that the plan heretofore pursued of maintaining the Hospital 
in a healthy state of repair, together with needed improvements, has 
been continued during the past year. 

In view of the increase of numbers by at least two hundred and 
fifty patients in the new Hospital, it will become necessary to add 
twenty-five cows to the live stock and to erect another farm barn for their 
protection. This will necessitate an appropriation of $3,000. 

Year by year we are able to employ more inmates on the farm and 
about the domestic labors of the house. The daily ward reports 
show that sixty per cent of all are employed during the summer, and 
forty-five per cent during the winter. The Farmer's Report, herewith 
presented, shows a steady increase of annual products as one of the 
results, and the quietness of the wards and general good health of 
the patients another and more important outgrowth of employment. 
The erection of a few large, plain shops would enable us to continue 
during the winter the employment of many who are now idle. For 
this purpose an appropriation of $2,000 could be profitably invested. 

During the autumn months, under your instruction, I have had 
erected a new laundry building of sufficient dimensions to provide 
for the largely increased laundry work. It will be necessary to pur- 
chase four new washing machines, pulleys, belts, shafting and fix- 
tures, at an expense of $2,000. When these are in place, work can 



14 

go on in the new laundry while the old apparatus is being moved. 
The extent and importance of this branch of work is understood 
when it is remembered that the average number of garments passing 
through the laundry weekly is now i 0,000, and will increase to 
15,000 when the new Hospital is in full operation. Valuable assist- 
ance is rendered by thirty patients in washing, ironing and handling. 
Following the custom of former years, we have continued and 
extended the methods employed to entertain our patients. During 
the summer the Hospital brass band played every pleasant morning 
at the south arbor, while such of the male patients as were judged 
incompetent, by reason of disease, age or circumstances, to labor, 
were being exercised in military evolutions, or were quietly enjoying 
themselves in the shade of the arbor. Thus it would often happen 
that the wards were deserted, not a male patient remaining in the 
building for hours in succession. When you remember that those 
who labored were often at work one mile distant from the house, and 
the others about the grounds with open gates, it may seem strange 
that only one patient eloped. There were occasional attempts; but 
these attempts were less frequent than in former years when we made 
use of the inclosed airing courts. When the weather permitted, on 
every Tuesday and Friday evenings, the band has given an out-door 
concert at the ladies' arbor. Other entertainments were provided in 
the Amusement Hall and in the Chapel during the winter season, as 
follows : 

Sociable, with music and dancing, - - 13 evenings. 

Masquerade Party, - 1 " 

Lectures with Stereopticon, - - - - 12 " 
Variety Entertainment, — Hospital Troupe, - 1 " 

Comedy and Farces, — Hospital Troupe, - - 2 " 
Minstrels, — Hospital Troupe, 1 " 

Old Folks' Concert, - - - - 1 " 

Dickens' Party, - - 1 " 

Legerdemain, — E. A. Parsons, 1 " 

Lectures — Trip to Lake Superior. Prof. \V. O. 

Atwater, 1 " 

London. Prof. Winchester, - - 1 " 
California. D. W. C. Skilton, 1 

St. Patrick. Rev. Dr. Coit, - 1 

" England. Rev. J. S. Payne, - - 1 " 

Egypt. Rev. C. A. Buck, 1 



Minstrels, — Hartford Retreat Troupe, - - i evenings. 

Readings, — D. G. Lawson, - - - - 3 " 

" Miss Georgia Cayvan, i " 

" Miss Annie C. Walter, - i 

Legerdemain, — Prof. Pray, - - i " 

Concert, — Misses Spencer and Wilcox, Mr. Pearne 

and Mr. Hatch, - - - - i " 

Band Concerts, 32 

On Saturday, August 21st, three hundred patients, officers and 
attendants enjoyed an excursion to the sea shore. The trip down the 
river was made in a large barge, fitted for the occasion with awning 
over the entire deck, and seats to accommodate all. A steam tug 
furnished motive power. A pleasant sail of three hours to Fenwick 
Grove, at Saybrook, gave us all good appetites for the "seashore" 
dinner which had been provided. Another hour was spent in danc- 
ing and swinging before embarking for home. The return trip up 
the river by moonlight was greatly enjoyed, notwithstanding the warm 
showers which occasionally passed over the river. The Hospital band 
furnished music for the entire day. 

Nothing occurred to mar the pleasures of the occasion. At eleven 
o'clock all were quietly sleeping in their little beds, and for the third 
time an excursion, unique in character, heretofore considered imprac- 
ticable, had terminated without cause for alarm, and with only recol- 
lections of a most enjoyable summer's day. Other excursions of 
walking parties were made to the neighboring hills, and at all times 
a number of patients have had unlimited parole to go to the city and 
about the country. 

financial -Sfafemenf. 

For the information of the public, it is proper that I should make 
a brief statement respecting the manner in which the Hospital is sup- 
ported. Many persons suppose that we can draw from the Treasury, 
because the Hospital is owned and controlled by the State. This 
erroneous impression causes us embarrassment in the collection of 
bills. It should be understood that the Hospital has no other income 
than that derived from the board of patients. It has not in its thir- 
teen years' existence received an appropriation for running expenses, 
repairs or improvements. But at the present price of board, (four 
dollars per week), and cost of provisions, it is only possible to keep 
our patients well and make the necessary repairs. Needed improve- 



i6 

ments heretofore mentioned must be provided for by an appropria- 
tion. The total revenue during the past year was $i 14,438.94. The 
total expenditures were $114,155.75. This includes $4,789. 96 for 
construction of new buildings. The abstract on pages 40-41 give 
a classified list of all expenditures. 

To recapitulate, we need an appropriation of $ic,ooo, as follows: 

For protection from fire, - - - $3,000 

Twenty-five cows and farm barn, .... 3,000 

Work shops, 2,000 

Laundry apparatus, ------- 2,000 

Total, -------- $10,000 

As in former years, many friends have shown an interest in our 
work by donating books, magazines and papers, and by assistance in 
our entertainments. Among these were the choir and young people 
of the South Congregational Church of Middletown, in an "Old 
Folks' Concert'' and a " Dickens' Party ;" Professor \V. O. Atwater 
in a lecture ; Professor Winchester in a lecture ; the officers and 
attendants of the Hartford Retreat in a vocal and instrumental con- 
cert ; D. W. C. Skilton in a lecture ; Dr. Coit, Rev. J. S. Bayne and 
Rev. C. II. Buck in lectures ; the Misses Spencer and Wilcox and 
Messrs. Pearne and Hatch in a concert ; Dr. Alsop in a cannon of 
historical interest, 12 vols. LUtelVs Living Age and other magazines ; 
Mrs. E. B. Monroe in several packages of books and magazines ; 
Mrs. Ward in a carriage ; A. R. Parshley in a dozen Brahma hens' 
eggs ; Senator Piatt in one vol. Med. and Surg., History of the War : 
L. R. Hazcn in papers, magazines, etc. ; Miss C. Waite in a Wor- 
cester's Dictionary ; Charles Scribners' Sons in half discount on Ency- 
clopaedia Britannica ; Herbert W. Ward in a night-blooming cactus ; 
Capt. C. F. Bucll in a collection of shells ; S. C. Hastings, subscrip- 
tion to Good Literature, and to the publishers of the State Papers for 
gratuitous copies. 

"2?ev8onal (Slhange*. 

In May last Mr. Frank B. Weeks resigned the position of Clerk, 
which he had faithfully and creditably filled for a period of eight 
years, to engage in private business. 

A simple record of his labors shows an amount of work performed 



and an exactness and perfectness of details in the record 1 ks that 

reflects -real credit and shows rare qualifications for the offi. e. 

The strictly professional administration remains the same as during 
the nasi three years. All of the officers deserve honorable mention 

and recognition, in their several positions, for their fidelity and effi 

ciency. . , f 

In conclusion, accept an expression of my gratitude for your wise 

counsels and valuable aid in the management of the public chanty 
entrusted to our common care. 

Respectfully submitted. 

A. MARVIN SHEW, M. D., 

Superintend nt. 

MiDDLETOWN, CoNX., Dec. I, l88o. 



yannpr's jHlpprt. 



To the Superintendent: 

Again it becomes my pleasure to render to you my Annual Farm 
Report. 

Quantity and Value oj Products. 



Hay, 


- 


i-St'ct 


tons, - 


~ $2,366 OO 


Corn Fodder, - 


- 


2hy 2 


" 


397 50 


Straw, 


- 


17 


t t 


2S5 00 


Oats, 


- 


198 bushels, 


83 16 


Rye, 


- 


259 


ii 


208 89 


Potatoes, - 


- 


I,569K 


1 i 


- 1,177 12 


Carrots, - 


- 


208 


" 


72 80 


Beets, 


- 


95K 


< t 


38 20 


Spinach, - 


- 


66 


i t 


46 20 


Beet Greens, 


- 


99 


t i 


59 40 


Beet Mangold-W 


urzels, 


1 14 


i ( 


45 60 


Onions, - 


- 


185^ 


i t 


185 50 


Turnips, - 


- 


256 


i i 


64 00 


Beans, (String) 


- 


103 


i t 


103 00 


Beans, Pole, (in 


Shell) 


n8# 


t t 


147 81 


Peas, (in Shell) 


- 


61 


i ( 


97 60 


Parsnips, 


- 


100 


€ t 


45 °° 


Sweet Corn, 


- 


312 


t i 


171 60 


Cucumbers, 


- 


105K 


I t 


79 i2 


Tomatoes, 


- 


nij£ 


t i 


66 90 


Summer Squash, 


- 


99 


t ( 


74 25 


Winter Squash, ( 


Hub'rd 


) 6,660 pounds, 


'33 20 


Lettuce, 


- 


553 heads, 


16 59 


Pie Plant, 


- 


760 pounds, 


15 20 


Melons, 


- 


21,372 


i t 


427 44 



19 



Cabbages, 


- 


4,000 heads, 


Radishes, 


- 


4 y, bushels, 


Cauliflower, 


- 


200 heads, 


Celery, 


- 


2,500 


Asparagus, 


- 


132^ pounds, 


Strawberries, 


- 


1,770 quarts, 


Blackberries, 


- 


4 bushels, 


Cherries, 


- 


1 


Currants, 


- 


sH " 


Pears, 


- 


2 


Apples, 


- 


194 barrels, 


Cider, 


- 


67 


Milk, (grass fed) 


470,88 quarts, 


Beef, 


- 


3,625 pounds, 


Veal, 


- 


970^ " 


Heads and Plucks, 


12 


Pork, 


- 


14,854 


Pigs, (sold) 


- 


56 


Calves, (sold) 


- 


8 


CalfSkins, (sold) 


12 


Chickens, 


- 


330^ " 


Pigeons, 


- 


5 ■ dozen, 


Eggs, 


- 


422^ " 



Field Corn, (on ear) 
Broom Brush, 

Total, 



1,074 bushels, 
1,500 pounds, 



$240 00 

4 50 

30 00 

100 00 

14 58 

269 56 

10 24 

2 50 

6 87 

2 00 

133 °7 
167 50 

2,354 40 

240 38 

88 20 

3 00 
1,039 78 

179 50 
12 50 

14 5° 
52 88 
12 50 
88 02 
483 75 
75 °° 

$12,002 31 



Weight of each Hog Killed. — 49 2 . 449, 377. 445. 45 r > 47 2 . 
381, 467, 383, 400, 411, 463, 397, 4i6, 480, 485, 543. 459. 
39 8, 448, 422, 460, 561, 416, 625, 490, 5 6 5, 42i, 486, 397, 
340, 470, 382. Total weight, 14,854 pounds. Average weight, 
45°/6 pounds. 

The farm stock at the present time consists of five horses, six work- 
ing oxen, one bull, six fat cattle, forty cows, two two years old, five 
yearlings, two calves, four boars, thirty-one breeding sows, twenty- 
three fat hogs, thirty-two shotes, one hundred hens. 
Respectfully submitted, 

C. W. WETHERBEE, 

Farmer. 



20 

TABLE /. 

MOVEMENT OF THE POPULATION. 



Number at the beginning of the yenr, 
Admitted in the year, - 
Total present in the year, 
Discharged, — Recovered, 

Improved, 

Stationary, 

Died, 
Remaining at the end of the year, 

Average present during the year, - 



Males. 


Females. 


246 


264 


73 


71 


319 


835 


11 


19 


15 


14 


26 


11 


16 


14 


251 


•277 



250 68 



263.95 



Total. 



.-,bi 
144 
654 

30 

29 

37 

30 
528 

514 63 



TAB LIS LI. 

ADMISSIONS AND DISCHARGES FROM THE BEGINNING OF THE 

HOSPITAL. 



Admitted, ... 

Discharged, —Recovered, 
Improved, 
Stationary, 
Died, 



Males. 



1114 
245 
205 

203 
209 



Females. 



867 
160 
164 
143 

123 



Total. 



1981 
405 
369 

346 
332 



Average X umber J 'resent Each Year from the Beginning. 



Years. 



1868-69, 
1869-70, 
1870-71, 
1871-72, 

1872-73, ... 

1873-74, ... 

1874-75, - 

1875-76, - 

1876— April 1st to Nov. 30th, 

1876 77, - 

1877 78, - 
L878 79, - 

1879 80, - - . . 



Males. 



79.35 
110.68 
115.97 
124.21 
182.11 
146.43 
198 5i 
225 CI 
228.39 
231.45 
236 1 1 
244 57 
250.08 



Females. 



6.12 
114.54 
117 72 
lis II 
132 4! 
193.29 
227.19 
227.02 
228.58 
232.43 
238.06 
258.76 
263.96 



Total. 



85. 17 
225.17 
233.69 
242.65 
264 54 
339.72 
125.73 
452.62 
456.97 
163 8H 
474.17 
198.84 
51 1.63 



21 



TABLE III- 
NUMBER AT EACH AGE WHEN ADMITTED DURING THE YEAR 

When Attacked. 




Under 15, - 
15 to 20. - 
20 to 25, - 
25 to 30, - 
30 to 35, - 
35 to 40, - 
40 to 45, - 
45 to 50, - 
50 to 60, - 
60 to 70, - 
70 to 80, - 
80 and over, 
Unknown, 
Not insane, 



Total, 



11 

7 
11 
6 
7 
4 
3 
2 
1 
3 



13 



15 

s 
•> 
4 
5 
2 



4 
13 
22 
20 



73 



71 



144 



M les. 


Female 

2 


Total. 


, 


3 


4 



11 


2u 


9 


12 


21 


7 


10 


17 



73 



22 


i 


19 


9 


11 


(1 


11 


5 




4 


5 


2 


•> 


1 


3 


(i 


3 


3 



12 
6 



71 



19 
15 
8 
6 
6 
3 
1 
13 
3 



144 



TABLE IV. 

NUMBER AT EACH AGE FROM THE BEGINNING OF THEHOSPITAL. 



When Admitted. 



When Attacked. 



AGE. 



Under 15, - 

15 to 20, - 
20 to 25, - 
25 to 30, - 
30 to 35, - 
35 to 40, - 
40 to 45, - 
45 to 50, - 
50 to 60, - 
60 to 70, - 
70 to 80, - 
80 and over, 
Unknown, 
No insane, 



Total, 



Males. Females. Total. Males. Females. 



6 

48 

132 

155 

142 
143 
112 
103 
133 
80 
;;4 



3 
16 



1114 



33 

9(1 

103 

115 

117 

101 

92 

102 

67 

17 

II 

8 

3 



867 



8 

SI 

228 

258 

•J :.7 
260 
213 
195 

235 
117 
51 
IS 
11 
19 



1981 



30 

SN 

151 
147 
L46 

115 

91 

85 

ins 
73 
15 



10 

CO 

125 
149 
107 

121 

SO 

71 

79 

25 

12 



Total. 



4 

42 
19 


6 

is 
4 


1114 


867 



4n 
14S 
276 

290 

2.",:; 

236 

171 
156 

ls7 
98 

27 
10 

60 

23 



1981 



22 

TABLE V. 

NATIVITY OF PATIENTS ADMITTED. 



NATIVITY 


Within the Year. 


From the Beginning. 




Males. 


Females. 


Total. 


Males. 


Females. 


Total. 


Connecticut, - 


33 


39 


72 


615 


403 


1048 


New York, 


7 


4 


11 


64 


47 


111 


Massachusetts, 


3 


1 


4 


28 


14 


42 


Maine, ... 


2 





2 


4 


2 


6 


Rhode Island, 


— 








15 


10 


25 


Pennsylvania, - 


— 


— 


__ 


5 




5 


"V irginia, 


— 


1 


1 


3 


3 


6 


North Carolina, 










4 




4 


Vermont, 


— 





, . 


4 


3 


7 


New Jersey, 


— 


__ 


__ 


4 


2 


6 


Florida, - 


— 








1 




1 


Louisiana, 


— 










2 


2 


Maryland, 











2 


1 


3 


Michigan, 


— 








1 




1 


Ohio, 












1 


1 

1 


Georgia, - 













1 


South Carolina, 











1 




1 


New Hampshire, 


1 





1 


1 




\ 


Canada, Dominion of 


1 


2 


3 


10 


2 


12 


France, ... 





1 


1 


3 


1 


4 


Austria, - 












1 


I 


Germany, 


4 


1 


5 


46 


40 


86 


England, - 


4 


1 


5 


37 


24 


61 


Ireland, - 


14 


18 


32 


202 


292 


494 


Scotland, - 


1 





1 


8 


8 


16 


Italy, 


— 


1 


1 


2 


3 


5 


Cuba, 








, 




2 


2 


Switzerland, - 


1 


, . 


1 


4 




4 


Sweden, - 


1 





1 


9 


1 


10 


Bermuda, 










1 




1 


Norway, - 










1 




Unknown, 


1 


2 


3 


9 


4 


13 


Total, 


73 


71 


144 


1114 


8G7 


1981 



TABLE VL. 

RESIDENCE OF PATIENTS ADMITTED. 





Within the Year. 


From the Beginning. 


RESIDENCE. 












Males. 


Females. 
3 


Total. 
15 


, Males. 
74 


Females. 
18 


Total. 


State at Large, 


12 


92 


Hartford County, - 


15 


15 


30 


246 


171 


417 


New Haven " 


15 


21 


36 


258 


256 


514 


New London, " 


7 


6 


13 


117 


106 


223 


Windham, ' ' 


1 


5 


6 


31 


30 


61 


Litchfield, " 


3 


4 


7 


55 


70 


125 


Middlesex, •" 


i; 


7 


13 


124 


81 


2ir. 


Tolland, 


3 


2 


5 


30 


28 


58 


Fairticld, 


11 


8 


19 


169 


105 


274 


Elsewhere, 


— 


— 


— 


10 


2 


12 


Total, 


73 


71 


144 


1114 


867 


1981 



2 3 
TABLE VII. 

OCCUPATION OF THOSE ADMITTED. 



Within the Year. 



OCCUPATION. 



Accountants, 

Actresses, 

Agents, 

Artists, 

Bakers, 

Barbers, 

Bar Tenders, 

Blacksmiths, 

Boiler Makers, 

Book Binders, 

Brewers, - 

Brick Layers, 

Brokers, 

Brush Makers, 

Butchers, 

Cabinet Makers, - 

Carmen, 

Carpenters, - 

Carriage Makers, - 

Chemists, 

Cigar Makers, 

Clerks, - 

Clergymen, - 

Clock Makers, 

Coachmen, - 

Commercial Travelers, - 

Conductors, - - - 

Coopers, 

Curriers, 

Cutlers, 

Domestics, - 

Draw Bridge Tenders, - 

Druggists, - 

Dyers, - 

Electro Plater;;, 

Engineers, - - 

Factory Employes, 

Farmers, 

Fish Hook Makers, 

Gardeners, ... 

Glass Cutters, 

Grocers, 

Gunsmiths, - 

Harness Maker.;, - 

Hatters, 

Hostlers, 

Housekeepers, 

Housewives, - 

Janitors, ... 



fa 



11 



10 



From the Beginning. 



28 



fa 



1 
1 

1 

1 
1 


12 

1 
1 
4 


1 

1 





2 
12 





— 


3 
1 
1 

5 


1 


— 


1 
2 
4 
8 


— 


1 


2 
33 




— 


3 


1 

7 

28 

1 


1 


1 


1 
4 

7 


— 


1 


3 
2 


z 


1 
10 


4 
2 

1 

7 


182 


13 
11 


4 

1 

1 

52 

235 


42 





2 

5 





— 


1 

7 
1 


— 


1 


9 

8 


1 


28 

1 


9 
1 


56 

337 



24 



TA B L E V 1 1 .-Continued. 
OCCUPATION OF THOSE ADMITTED. 



OCCUPATION. 



Jewelers, 

Laborers, 

Landlords, - 

Lawyers, 

Lumbermen, 

Machinists, - 

Manufacturers, 

Mattress Makers, - 

Mechanics, - 

Merchants, - 

Millers, 

Milliners, 

Moulders, 

News Boys, - 

Night Watchmen, 

No employment, - 

Painters, 

Paper Makers, 

Peddlers, 

Physicians, - 

Pilots, - 

Powder Makers, - 

Printers, 

Pump Makers, 

Quarrymen, - 

Itubber Workers, - 

Sailors, 

Sail Makers, - 

Saloon Keepers, - 

Seamstresses, 

Soldiers, 

Shoe Makers, 

Stone Masons, 

Students, 

Speculators, - 

Switch Tenders, - 

Tailors, 

Teachers, 

Telegraph Operators, 

Tinsmiths, - 

Truss Makers, 

Unknown, 

Upholsterers, 

Waiters, 

Weavers 

W I Can re, 



Within the Year. 










a> 




CO 


"3 


_; 




a 


C3 


a 


<0 


O 



•23 

1 



Total, 



73 



15 



71 114 



23 



— 1 



2 

1C 

2 



— 1 



From the Beginning. 






a 



133 

1 



2 

191 

1 

2 

1 

42 

15 

1 

75 

34 

2 

— 

6 

2 

4 

77 

18 

2 

5 

5 

3 

1 

4 
1 
16 
2 
16 
2 
4 

1 
15 

7 
4 
1 
1 
8 
7 
3 
5 
1 
Id 
1 
3 
2 
1 
2 



29 



6 
34 



26 



S 
o 
H 



— 191 

— 1 

— 1^ 

— 42 
15 

1 
7.-> 
34 
2 
1 
6 
2 
4 

210 

18 
2 
6 
5 
3 
1 
4 
1 

16 
2 

16 
2 
4 

29 
1 

15 
7 

12 
1 
1 

14 

41 



3 

5 
l 
36 
1 
3 
S 
l 
3 






III I 867 ; 1981 



TABLE VIII. 
CIVIL CONDITION OF THOSE ADMITTED. 





Within the Year. 


From the Beginning.. 




Males. 

38 
31 

3 
1 

73 


Females 

35 

27 
6 
3 

71 


Total. 


Males. 


Females. 

375 
346 

118 

28 

867 


Total. 


Single, - 

Married. .... 
Widowed, .... 
Unknown. - - - - 


73 

58 
i) 
4 


551 

468 

64 

28 


929 

814 

182 

56 


Total, ... - 


144 


1114 


1981 



TABLE IX. 

HOW COMMITTED. 







Within the year. 


From the Beginning. 




Males. 


Females. 


Total. 


Males. 


Females. 


Total. 


By Friends, ... 

Probate Judges, - 

Judges of the Superior Court, 

Governor's Orders, 

Justice or Police Court, 

Order of General Assembly, 


56 

7 
7 
3 

- 


1 

67 
1 
1 
1 


1 
123 
8 
8 
4 

144 


Ill 

874 

59 

36 

33 

1 


62 

778 

7 

5 

15 

867 


173 

1652 

66 

41 

48 

1 


Total, .... 


73 


71 


1114 


1981 


TABLE X. 
HOW SUPPORTED. 






Within the Your. 


From the beginning. 




Males. 


Females. 

1 

24 

43 

3 

71 


Total. 


Males. 


Females. 

60 

293 

49") 
19 

867 


Total. 


By Self or Friends (paying), 
By State and friends (indigent) 
By State and Town (pauper), 
By State alone, - 


16 
45 

12 


1 

40 
88 
15 


113 

297 

518 

86 


173 
590 

1113 
105 


Total, --- - 


73 


144 


1114 


1981 



26 



TABLE XI. 

FORM OF DISEASE IN THOSE ADMITTED. 





Within the Y 


;ar. 


From the Beginning. 


FORM OF DISEASE. 
















Males. 


Females. 


Total. 


Males. 


Females. 


Total. 


Mania Acute, ... 


25 


14 


39 


325 


230 


555 


Chronic, - 


21 


26 


47 


342 


336 


678 


Epileptic, 


1 


1 


2 


54 


22 


76 


Hysterical, 


— 


1 


1 


— 


1 


1 


Puerperal, 


— 


2 


2 


— 


22 


22 


Suicidal, 


— 


— 


— 


4 


5 


9 


Homicidal, 


— 


— 





4 


3 


7 


Recurrent, 


1 


1 


2 


14 


19 


33 


Delirium Simple, 


— 


— 


__ 


10 


— 


10 


Monomania, 


— 


— 


— 


15 


4 


19 


Melancholia, Acute, 


5 


9 


14 


85 


83 


168 


Chronic, - 


3 


4 


7 


39 


59 


98 


Attonita, - 


— 








4 


2 


6 


General Paresis, - - - 


3 


— 


3 


27 


1 


28 


Methomania, 


1 





1 


57 


3 


60 


Dementia Acute, 


— 


1 


1 


12 


7 


19 


Chronic, 


3 


7 


10 


43 


38 


81 


Senile, - 


4 


3 


7 


24 


20 


44 


Imbecility, - - - - 


2 


2 


4 


34 


8 


42 


Neurasthenia, 


1 


— 


1 


2 


— 


2 


Not Insane, - - - - 


3 


— 


3 


19 


4 


23 


Total, - 


73 


71 


144 


1114 


8G7 


1981 



TABLE XII . 

COMPLICATIONS (OF NERVOUS SYSTEM) IN THOSE ADMITTED. 





Within the Year. 


From the Beginning. 


COMPLICATIONS. 












Males. 


l'Yiualrs. 


Total. 


Males. 


Females. 


Total. 


Aphasia, .... 


— 


— 


5 


— 


5 


Apoplexy, - 


1 


— 


1 


5 
3 


3. 


5 


i tiorea, .... 





— 


■ — - 


ii 


Epilepsy, .... 


1 


1 


2 


53 


23 


76 


Hemiplegia, 


— 


3 


3 


4 


4 


8 


Hysteria, .... 


— 


1 


1 


— 


1 


1 


Hereditary Tendency, - 


19 


18 


37 


253 


l'.IS 


l.-.l 


Paraplegia, - 


— 


— 


— 


2 


2 


4 


Paralysis Agitans, 


1 


— 


1 


1 


1 


2 


l ' . ado Hypertrophic Paralysis 


— 


— 


— 


— 


1 


1 


I 't '".'. Muscular Atrophy, 


— 


— 


— 


1 


1 


2 


Spinal Paralysis, - 


— 


— 


— 


1 


— 


1 


■Without Complications, 


51 


48 


99 


786 


633 


1419 


Total, .... 


73 


71 


144 


1114 


867 


1981 



TABLE XIII. 

KUMBEB OF ATTACKS IN THOSE ADMITTED. 





Within the Year. 


From the Beginning. 




Males. 


Females. 


Total. 


Males. 


Females. 


Total. 


First, 

Second, - - - - 

Third, 

Fourth, - 

Filth, - - - - - 

Sixth, - 

Seventh, - - - - 

Eighth, - - - - 

Several, - - 

Unknown, - - - - 

Not insane, - - - - 


53 
2 
2 
1 

12 
3 


59 
4 
1 

1 
2 

1 

1 
2 

71 


112 
6 
3 
2 
2 

1 

1 

14 
3 


764 

130 

36 

18 

5 

3 

3 

38 
98 
19 


616 

110 

42 

13 

10 

,4 

4 

3 

17 

44 

4 


1380 

240 

78 

31 

15 

7 

7 

3 

55 

142 

23 


Total, - 


73 


144 


1114 


867 


1981 



TABLE XIV. 

DURATION OF INSANITY BEFOEE ENTRANCE OF THOSE 
ADMITTED. 





Within the Y 


sar. 


From 


the Beginning. 




Males. 


Females. 


Total. 


Males. 


Females. 


Total. 


Less than 1 month, 


5 


4 


9 


155 


98 


253 


1 to 3 months, - 


7 


5 


12 


170 


93 


263 


3 to 6 


9 


8 


17 


105 


71 


176 


6 to 9 


6 


4 


10 


58 


64 


122 


9 to 12 " 


3 


1 


4 


56 


37 


93 


12 to 18 " 


4 


4 


8 


57 


64 


121 


18 to 24 " 


3 


G 


9 


49 


41 


90 


2 to 3'years, 


7 


2 


9 


97 


77 


174 


3 to 5 


7 


7 


14 


87 


87 


174 


5 to 10 " 


5 


13 


18 


84 


87 


171 


10 to 15 - - 


4 


2 


6 


41 


34 


75 


15 to '20 


1 


3 


4 


19 


27 


46 


20 to 25 


1 


3 


4 


15 


13 


28 


25 to 30 - - 


1 


— 


1 


13 


4 


17 


30 and over, 





2 


2 


7 


i7 


24 


Unknown, - 


7 


7 


14 


81 


49 


130 


Not insane, 


3 


— 


3 


19 


4 


23 


Total, - 


73 


71 


144 


1114 


867 


1981 



28 



TABLE XV 



RECOVERED OF THOSE ATTACKED AT THE SEVERAL AGES FROM 
THE BEGINNING. 



AGE. 


Number Recovered. 


Ptsr Cent Recovered of rhose 
Attacked from the BegiuuiiiL-. 


Males. 


Females. 


Total. 


Males. 


Females. 


Total. 


Under 15, 


. 














15 to 20, - 


15 


1(5 


31 


17.04 


26.66 


20.94 


20 to 25, - 


42 


31 


73 


27.15 


24.80 


26.48 


25 to 30, - 


33 


27 


GO 


22.45 


18.12 


23.64 


30 to 35, - 


32 


23 


55 


21.91 


21.46 


21.73 


35 to 40, - 


38 


20 


58 


31.29 


16.52 


24. 1 1 


40 to 45, - 


24 


14 


38 


26.37 


17.50 


22.22 


45 to 50, - 


21 


11 


32 


25 87 


15.49 


20.51 


50 to 60, - 


22 


15 


37 


20.37 


18.98 


19. 73 


60 to 70, - 


15 


3 


18 


20.54 


12.00 


L8.36 


70 to 80, - 


2 


— 


2 


13.33 


7.10 


Over 80,- 


1 


— 


1 


25.00 10.00 


Totiil, 


245 | 


1(50 


■tor, 







TABLE X V / . 

RECOVERED AFTER VARIOUS DURATIONS OF DISEASE BEFORE 
TREATMENT FROM THE BEGINNING. 



DURATION. 


Number Recovered. 


Per Cent Recover* d. 


Males. 


Females. 


Total. 


Males. 


Females. 


Total. 


Under 1 month, 
1 to 3 months, 
3 to 6 
6 to 9 
9 to 12 " 

1 to 2 years, 

2 to 3 " 

3 to 5 " 
5 to 10 " 

Over 10 " 


93 

72 

27 

13 

11 

14 

7 

6 

2 


50 
39 

23 
12 
7 
14 
4 
6 
4 
1 


1-13 

111 

50 

25 

is 

28 

11 

12 

6 

1 


GO. 00 

42.35 

2;,. 71 

22.41 

19.61 

13.20 

7.21 

i; 89 

2.38 


51.02 
41.93 
31.26 

18 75 

18.91 
13 33 
5.1 '.I 
i; 89 
1 .59 
1.05 


50.52 

•12.20 

28.40 

20.49 

19 35 

13.27 

6.20 

6.89 

3.50 

0.53 


Total, 


245 


160 


405 









2 9 

TABLE XVII. 

DURATION OF TREATMENT OF THOSE RECOVERED FROM THE 

BEGINNING.. 



Number Recovered. 



Under 1 mouth, 

1 tg 2 mouths, 

2 to 3 

3 to 6 
6 to 9 
9 to 12 

12 to 18 

18 to 24 

2 to 3 years, 

3 to 5 " - 
Over 5 " - 



Total, 



tATION. 




Males. 


Females. 


Total. 






44 


13 


57 






41 


14 


58 






4d 


36 


70 






49 


41! 


95 






26 


14 


40 






18 


(i 


24 






12 


13 


25 






1 


7 


8 






4 


3 


7 






6 


6 


12 






1 


2 


3 




245 


160 


405 


i of all, 


- 


5.10 mouths. 


8.33 months. 


G.89 months. 



TABLE XVIII. 

WHOLE DURATION OF DISEASE OF THOSE RECOVERED FROM 
THE BEGINNING. 





Number Recover 


ed. 


DURATION. 










Males. 


Females. 


Total. 


Under 1 mouth, - - - - 


32 


10 


42 


1 to 2 mouths, - - - - 


47 


16 


G3 


2 to 3 

3 to 6 
Gto 9 
9 to 12 


19 
45 
24 

24 


10 
32 
29 

11 


29 
77 
53 
35 


12 to 18 
18 to 24 

2 to 3 years, - 

3 to 5 " 
Over 5 " 


17 

9 

10 

12 

G 


13 

9 

12 

9 
9 


30 
18 
22 
21 
15 




215 


160 


405 


Average duration of all, 


9.69 months. 


14.04 raos. 


11.59 mos. 



3° 



TABLE XIX. 

FORM OF DISEASE OF THOSE RECOVERED FROM THE BEGINNING. 



DISEASE. 



Mania— Acute, 

Chronic, 

Epileptic, 

Puerperal, 

Recurrent, 

Suicidal, 
Delirium Simple, 
Dementia Acute, 
Monomania, 

Methomania, (Inebriates), 
Melancholia— Acute, - 
Chronic, 
Neurasthenia, 

Total, - 



Number Recovered. 


Males. 


Females. 


[Total. 


148 


85 


233 


14 


26 


40 


3 


1 


4 


— 


13 


13 


5 


G 


11 


— 


2 


2 


10 


— 


10 


2 


2 


4 


4 


1 


5 


30 


3 


33 


25 


19 


44 


3 


2 


5 


1 


— 


1 


245 j 


160 


405 



Per Cent Recovered of 
each Form Admitted. 



45 50 
4.09 
5.55 

35.71 



100. 


16 06 


26 06 


52.03 


29.41 


7 G9 


50.00 



36.05 
7.64 
4.53 
54.54 
31.57 
40.00 

25.00 
100.00 

22. 89 

3.3S 



41.98 

5.89 

5.26 

51.54 

33.33 

22.22 

100.00 

21.05 

•26.31 

55.00 

26.19 

5.10 

50.00 



TABLE XX, 

CAUSE (EXCITING) OF DISEASE OF THOSE RECOVERED FROM THE 

BEGINNING. 



CAUSE. 



Anxiety of mind, business and 
otherwise, ... 

Connected with the affections, 

Connected with the fluctua- 
tions of fortune, 

Connected with religion, 

Epilepsy, .... 

Excessive Venerv, 

111 Health, - ' - 

Intemperance, 

Masturbation, 

Nervous Shock, - 

Over Study, 

Puerperal, Pregnancy. Ac, 

Scarlet Fever, - 

Tobacco, .... 

Confinement, 

Over Work, - 

Unknown, .... 

Total, - 



Number Recovered. 


Per Cent Recovered of 








each Class Admitted. 


Males. 


Females. 


Total. 


Males. 


Females. 
3G.36 


Total. 


18 


12 


30 


25.00 


28.57 


12 


10 


22 


28.12 


20.00 


26.82 


8 


1 


9 


50.00 


20.00 


42.85 


13 


9 


22 


■11 83 


36.00 


40.74 


3 


1 


4 


5.77 


4.54 


5.40 


4 


— 


4 


33.33 





33.33 


28 


42 


70 


24. 13 


21.64 


22.57 


75 


9 


84 


46 23 


42.85 


45.90 


10 


— 


10 


L2 53 


— 


11.48 


1 


2 


3 


16.66 


33.33 


25.00 


1 


2 


3 


16.GG 


22.22 


20.00 


— 


16 


16 


— 


43 .24 


13.24 


— 


1 


1 


— 


100.00 


i 


3 


— 


3 


42.85 


— 


42.85 


2 


— 


2 


40.00 


— 


40.00 


1 


4 


5 


4.34 


10.04 


11.33 


66 


51 
1G0 


117 


15.56 


13.50 


I 1 16 


245 


405 




| 





3i 



TABLE XXI 



AGES AT DEATH. 





Within the Year. 


From the Beginning. 


AGE. 




















Males. 


Females. 


Total. 


Males. 


Females . 


Total. 


Under 15, ... 














15 to 20, - 


— 


1 


1 


2 


3 


5 


20 to 25, - 


. — 


— 


— 


8 


7 


15 


25 to 30, 


1 


3 


4 


13 


12 


25 


30 to 35, ... 


_ 


2 


2 


10 


3 


13 


35 to 40, 


1 


1 


2 


i 25 


15 


40 


40 to 45, - 


2 


1 


3 


22 


10 


32 


45 to 50, 


4 


— 


4 


29 


12 


41 


50 to 60, 


3 


1 


4 


38 


20 


58 


60 to 70, 


3 


2' 


5 


38 


20 


58 


70 to 80, ... 


2 


2 


4 


18 


13 


31 


80 to 90, - - . 


— 


1 


1 


5 


6 


11 


Over 90, ... 


~ 






1 


2 


3 


Total, - 


16 


14 


30 


209 

1 


123 


332 



32 



TABLE XXII. 

DEATHS AND THE CAUSES. 



CAUSE. 



Within the Year. From the Beginning. 



Males. Females. 



Total. ,, Males.! Females. Total. 



Atheroma Arteriaunm, - 

Aneurism of Internal Carotid. 

Atrophy of Brain, 

Apoplexy, - 

Bright's Disease, - 

Cancer of Breast, - 

Cancer of Stomach, 

Cancer of Uterus, - 

Cancer, Medullary, 

Carbuncle, - 

Cardiac Hyper trophy, - 

Cardiac Paralysis, - 

Cardiac Thrombosis, 

Cerbral Softening, 

Cirrhosis of Liver, 

Congestion of Lungs, - 

Diarrhoea, - 

Drowning, Accidental, - 

Dysentery, - 

Epilepsy, - 

Erysipelas, - 

Fracture of Larynx, 

Gangrene of Lungs, 

General Paresis, - 
Inanition, - 
Injuries from Fall, 
Leucocytha3mia, - 
Mania, Acute, Exh'n, 
Mania, Chronic, " 
Melancholia, " " 

Meningitis, - 

Nephritis, Acute Desq'tive, - 
Ossification of Cor. Arteries. 
Osteoarthritis Chronica, 
Phthisis Pulmonalis, 
Pleurisy, - 
Pneumonia, - 
Peritonitis, Chronic, 
Pyasmia, - 
Senility, - 

Septicaemia, - 
Shock from Injuries, 
Strangulation by Food, - 
Strangulation by Suicide, 
Syphilis, - " - 
Tuberculosis, 

Tetanus, .... 

Typhomania, 
Undetermined, - 
Ulceration of Gall Bladder, - 
Uterine Hemorrhage, - 
Violence, .... 
Valvular Disuse of Heart, - 

Total, - ~ . 



from, 






1 


1 


- 


3 


17 


2 


8 


— 


1 





1 


— 


1 


1 


1 


1 


1 


— 


] 


— 


1 


— 


3 



lfi 



II 



no 



1 

2 
7 
7 
1 
2 
22 
5 
2 

21 

16 

3 



1 
1 

24 
4 

12 

1 
17 

1 



1 
1 
5 

1 

10 

12 

3 

2 

1 



17 
1 
4 
1 

16 

1 

5 

3 

2 

4 

1 
1 



1 
1 
1 
21 
10 
2 
1 
1 
1 
1 
1 
1 
2 
1 
3 
2 
6 
1 
5 

n 

8 

1 

:t 
23 
10 

2 

1 
31 
28 

6 

2 

1 

1 

1 
41 

.-. 
16 

1 

1 
33 

1 

1 

3 
10 

2 

4 

1 

2 
10 

1 
1 

3 
2 



209 123 332 



33 
TABLE XXIII. 

RATIO OF DEATHS FROM THE BEGINNING. 



PER CENT. 



Total. 



Of all admitted, 

Of average number ill Hospital, 




IS. 75 
7.09 



TABLE XXIV. 

DURATION OF DISEASE OF THOSE WHO DIED FROM THE 
BEGINNING. 





From Admission into 
the Hospital. 


From the Attack. 


DURATION. 












Males. 


Females. 


Total. 


Males. 


Females. 


Total. 


Under 1 month, 


32 


19 


51 


6 


8 


14 


1 to 2 months, 


12 


10 


22 


9 


4 


13 


2 to 3 " 


26 


3 


29 


9 


3 


12 


3 to 6 " 


24 


13 


37 


11 


4 


15 


G to 9 " 


19 


5 


24 


14 


5 


19 


9 to 12 " 


14 


5 19 


8 


6 


]4 


12 to 18 " 


24 


1G 40 


21 





27 


18 to 24 " 


5 


4 


9 


19 


7 


26 


2 to 3 years, 


IN 


15 


33 


20 


10 


30 


3 to 5 " 


15 


19 


34 


29 


20 


49 


5 to 10 " 


18 


13 


31 


24 


25 


49 


10 to 15 " 


2 


1 3 


14 


8 


22 


15 to 20 " 


— 


— — 


10 





16 


20 to 25 


— 


— 


5 


1 


6 


25 to 30 " 


■ — 


— — 


3 


1 


4 


30 to 40 " 


— 


— — 


3 


4 


7 


40 to 50 


— 


— — , 


1 


2 


3 


Unknown, 






3 


3 


6 




Months. 


Months. Months. 


Years. 


Years. 


Years. 


Average of all, 


19.78 


25.88 ; 22.04 


5.37 


6.73 


5.92 



34 



TABLE XXV. 

REMAINING IN THE HOSPITAL AT THE END OF THE YEAR. 



AGE. 



Under 15, 
15 to 20, 
20 to 25, 
25 to 30, 
30 to 35, 
35 to 40, 
40 to 45, 
45 to 50, 
50 to 60, 
60 to 70, 
70 to 80, 
80 to 90, 
Over 90, 

Total, 



Males. 


Females. 


Total. 


1 




1 


2 


1 


3 


17 


9 


26 


29 


29 


58 


41 


30 


71 


36 


51 


87 


32 


46 


78 


23 


29 


52 


36 


49 


86 


23 


22 


45 


8 


9 


17 


3 


2 


5 








251 


277 


528 



TABLE XXVI. 

REMAINING AT THE END OF THE YEAR -DURATION OF THE 

DISEASE. 





Since Admission. 


Since the Attack. 




Males. 


Females. 


Total. 


Males. 


Females. 
1- 


Total. 


Under 1 month, - 


6 


9 


15 


1 


2 


1 to 2 months, - 


3 


12 


15 


— 


2 


2 


2 to 3 


4 


8 


12 


1 


11 


12 


3 to 6 " 


10 


33 


43 


3 


6 


9 


(i to 9 " 


16 


31 


47 


4 


7 


11 


9 to 12 " 


10 


7 


17 


5 


14 


19 


12 to 18 " 


14 


13 


27 


6 


10 


16 


18 to 24 " - 


17 


9 


26 


8 


10 


18 


2 to 3 years, 


30 


16 


46 


21 


38 


59 


3 to 5 ... 


28 


22 


50 


33 


77 


110 


5 to 10 " 


74 


72 


1 16 


1,11 


30 


90 


10 to 15 " 


39 


45 


84 


39 


31 


711 


15 to 20 " . . . 


— 


— 


— 


22 


16 


38 


20 to 25 " 


— 


— 


— 


12 


(i 


18 


25 to 30 " 


— 


— 


— 


5 


5 


in 


30 to 40 " ... 


— 


— 


— 


9 


3 


12 


Over 40 " 


— 


— 


— 




4 


I 


Unknown, - 


— 


277 


— 


22 


6 

277 


28 


Total, --- - 


251 


528 


251 


528 



35 



TABLE XXVII. 

REMAINING AT THE END OF THE YEAR-PROSPECT. 



PROSPECT. 


Males. 


Females. 


Total. 


Gamble, 

Incurable, - 


15 
236 


23 
254 


38 
490 


Total, 


251 


277 


528 



TABLE XXVIII. 

ADMISSIONS FROM CAUSES. 



CAUSES. 



Anx'ty of mind, bus. and other 
Apoplexy, - - - - 
Confinement, - 
Congenital, - 

Connected with the affections 
Domestic difficulties, - 
Dissipation, - 
Epilepsy, - - - - 
Excessive Yenery, 
Fluctuations of fortune, 
Hysteria, - - - - 
111 Healtb, - - - - 
Injury to Head, - 
Intemperance, 
Masturbation, 
Menopausis, 
Meningitis Acute, 
Nervous Shock, - 
Nostalgia, - - - - 
Not Insane, 

Old Age, .-- - 
Over Study, - 
Scarlatina, - - - - 
Tvphoid Fever, - 
Over Work, 
Partial Insolation, 
Puerperal, State and Preguar. 
Religion, - - - - 
Syphilis, - 

Tobacco, - - - - 
Tuberculosis, 
Uterine Disease, 
Unknown, - - - - 

Total, - - - - 



cy. 



Within the Year. 



S 



1 

1 

11 

4 



fe 



1 
2 
1 

1 
2 
2 
19 
5 



From the Beginning. 



72 

10 

5 

1 

32 

5 

52 
12 

10 

116 
11 

162 
79 



fe 



33 

1 

2 

50 
7 
1 

22 

5 

1 
194 
1 
21 
8 
5 
2 

3 



3 


— 


3 


19 


4 


4 


2 


C 


10 
6 

1 


14 
9 
1 


1 





1 




1 


1 


•1 


2 


1 


5 


(i 


23 


21 


1 


. — 


1 


5 


— 


— 


3 


3 


— 


37 


— 


— 


— 


19 


25 


2 




2 


6 

7 


— 


— 


5 


5 


1 


7 


33 


29 


02 


424 


385 


73 


71 


144 


1114 


807 



105 

11 

5 

3 

82 

12 

1 

74 

12 

21 

1 

310 

12 

18° 

87 

5 

2 

12 

3 

23 

24 

15 

2 

6 

41 

5 

37 

54 

6 

7 

1 

7 

809 






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37 



TABLE XXX. 



ADMISSIONS AND DISCHARGES— EATIO PER CENT. 



Admissions from Causes : 

Anxiety of Mind and Over-study, 
Apoplexy, ------ 

Connected with the Affections, - 
Connected with fluctuations of Fortune, 
Connected with Eeligion, - - - 

Epilepsy, - 

Ill Health, 

Intemperance, ----- 

Masturbation, 

Old Age, ------ 

Puerperal, 

Unknown, 

Recovered of all Cases Admitted: 
Under one Year, - 
One Year and Over, - - - - 
Deaths of all under care, - - - 
Deaths of average number in Hospital, 



Within 
the Year. 



5.55 
.69 

4.16 



1.38 

1.38 

13.19 

3.47 
4.16 

2.77 
43.05 

26.92 

17.3'.) 
4.58 
5.83 



From the 
Beginning. 



5.30 
.55 
4.13 
1.05 
2.72 
3.73 

15.04 
0.23 
4.39 
1.22 
1.80 

40.85 

32.90 
9.80 

10.75 
7.09 



38 



Swasurpp's JRpprf. 



The following statement of the fiscal concerns of "The Connecticut 
Hospital for the Insane," for the term commencing December ist, 
1879, an d ending November 30th, 1880, is respectfully submitted 
to the Board of Trustees : 

RECEIPTS. . 

Balance in hands of the Treasurer, Dec. ist, 1879, ■ $ 22 3 22 

Revenue account from the Hospital, ... 114,438 94 



$114,662 16 



PAYMENTS. 



Amount of Superintendent's orders, - ... $114,349 52 
Balance in hands of Treasurer Nov. 30, 1880, - - 312 64 



All of which is respectfully submitted. 

M. B. COPELAND, 



$114,662 16 



Treasurer. 



MlDDLETOWN, CONN., Dec ISt, l88o. 
We hereby certify that we have examined the vouchers and accounts 
of the Hospital, of which the above is an abstract, and find them correct. 

II. Sidney Hayden, ) r,. 

Henry Woodward, I ^ man " 
J. W. Alsop, M. D. [ Co »i»""«- 



39 



jSujpmnfpnbpnfs ^inanrialt JRpprh 



DEBTOR. 

Dec. i, 1879. To cash on hand, - - $28 99 

" " To balance with Treasurer, 223 22 

Nov. 30, 1880. To revenue for year, 114,438 94 















$114,691 


15 






CREDIT. 










Dec, 


1879. 


By Vouchers, - 


- 


$11,712 


52 




Jan., 


1880. 




' 


- 


5.467 


25 




Feb., 


< c 




' 


- 


10,609 


49 




March, 


i t 




' 


- 


8,391 


56 




April, 


" 




' 


- 


8,186 


30 




May, 


i i 




' 


- 


9,520 


54 




June, 


( t 




1 


- 


10,426 


64 




July, 


i i 




' 


- 


8,493 


06 




August, 


" 




' 


- 


U,33° 


96 




Sept., 


" 




' 


- 


8,235 


00 




Oct., 


< ( 




' 


- 


10,528 


95 




Nov., 


c t 




' 


- 


9- 2 53 


48 














— $114,155 


75 


Nov. 30 


, 1880. 


By Cash on hand, 


- 


- 


222 


76 


n t < 




By balance with Treasi 


irer 


) 


312 


64 








$114,691 


15 



We hereby certify 'that we have examined vouchers and accounts of 
the Connecticut Hospital for Insane, for the year ending Nov. 30, 1880, 
and find the same to be correct. Also, that there remained in the hands 
of the Superintendent of said Institution, the sum of $222.76 in cash, 
and in the hands of the Treasurer the sum of $312.64 in cash, making a 
total of $535.40 cash on hand at the above date. 

Greene Kendrick, ) Auditors of Institutions 
J. C. HAMMOND, Jr., i Receiving State Aid, &°c. 



■S3I.I3DO.IQ 



•}^IV T 



•jnou 



"H S !.I 



O momTt 1^ mco so n on 
p o pA. pi os dscd po i-Aso cs o\ 

N*C N oco oo MnO\0 IA 

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42 



Kpppnbif. 



-A.ID2s^ISSI02^T O^ PA.TLENTS. 

i . Whenever a patient is sent to the Hospital by the order of the Pro- 
bate Court, the order or warrant, or a copy thereof, by which the person 
is sent, shall be lodged with the Superintendent. 

2. Each patient, before admission, shall be made perfectly clean, and 
be free from vermin, or any contagious or infectious disease. 

3. Each male patient shall be provided with at least two shirts, one 
woolen coat, one woolen vest, one pair woolen pantaloons, two pair new 
socks, one pair new shoes or boots, and one comfortable outside garment. 

Each female patient shall, in addition to a quantity of under-clothing, 
shoes and stockings corresponding to that required for the male patient, 
have one flannel petticoat, two good dresses, one cloak or other good 
outside garment. Extra and better apparel is very desirable for Chapel 
worship and out-of-door's exercise and riding. 

4. In all cases the patient's best clothing should be sent ; it will be 
carefully preserved, and only used when deemed necessary for the pur- 
pose above mentioned. Jewelry, and all superfluous articles of dress, 
knives, etc., should be left at home, as they are liable to be lost, and for 
them the officers of the Hospital are not responsible. 

5. A written history of the case should be sent with the patient, and, 
if possible, some one acquainted with the individual should accompany 
him to the Hospital, from whom minute, but often essential, particulars 
may be learned. 

6. The price of board, including washing, mending and attendance, 
for all who are supported at the public charge, is four dollars per week. 

7. Pauper patients, or those supported partly by the towns in which 
they reside, and partly by the State, are admitted agreeably to Section 
1, Chap. 103, Public Acts, 1878. 

8. Indigent persons, or those possessing little property, and partly 
supported by friends and partly by the State, are admitted under Section 
1, Chap. 103, Public Acts, 1878. 

9. Private patients, or those supported by themselves or their friends, 
are admitted to the Hospital under Section 2, Chap. 103, Public Acts, 
1878. 

10. Visitors are admitted to the institution between the hours often 
A. M. and twelve, M., and between two and four P. M. on Mondays, 
Wednesdays and Fridays only, but no visitors shall be admitted to the 
Wards occupied by patients without express permission from the Super- 
intendent, and especial care is to be taken that no amount of visiting is 
permitted that might prove injurious to the patients. 



43 
llnusc Bill X<>. / /. 

CHAPTER CICL 



An Act concerning Connecticut Hospital for the Insane. 

/)'<• it enacted by the Senate and House of Representatives in General 
Assembly convened : 

Sec. i. When any pauper in any town may be insane, a selectman of 
such town shall apply to the judge of probate of the district wherein said 
pauper resides, for his admission to said hospital ; and said judge shall 
appoint a respectable physician, who shall fully investigate the facts of 
the case, and report to said judge, and if such physician shall be satisfied 
that said pauper is insane, the judge shall order such selectmen forthwith 
to take such insane pauper to the hospital, where he shall be kept and 
supported so long as may be requisite, and two dollars and fifty cents of 
the expense of his support shall be paid by the town legally chargeable 
with his support, and the balance by the State ; and when an indigent 
person, not a pauper, is insane, application may be made in his behalf to 
the judge of probate for the district where he resides, who shall appoint 
a respectable physician and a Selectman of the town where said indigent 
person resides, who shall fully investigate the facts and report to said 
judge, who, if satisfied that such person is indigent and insane, shall 
order him to be taken, by the person making the application, to the hos- 
pital, where he shall be kept and supported as long as may be re- 
quisite ; and half of the expenses of his support shall be paid by the 
State, and half by the person making the application : and when a 
judge shall issue an order for the admission of any pauper or indigent 
person to the hospital, he shall record it, and immediately transmit a 
duplicate to the governor. 

Sec. 2. The trustees may authorize the superintendent to admit 
patients into the hospital, under special agreements, when there are 
vacancies. 

Sec. 3. The price for keeping any pauper or indigent person shall be 
fixed by the trustees, and shall not exceed the sum of four dollars per 
week, and shall be payable quarterly. 

Sec. 4. There shall be taxed monthly, by the comptroller, one dollar 
and fifty cents for each week's board at said hospital, and two dollars 
for each week's board at any other hospital or asylum for the insane, of 
all insane paupers belonging to towns in this State, committed in pur- 
suance of the first section of this act, and two dollars for each week's 
board at said hospital and one-half of the expense of each week's board 
at any other hospital or asylum for the insane of all insane indigent per- 
sons committed in pursuance of said first section of this act ; and the 
superintendent of each of said institutions shall make the bill therefor, 
and present it to the governor, upon whose approval it shall be paid from 
the State treasury. 

Sec. 6. This act shall take effect from its passage. 

Approved March 29, 1878. 



REPORT 



OF 



- p P 

^ommitte* on Mditional lUilifings 



FOR THE 



ACCOMODATION OF THE INSAN 



F 



AT 



MIDDLETOWN. 



Printed fey Ofdef of tl\e GfeneiSd S^en\bly. 



HARTFORD, CONN.: 

Press of The Case, Lockwood & Brainard Co. 
1881. 



JJtatc of Comucticwt. 



REPORT. 



To the Honorable General Assembly of the State of Connec- 
ticut : 

Under a resolution of the General Assembly, January ses- 
sion, 1880, entitled, " Concerning an addition to the Insane 
Asylum at Middletown," the undersigned were appointed by 
His Excellency Gov. Andrews as a committee to carry out the 
provisions of said resolution. And it is made a part of their 
duty to report to the General Assembly now in session. 

In pursuance of the duty assigned, the committee entered 
at once upon their work, holding their first meeting in Hart- 
ford, April 13, 1880. Their first business was to make them- 
selves acquainted with the plans and estimates which had been 
adopted by the legislature. 

These plans and estimates had been submitted to the legis- 
lature in 1879 by a commission which had given the subject 
much time and careful consideration. To gain a fuller knowl- 
edge of said plans and estimates, it became necessary to con- 
fer with G. W. Russell, M. D., the chairman of said commis- 
sion, and with Geo. Keller, Esq., employed by the commission 
as architect. Both of these gentlemen courteously responded 
to an invitation to meet the committee and to explain the 
general plan and the details, so far as they had been worked 
out. The committee found that it would be for the interest 
of the State to retain the services of Mr. Keller as their archi- 
tect, and they ratified the conditional arrangement which the 
commission had made with him. 

Mr. Keller was at once to make the drawings and specifi- 
cations, to furnish the working plans as needed, and to have 
general superintendence of the construction of the building. 



The committee made a contract with C. B. Richards, Esq., 
mechanical engineer, to furnish suitable plans and specifica- 
tions for the boilers and the steam-heating apparatus. 

The drawings and specifications of the architect and en- 
gineer were prepared with all possible care and dispatch. The 
many details of a work of this magnitude required frequent 
meetings of the committee, not only for consultation with 
the architect and engineer, but with practical builders, who 
were asked to look over the specifications. Some valuable 
suggestions were received from them. The committee were 
also greatly assisted by the judicious advice of Dr. Russell, 
who was frequently present at their deliberations. Likewise' 
by Dr. Shew, who has heartily cooperated by his counsels and 
efforts to give the work its highest success. 

To both of these gentlemen the committee are under great 
obligations. 

The committee met, at an early date, the trustees of the 
asylum. The matter of the bakery, laundry, and apartments 
for insane convicts came up for consideration. It was desira- 
ble to have only one bakery and one laundry for the whole 
institution. The present ones were insufficient. It had been 
suggested in the report to the legislature, in 1879, that the 
present laundry was to be enlarged by the addition of the 
bakery, and a new bakery was to be erected at a cost of thirty- 
five hundred dollars ($3,500). But at this time the trustees 
had decided to enlarge the bakery and build a new laundry. 
The committee contracted with them for the same, and agreed 
to pay thirty-five hundred dollars ($3,500) whenever the ex- 
penditure should be made. The building has since been 
erected and the money paid. When all the plans were 
matured, some apprehension was felt that the work could not 
be done within the appropriation. This grew out of the large 
advance in labor and material, and the adverse opinions ad- 
vanced by some practical builders. This led to the consider- 
ation of certain changes, chiefly in dispensing with certain 
features of ornamentation, whereby something could be saved, 
and yet not interfere with the general plan. 

Proposals were solicited for a partor'the whole of the work, 



and for the work as specified or modified. A large number 
of sealed proposals were received after due notice had been 
given in the papers. These were opened May 24. 
3 The committee found that they could contract with responsi- 
ble parties without any material alteration of the plans or 
specifications. 

Contracts were made as follows : 

Watson Tryon, mason work, - - $52,557.69 

J. W. Hubbard & Co., joiner work, - - 32,811.63 

A. M. Shew, superintendent " sewer," - - - ^ 777.47 

Walworth Manufacturing Co., steam-heating, - 7,990.75 

George Maehl, plumbing, - - 3,720.00 

Peter Amermau, boilers, ■ 1,750.00 

M. F. Clark & Co., slate-rooting, - - - 4 ,700.00 

$104,307.54 

The contracts were thought favorable for the State by prac- 
tical men, and appeared so by the higher bidding of responsi- 
ble parties. The sewer contract made with Dr. Shew, super- 
intendent, called for a large amount of digging— a trench, 
altogether, 1,500 feet it length, and to a depth, in places, of 
13 feet. This was done chiefly by the insane convicts, at a 
nominal cost to the State. 

Other contracts are made as follows : 

George Keller, Architect, 
A. W. Shay, "Kitchen," . 
u " » " Furniture," 
Trustees of Hospital, "Laundry," 
C. B. Richards, Engineer, 



$3,000.00 

1,550.00 

7,621.85 

3,500.00 

300.00 

15,971.85 



Leaving an unapproprated balance of $9,720.61. 

A careful list of all the articles needed for furnishing the 
building was prepared. Many of these could be made in the 
Asylum. The committee found that for this reason they could 
make a more favorable contract with the superintendent, and 
besides they would secure his valuable services in the matter 
of selection and supervision. 



When the contracts had all been made with responsible 
parties to fully complete and furnish the building, and having 
a balance unappropriated which was deemed sufficient for aU 
incidental and contingent expenses, the contractors were 
notified to begin work at once. Ground was broken about 
the middle of June. The work has been pushed forward 
with all reasonable dispatch. Some delaj has been occasioned 
by the want of moulded brick, otherwise the buildings would 
have been entirely closed in. The early setting in of winter 
lias also retarded the outside work. 

All of the buildings are inclosed, with a single exception, 
and this one is nearly ready for the roof. 
_ The steam heating apparatus is in, which will allow the 
inside finishing to go on. 

The committee have given much personal attention to the 
building, though the work has been done under the general 
direction of the architect and under the immediate supervision 
ol J. JJ. Sibley, a competent, practical builder. 

The contractors have, as a general thing, fulfilled their 
contracts to the acceptance of the committee. 

The buildings have been located at the south of the present 
Asylum, beginning at a distance of 138 feet, and on a line -10 
feet east of the rear line of the present building. They consist 
of the center building, and the two wings joined to the center 
by a corridor. The middle building has a front of 103 feet' 
and each wing 150 feet. The kitchen, store-rooms, and boiler 
house are m (lie rear of the center building. The buildings 
arc of brick, three stories in height. The first story of the 
center building will be for the dining halls, the second story 
for the resident physicians, offices and sewing-rooms the 
upper story for attendants and nurses. 

The clock-tower rises from the entrance of the center build- 
ing. All the buildings have a steep, pitched roof. There 
will be accommodation for 262 patients, and more rooms can 
be made if needed. 

The apartments contemplated in the resolution for (he 
insane convicts are in the lower story of the south wing. 

The additional contracts and expenditures made from June 
1st to Dec. 22d arc as follows: 



Watson Tryon, "Additional," 


$204.80 




" " "Laying closet floor," 


25.00 




"Coal Vault," . 


917.75 




J. W. Hubbard & Co., "Additional," 


124.80 




A. M. Shew, Coal, 


560.00 




" " " Additional Pipe, 


141.75 




" " " Extra digging, 


35.00 




J. H. Sibley, 


875.25 




Committee, Disbursements, ' . 


204.18 




Sundries to Oct. 12th, 1880, 


339.58 




S. C. Johnson & Co., "Iron Stairs," 


110.00 




Insurance, 


125.00 




George Maehl, "Additional, " 


201.02 


3,864.13 


Contracts, 




104,307.54 


Additional, . 




15,971.85 


Unappropriated Balance, Dec. 22, 188C 


, 


5,856.48 




$139,000.00 



The most important items axe the contract for the coal 
vault, one hundred tons of coal, and the sum paid for super- 
vision. 

The contracts call for the completion of the buildings on 
the first of May next. There is every reason to believe that 
it will be completed on or about that time. 

In the erection of these buildings the committee have kept 
in mind that they were designed for the indigent insane. The 
plans adopted contemplated every essential comfort without 
extravagant expenditure, and therefore little has been appro- 
ated for ornamentation. The committee have aimed to build 
a durable structure, requiring in their contracts the best of 
work and the best of materials of every sort. And they have 
sought to provide, in the arrangements of every part, all the 
appliances desirable and necessary for the convenience and 
easy working of the institution. Should the roof-tower, or 
any part, be criticised as too expensive, it may be borne in 
mind that the cost per patient is only $490, while in some 
other institutions the cost has reached as high as $3,000 per 
patient. In view of this economy, and to relieve the otherwise 
plainness of the structure, the wisdom of the Legislature that 



provided for thus much of ornamentation can hardly be ques- 
tioned. n 

TABLE SHOWING THE COST, ETC., OP HOSPITALS FOR 
THE INSANE, ERECTED SINCE 1865. 



Name. 



Danvers, 

Worcester, 

Middletown, 

Hudson River, 

Willard, 

Buffalo, 

Morristown, 

Danville, 

"Warren, 

Kalamazoo, 

Columbus, 

Elgin, 

Oshkosh, 

Independence. 

Middletown ,*' 



State. 



Cost. 



Mass. 

Conn. 
N. Y. 



N. J. 
Penn. 

II 

Mich. 

Ohio. 

111. 

Wis. 

Iowa. 

Conn. 



$1,609,718.89 
1,162,577.77 
684,109.09 
1,697,665.08 
1,513,664.77 
1,096,352.71 
2,500,000.00 
1,008,303.99 
900,000.00 
653,899.00 
1,520,199.17 
534,011.00 
552.597.00 
600,000.00 
130,000.00 



No. of 
Patients. 



500 
450 
475 
300 
1,395 
232 
900 
450 
450 
580 
500 
460 
559 
300 
262 



Average Cost 
per Capita. 



$3,219.43 

2,583.50 

1,440.23 

5,658.88 

1,092.23 

4,725.65 

2,777.77 

2,240 67 

2,000.00 

1,127.00 

3,040.40 

1,160.00 

988.54 

2,000.00 

490.00 



The receipts and expenditures up to Dec. 22, 1880 are 
as follows : 



RECEIPTS. 



From State of Connecticut, 



$69,689.97 



EXPENDITURES. 

H. E. Taintor, atty., 

Geo. Keller, architect, 

C. B. Richards, mechanical engineer, 

Phelps & Chatfield, "experts," 
Printing, 

Committee expenses, 

E. P. Augur, surveying, etc., 

A. M. Shew, sewer contract, etc., 

J. W. Hubbard & Co., joiner contract, 

Watson Tryon, masonwork contract, 



SI 00.00 

20.00 

300.00 

15.00 

163.58 

204.18 

42.00 

6,714.00 

11,440.59 

38,289.37 



•Additional buildings. 



J. H. Sibley, salary, etc., - $875.25 

Geo. Maehl. plumbing contract, - - 1,542.00 

Trustees of Hospital, laundry contract. - 3,500.00 

Loveland, carriage-hire, - - 19.00 

Peter Amerman, boiler contract, - 1,750.00 

W. F. Clark & Co., slate roof contract, - 2,500.00 

C. C. Kimball & Co.. insurance, - - 125.00 

S. C. Johnson & Co., iron stairs. - 110.00 



$69,689.97 



[Copy of Auditors' Certificate.] 
Hartford County, ss., Hartford, Dec. 22d, 1880. 
We hereby certify that we have examined the foregoing 
account and find the same duly vouched and correct. 

(Signed) GREENE KENDRICK, 

J. C. HAMMOND, JR., 

Auditors of institutions aided by appropriations. 

All of which is respectfully submitted. 

M. STORRS, 

W. J. ATWATER, 

CHAS. G. R. VINAL. 



REPORT 



OF THF 



JOINT STANDING COMMITTEE 



ON 



Humane Institutions 



ON 



House Joint Resolution No. 161, 



de 



INSANE ASYLUM AT MIDDLETOWN. 



Printed by Otfdetf of tlje I<egif*lkttrfe. 



HARTFORD, CONN.: 
Press of The Case, Locktvood & Brain ard Company. 

1881. 



REPORT. 



General Assembly, 
January Session, A. D. 1881. 

The Joint Standing Committee on Humane Institutions, to 
whom was referred House Joint Resolution No. 161, being a 
resolution, "That a commission consisting of three persons, 
one of whom shall lie an expert book-keeper, be appointed by 
the Governor to make a thorough investigation of the finan- 
cial affairs and general business management of the Insane 
Asylum at Middletown, to report to the next General Assem- 
bly," beg leave to report : 

That, after the said Committee received the resolution, they 
made every effort to procure the appearance of any and all 
persons who might be able to furnish any information which 
would show cause why a commission should be appointed. 
As various rumors had been set afloat relative to the financial 
management of said institution, and as the names of several 
gentlemen had been connected with the rumors, the Commit- 
tee made personal application to these gentlemen, who, in 
answer to enquiries, expressed themselves as having the 
fullest confidence in every officer connected with the Asylum, 
and furthermore gave it as their opinion that an investigation 
of the management and business affairs of the Asylum would 
result in a full and complete exoneration from the slightest 
suspicion of every officer in any way connected with said insti- 
tution, and concluded by saying, in substance, that they 
believed the Insane Asylum at Middletown was conducted 
upon a sound business basis and for the best interests of the 
state. At the third hearing of the Committee, a gentleman 
who has audited the accounts of the institution for the past 



five years appeared and gave substantial testimony in favor of 
the present management. 

Previous to the last hearing relative to this matter, the 
Committee gave an extended notice to the members of both 
branches of this Assembly of the time and place for a final 
hearing, and at the same time requested any member of the 
General Assembly who could furnish information, or could 
furnish to the Committee any facts which would lead to 
information concerning this matter, to do so. When the 
time for said hearing arrived no person appeared. 
- Furthermore, the Committee have made a personal investi- 
gation, and have arrived at these conclusions: 

That the said Insane Asylum is managed upon strict and 
sound business principles ; that they have the fullest confi- 
dence in the integrity of the managers and officers; they 
firmly believe that if a commission were appointed for the 
purpose mentioned in the resolution, it would be casting 
unjust reflection upon honorable and trustworthy gentlemen, 
who are filling the positions which they occupy with great 
credit to themselves and with true fidelity to the state. 

The Committee are, therefore, unanimously of the opinion 
that the resolution ought not to pass. 

Respectfully submitted, 

M. W. PEMBER, 
Chairman on the part of the House, for the Committee. 



ST-A.TE OF CONNECTICUT. 



ANNUAL REPORT 



OF 



Tl\e £or\i)Q6ti6ut Sstfidulttrfkl 



EXPERIMENT STATION 



For 1880. 



PRINTED BY ORDER OF THE LEGISLATURE. 



NEW HAVEN: 

TUTTLE, MOREHOUSE & TAYLOR, PRINTERS. 
188 1. 



OFFICERS 



OF 



| ; he Connecticut Igricuttural jraqrim^nt Ration, 



Executive 
Committee. 



1880. 



STATE BOARD OF CONTROL. 

His Exc. C. B. ANDREWS, Litchfield. President. Ex-officio. 

Hon. E. H. HYDE, Stafford, Vice-President. Term expires, 1882. 

Prof. W. 0. ATWATER. Middletown. " 1882. 

T. S. GOLD, West Cornwall. " 1883. 

EDWIN HOYT, New Canaan. " 1880. 

" JAMES J. WEBB, Hamden. " 1881. 

- W. H. BREWER, New Haven, Sec' y and Treas. " 1881. 

, S. W. JOHNSON, New Haven, Director. Ex-officio. 



Chemists. 
E. (1. JENKINS, Ph.D. 
H. P. ARMSBY, Ph.D. 
H. L. WELLS, Ph.B., to July, 1880. 
C. A. HUTCHINSON, B.S., since Sept., 1880. 



His Exc. Hobart B. Bigelow, of New Haven, is President of the Board of 
Control for 1881. The other officers for 1881 are as above. 



.ANNOUNCEMENT. 



The Connecticut Agricultural Experiment Station was established in 
accordance with an Act of the General Assembly, approved March 21, 1877, " for 
the purpose of promoting Agriculture by scientific investigation and experiment." 

The Station is prepared to analyze and test fertilizers, cattle-food, seeds, soils, 
waters, milks, and other agricultural materials and products, to identify grasses, 
weeds, and useful or injurious iusects, and to give information on the various 
subjects of Agricultural Science, for the use and advantage of the Citizens of 
Connecticut. 

The Station makes analyses of Fertilizers and Seed-Tests for the Citizens of 
Connecticut without charge, provided — 

1. That the results are of use to the public and are free to publish. 

2. That the samples are taken by consumers from stock now in the market, and 
in accordance with the Station instructions for sampling. 

3. That the samples are fully described on the Station '■ Forms for Description.'' 
All work proper to the Experiment Station that can be used for the public 

benefit, will be made without charge. Work done for the use of individuals will 
be charged for at moderate rates. The Station will undertake no work, the results 
of which are not at its disposal to use or publish, if deemed advisable for the 
public good. 

Samples of Commercial Fertilizers. Seeds, etc., will be examined in the order 
of their coming: but when many samples of one brand or kind are sent in, the 
Station will make a selection for analysis. 

The results of each analysts or examination will be promptly communicated 
to the party sending the sample. Results that are of general interest will be 
sent simultaneously to all the newspapers of the State for publication. 

The officers of the Station will lake pains to obtain for analysis samples of all 
the commercial fertilizers sold in Connecticut; but the organized cooperation of 
the farmers is essential for the full and timely protection of their interests. 
Farmers' Clubs and like Associations can efficiently work with the Station for 
this purpose, by sending in samples early during each season of trade. 

It is the wish of the Board of Control to make the Station as widely useful 
as its resources will admit. Every Connecticut citizen who is concerned in 
agriculture, whether farmer, manufacturer, or dealer, has the right to apply to 
the Station for any assistance that comes within its province to render, and the 
Station will respond to all applications as far as lies in its power. 

Ig^ 3 * Instructions and Forms for taking samples, and Terms for testing Fertil- 
izers, Seeds, etc., for private parties, sent on application. 

£^~ Parcels by Express, to receive attention, should be prepaid, and all 
communications should be directed to 

AGRICULTURAL EXPERIMENT STATION, 

NEW HAVEN, CONN. 
P. 0. Box, 945. 

Laboratory and Office, in East Wing of Sheffield Hall, Grove St., head of College St. 



CONTENTS. 



Page 

Officers of the Station, _ 2 

Announcement, 3 

Contents, 4 

Report of the Board of Control, . 7 

Report of the Treasurer, . 8 

Report of the Director, 9 

Summary of Station Work, 9 

Station Bulletins 10 

Present Resources of the Station, 10 

Wants of the Station, 10 

Experimental Ground, 11 

Plant House, 12 

Working Reference Library. 13 

Commercial Fertilizers, 13 

Instructions for Sampling, . 14 

Form for Description . 16 

Explanations of Analysis and Valuation 17 

Nitrogen, Organic, 17 

Ammonia, - . .- 17 

Nitric Acid. . 17 

Phosphoric Acid, soluble, 18 

" " reverted, 18 

" " insoluble, 18 

Potash, - 18 

Valuation defined,. 18 

Average Trade- Values for 1879 and 1880. 19 

Estimating the Value of a fertilizer, . 19 

Uses of Valuation, 20 

The Agricultural Value of a fertilizer 20 

Trade Values for 1881, 21 

Analyses and Valuation of Fertilizers 21 

Superphosphates, Guanos, etc., 22 

Tables of Analysis and Valuation, 24-25 

Comparison of different samples of the same Brand 26 

Pollard's Privy Guano, - 26 

Bone Manures, 28 

Method of Valuation, 28 

Analyses, 30 

Dried Blood and Tankage, 34 



CONNECTICUT AGRICULTURAL EXPERIMENT STATION. .") 

Page 
Report of the Director : Analyses and Valuation of Fertilizers — 

Fish Scrap or Fish Guano, - 36 

Buffalo I lorn Shavings, - - 36 

Castor Pomace and Cotton Seed Meal, . . 36 

Sulphate of Ammonia, - 37 

Nitrate of Soda, --- 38 

Potash Salts, - 38 

Wood Ashes, unleached and leached, 39 

Land Plaster, 41 

Products of Salt Manufacture, 42 

Stable Manure, from New York City 43 

Vegetable Ivory Sawdust and Turnings, 44 

Special Fertilizers, Forrester. Bowker, Stockbridge, Matfield, 45 

Table of analyses and valuation, 46, 47 

Comparison of analyses with Guarantees, 48 

Comparison of special manures according to brand and crop, 50-51 

Cost of Active Ingredients of Fertilizers during 1880, _ 49 

Organic Nitrogen, -- 49 

Nitrogen in the form of Ammonia Salts and Nitrates 49 

Soluble Phosphoric Acid, 52 

Reverted " '" 52 

Insoluble " " 52 

Potash, 52 

Swamp Muck and Peat, .. 52 

Table of Analyses of Swamp Muck, fifteen samples, 54 

Barrenness of, due to iron-salts, 55 

Experiments on the Effects of Alkalies in Developing the Fertilizing 

Power of Peat, 58 

Influence of Lime on the Effect of Fertilizers, c,0 

Relative Fertilizing Value of Soluble and Reverted Phosphoric Acid,. 60 

Leather Chips, - 65 

Professor Storer's Experiments, 66 

Apple Pomace, — 67 

Soils, 67 

Barren Earth from under stable, 69 

Analyses, .- 70, 71 

Action of excess of Urine, 71 

Florida Magnesian Limestone, 73 

Fodder and Feeding Stuffs, , 74 

List of Feeding Stuffs Analyzed, 74 

Manual of Cattle Feeding by Dr. H. P. Armsby, 74 

Explanations of Analyses, etc., 74 

Money Values, 75 

Albuminoids and Carbhydrates, use in Food, 75,76 

Table of Composition, etc., of Feeding Stuffs, 78 

Maize and Maize Meal, description of nine samples analyzed, 79 

Water-Content of Market Corn, 79 

Analyses, .. 81 



6 CONNECTICUT AGRICULTURAL EXPERIMENT STATION. 

Page 
Report of the Director : Fodder and Feeding Stuffs — 

Comparative Value of the Corn Meal and shelled Corn in 

Market, - 82 

On choice of Varieties of Maize, 83 

Hay, 83 

Analyses, 83 

Remarks on Analyses by Dr. Armsby, 84 

Cotton Seed Meal, 84 

Wheat Flour, 85 

Dust of Vegetable Ivory, 86 

Kiln-Dried Brewers' Grains. 87 

Comparison with Oats, 88 

Poisons, — 89 

London Purple. 89 

The West Avon Poison Case, 89 

Symptoms of Cattle poisoned by oxalic acid, 89 

Paris Green on Corn Stalks, 90 

What becomes of the Rain Fall ? 

Its Evaporation and Percolation. Inquiry by J. M. Hubbard, Esq., 91 

Answer, .... - - - 92 

The lysimeter, invented by Dalton, .. 92 

Observations on percolation by Dickinson, 93 

" Dalton,... 93 

" '• Greaves, 93 

" •■ La wes and Gilbert, 93 

" '• Dr. Sturtevant. 94 

" " Prof. Stockbridge, 94 

Dr. Wollny, 94 

Seed Tests, - - - - 96 

Instructions for Sampling Seeds. 100 

Form for Description of Seeds, 101 

Form for Report of Seed Tests. 102 

Determination of Phosphoric Acid in Commercial Fertilizers, 103 

Determination of Phosphoric Acid in Citric Solution, 104 

Comparisons between the Citric and Molybdic methods, 112 

Law Concerning sale of Fertilizers. 115 

Act Establishing Connecticut Agricultural Experiment Station, 116 

Act relating to Printing Reports, 118 

Index - "9-122 



REPORT OF THE BOARD OF CONTROL. 



To the General Assembly of the State of Connecticut : 

Gentlemen: — The Board of Control of The Connecticut 
Agricultural Experiment Station herewith submits to your 
Honorable Body the Annual Reports of the Director and Treas- 
urer made to this Board at its Annual Meeting held in Hartford, 
January 18th, 1881. 

With the presentation of these Reports we beg leave to state 
that the work of the Station during the year has gone on without 
interruption, under the direction of Professor S. W. Johnson, 
assisted the whole year by Dr. E. H. Jenkins and Dr. H. P. 
Armsby, and a part of the year by Mr. H. L. Wells and Mr. 
C. A. Hutchinson. Dr. R. H. Chittenden has also assisted in 
some special investigations pertaining to animal poisoning. 

The Board has held one meeting and its Executive Committee 
seven meetings during the year. 

The last Report of the Experiment Station, by an arrangement 
with the Board of Agriculture and with the approval of the 
Comptroller, was bound with the printed Report of that Board 
and the two were distributed together from the office of the 
Secretary of the Board of Agriculture at Hartford. That ar- 
rangement has been so satisfactory that it is continued this year. 

By order of the Board of Control. 

HOBART B. BIGELOW, 

President. 
WILLIAM H. BREWER, 

Secretary. 



REPORT OF THE TREASURER. 



Wm. H. Brewer, in account with The Connecticut Agricultural 
Experiment Station. 

Receipts. 

Balance from account of 1879, §527.71 

Laboratory Receipts, — 37 1 .45 

From State Treasurer, 5,000.00 

$5,899.16 

Payments. 

Salaries, $3,967.50 

Travelling expenses of the Board, .... 57.29 

Printing, Stationery and Postage, 287.75 

Gas, .- -. -. 91.96 

General Laboratory Expenses, . . 1 ,108.55 

Furniture, Repairs and Fixtures, 214.96 

Miscellaneous, — 38.59 

Cash on hand, 132.56 

$5,899.16 

There is due the Station for Laboratory work, one hundred 
fifty-eight (158) dollars, which added to the cash on hand, 
amounts to two hundred and ninety (290) dollars. The bills 
outstanding against the Station will fully equal that amount. 

The Station is in possession of office furniture, apparatus, 
laboratory stock, seed, plant and other collections, tools, appli- 
ances, etc., estimated to be worth thirteen hundred (1300) dollars. 
That is, it would take that sum or more to replace them or their 
equivalent. 

WM. H. BREWER, 

Treasurer. 

Xkw Haves, Jan. 17th, 1881. 



T. S 

w. o. 



» LD ' y Auditing Committee. 

, Atwater, ) " 



REPORT OF THE DIRECTOR. 



The pages that follow contain the Fourth Annual Report on 
the work of this Station, and give an account of its operations for 
the year 1880. 

The Objects and Uses of the Station, and the Privileges which 
it offers to the citizens of Connecticut, are concisely set forth in 
the Announcement which is to be found on page 3. 

The most important subjects which have engaged attention at 
the Station during the year 1880, are briefly stated in the para- 
graphs that immediately follow. Reference to the Table of Con- 
tents will direct to their details and show what other topics are 
considered in this Report. 

The analysis and valuation of Commercial Fertilizers continues 
to be the most engrossing employment of the Station. During 
the eleven months ending Dec. 1, 1880, one hundred and forty- 
one (141) samples of such fertilizers have been analyzed. Twenty 
(20) analyses have been made of Swamp 3fucks, Soils and Mocks. 
Of Fodder and Feeding Stuffs, seventeen (17) samples have been 
examined. 

Seven (7) River and Well Waters have been tested as to their 
sanitary condition. 

Five (5) specimens of Market Butter were analyzed for the pur- 
pose of ascertaining whether this article is subject to adulteration. 

Four (4) Vinegars were tested as to strength and for adultera- 
tions. 

Nine (9) samples of Bread have been examined for alum. 

Five (5) poison tests have been made, viz: on a sample of 
London purple, on corn stover that had been sprinkled when 
young with Paris Green, and on the stomachs, kidneys or urine 
of animals that died of poison or under suspicion of it. 

In addition to the above specified two hundred and eight (208) 
analyses, a large amount of work has been done in further study 
of methods of determining phosphoric acid in quantitative analysis. 

Sixty-five (65) Seed tests have also been made for the Trade. 
2 



10 THE CONNECTICUT AGRICULTURAL 

Station Bulletins — Fourteen in number — have been printed 
and sent to each of the eighty-two newspapers published in the 
State, and also to the Secretaries of the thirty-one Agricultural 
Societies and twenty-six Farmers' Clubs of Connecticut. The 
Bulletins have also been supplied by way of exchange to many of 
the Agricultural Periodicals published in the New England and 
Middle States, and are regularly re-printed in several of the most 
widely circulated of these journals. Those who wish to see all of 
these Bulletins, and at the earliest moment, can find them in the 
Connecticut Fahmek, published weekly at Hartford, to the edi- 
tor of which I must express my obligations for their first printing 
and for supplying copies of them for the use of the Station, at a 
small cost. 

After conducting the work of this Station for three and one-half 
years, I feel it a duty to lay before the General Assembly and the 
citizens of the State some statements regarding its present efficiency 
as contrasted with the work which I conceive it ought to accom- 
plish and might easily 'perform with a moderate increase of its 
resources. 

The Present Resources of the Station. — In its present organiza- 
tion the locality of the Connecticut Agricultural Experiment Sta- 
tion consists of two apartments sixteen by thirty feet, besides an 
entrance hall, and a small closet, all loaned for its use. One of these 
larger rooms is its chemical laboratory, the other its office and 
writing room. Its property consists of the most essential chemical 
apparatus needed for analytical work and the simplest office furni- 
ture and requisites. It has no land and no place where any 
experiments on soils, plants or animals, under agricultural condi- 
tions, can be set up or carried out. The Station owns no books 
except its own manuscript records, a few copies of its printed Re- 
ports and a few volumes of agricultural journals and transactions 
received in way of exchange. 

That the Station thus lives in borrowed lodgings, without 
grounds or opportunities for agricultural experiments, is not the 
plan or desire of the Board of Control, but has been necessitated 
by the limited means at its disposal. 

The Wants of the Station. — In its present shape the Station is 
quite strictly confined to those investigations which can be made 
in the chemical laboratory, but is debarred from any systematic 
or serviceable experimental study of the very numerous and most 
important questions which relate to the wants of soils, crops, or 



EXPERIMENT STATION. 11 

domestic animals, a study which would require ground and the 
simpler appliances that are employed in practical agriculture. 

The analysis of Commercial Fertilizers, which so largely occu- 
pies the working force of the Station, accomplishes a single though 
highly useful purpose, viz : to enable the farmer to know the 
composition and approximate commercial value of the costly 
manures that are so largely consumed in our State. 

But what is equally important is to know the agricultural value 
of these fertilizers or their elements, and their economical adapta- 
tion to various soils, crops or circumstances. Numerous inquiries 
are constantly addressed to the Station relating to these topics, 
to which in many cases no satisfactory answer can be given. In 
most instances, however, suitably conducted practical experiments 
would make it possible to answer these inquiries more or less per- 
fectly, and to make valuable additions to our store of knowledge. 
There are two methods of making such experiments. They may 
be carried out on a farming scale for a series of years, as has been 
done at a few places in Europe, notably by Mr. Lawes of England; 
but thus conducted, their expense is so great and so long a time 
must usually pass before the useful results appear, that this method 
is not open to the Experiment Station unless it were transferred 
to a farm, and provided with five or six times its present amount 
of funds. Another plan is to make experiments on a small scale 
in pots or boxes. This method has indeed some drawbacks, but 
very many advantages. It requires but little ground. By use of 
a greenhouse, in this sunny climate, experiments may be carried 
on nearly throughout the year, their number may be cheaply 
multiplied and results got in a comparatively short time. Further- 
more, the influence of disturbing causes, excess or lack of rain or 
warmth, the ravages of birds and insects, may be more perfectly 
avoided. By this method a large number of experiments have 
been made and are constantly making in the European Stations 
and in this country. Prof. Storer at the Bussey Institution, Dr. 
McMurtrie at the Department of Agriculture, Washington, and 
the writer have obtained useful results by its means. 

On subsequent pages is given an account of some efforts to 
ascertain how the nitrogen of swamp muck becomes available 
to plants, which illustrate the value of this plan of experiment. 

To carry on such experiments as a part of Station work would 
require that the Station should have control of a plot of ground 
of one or several acres in extent, with unobstructed exposure to 



12 THE CONNECTICUT AGRICULTURAL 

sun, and so enclosed as effectually to exclude all intrusion from 
man and beast. 

Furthermore, there would be needed a suitable glass plant-house, 
with heating arrangements, water, etc., and a skillful gardener 
would have to be added to the working force of the Station. 

The seedsmen of our State are beginning to call upon the Sta- 
tion to test the vitality and purity of their seeds, and to do this at 
the proper time (in winter) and to the extent which is soon likely 
to be demanded, a special seed laboratory will be absolutely 
necessary. 

This experimental ground, furthermore, should be the site of the 
Station Laboratory, because the experiments to be conducted 
there would require more or less chemical work to be done iu pre- 
paring for them and in elaborating their results, and would demand 
the constant oversight of the Director and his assistants through- 
out all their duration. 

The Station should also have lodgings for its gardener and for 
other responsible assistants within its enclosure, to ensure the 
undisturbed progress of its investigations. 

The Station grounds with these buildings cannot be placed 
beyond the reach of illuminating gas and water-service pipes, 
without extreme inconvenience to its garden and laboratories. 
The Station should therefore be permanently located in some city 
suburb where it will also be readily accessible to the Post, Express 
and Telegraph Offices. The chemical laboratory of the Station 
ought to consist of a room somewhat larger than that now occupied, 
and should have adjoining a capacious store-room and a smaller 
furnace room. In connection with its office should be suitable 
accommodation for a considerable library. It would be extremely 
desirable also to have space for preserving and displaying speci- 
mens of objects having agricultural interest, which fall in the line 
of its investigations, viz : samples of the seeds of useful and injuri- 
ous plants and a collection of such plants as might be useful for 
purposes of comparison and identification. The Station has already 
in its possession a small but valuable collection of seeds, and a 
pretty complete herbarium of the grasses and sedges of New Eng- 
land. Samples of rocks, soils, crude and native fertilizing mate- 
rials and agricultural products of various kinds could readily be 
kept as an instructive exhibition, if but the place were provided. 

A plain brick building with the capacity of a large dwelling 
house would give the Station good accommodation in all these 
respects. 



EXPERIMENT STATION. 13 

To carry on the Station thus equipped in a manner commensu- 
rate with the interests involved would require some increase of its 
funds, for several purposes. 

1. To enlarge its laboratory outfit, which is barely sufficient for 
the analytical work it has had to do, but ought to be considerably 
extended for profitable working. 

2. To establish a working reference library. The Station must 
be vitally defective unless those who labor in it can have ready 
and constant access to all the special books, journals and Reports 
which record the results of investigations in the Experiment Sta- 
tions of other States and Countries. 

3. The Station will need a larger fund for current expenses so 
soon as it begins to experiment in the field, garden and plant- 
house. 



COMMERCIAL FERTILIZERS.* 

In respect to its terms, the Station makes two classes of analy- 
ses of fertilizers and fertilizing materials ; the first for the bene- 
fit of farmers, gardeners, and the public generally ; the second for 
the private use of manufacturers and dealers. Analyses of the 
first class are made gratuitously, and the results are published as 
speedily and widely as possible for the guidance of purchasers and 
consumers. Those of the second class are charged for at moderate 
rates, and their results are not published in a way to interfere 
with their legitimate private use. The Station, however, dis- 
tinctly reserves the liberty to use, at discretion, all results 
obtained in its Laboratory, for the public benefit, and in no case 
will enter into any privacy that can work against the public 
good. 

During 1880, one hundred and forty-one (141) samples of fertil- 
izers have been analyzed. Of these, 33 were examined for pri- 
vate parties, and the remainder, 108, for the general use of the 
citizens of the State. 

The samples analyzed for the public benefit have been sent in 
from various quarters of the State, in most instances by actual 
purchasers and consumers, but in some instances, by dealers or 
agents. 

* The matter of this and of several subsequent pages explanatory of the samp- 
ling and valuation of fertilizers, is copied with a few appropriate alterations from 
the Report for 1879. 



14 THE CONNECTICUT AGRICULTURAL 

All the analyses of the first class are made on samples under- 
stood to have been taken in accordance with the printed Instruc- 
tions which the Station supplies to all applicants. Here follows 
a copy of these instructions. 



Instructions for Sampling Commercial Fertilizers. 

The Commercial Value of a high priced Fertilizer can be esti- 
mated, if the amounts per cent, of its principal fertilizing elements 
are known. Chemical analysis of a small sample, so taken as to 
fairly represent a large lot, will show the composition of the lot. 
The subjoined instructions, if faithfully followed, will insure a fair 
sample. Especial care should be observed that the sample neither 
gains nor loses moisture during the sampling or sending, as may 
easily happen in extremes of weather, or from even a short expos- 
ure to sun and wind, or from keeping in a poorly closed vessel. 

1. Provide a tea cup, some large papers, and for each sample a 
glass fruit-can or tin box, holding about one quart, that can be 
tightly closed, all to be clean and dry. 

2. Weigh separately at least three (3) average packages (barrels 
or bags) of the fertilizer, and enter these actual weights in the 
" Form for description of Sample." 

3. Open the packages that have been weighed, and mix well 
together the contents of each, down to one-half its depth, empty- 
ing out upon a clean floor if needful, and crushing any soft, moist 
lumps in order to facilitate mixture, but leaving hard, dry lumps 
unbroken, so that the sample shall exhibit the texture and 
mechanical condition of the fertilizer. 

4. Take out five (5) equal cupfuls from different parts of the 
mixed portions of each package. Pour them (15 in all) one over 
another upon a paper, intermix again thoroughly but quickly to 
avoid loss or gain of moisture, fill a can or box from this mixture, 
close tightly, label p>la inly, and send, charges prepaid, to 

The Conn. Agricultural Experiment Station, New Haven, Conn. 



The foregoing instructions may be over-nice in some cases, but 
they are not intended to take the place of good sense on the part 
of those who are interested in learning the true composition of a 
fertilizer. Any method of operating that will yield a fair sample 
is good enough. 



EXPERIMENT STATION. 15 

In case of a fine, uniform and moist or coherent article, a butter- 
tryer or a tin tube, like a dipper handle, put well down into the 
packages in a good number of places will give a fair sample with 
great ease. With dry, coarse articles, such as ground bone, there 
is likely to be a separation of coarse and fine parts on handling. 
Moist articles put up in bags or common barrels may become 
dry on the outside. It is in these cases absolutely necessary to 
mix thoroughly the coarse and fine, the dry and the moist portions 
before sampling. Otherwise the analysis will certainly misrepre- 
sent the article whose value it is intended to fix. 

The quantity sent should not be too small. When the material 
is fine and uniform, and has been carefully sampled, a pint may be 
enough, but otherwise and especially in case of ground bone, 
which must be mechanically analyzed, the 6ample should not be 
less than one quart. 

It is also important that samples for analysis should be taken at 
the time when the fertilizer is purchased, and if they cannot be at 
once dispatched to the Station, they should be so preserved as to 
suffer no change. Moist fish, blood or cotton seed will soon 
decompose and lose ammonia, if bottled and kept in a warm place. 
Superphosphates containing much nitrogen will suffer reversion 
of their soluble phosphoric acid under similar circumstances. 
Most of the moist fertilizers will lose water unless tightly bottled, 
but some of the grades of potash salts will gather moisture from 
the air and become a slumpy mass if not thoroughly protected. 

These changes in the composition of a sample not suitably pre- 
served, must invalidate any conclusions from its analysis, and 
work serious injustice either to the manufacturer or to the con- 
sumer. 

It doubtless often happens that a purchaser on laying in a stock 
of fertilizers, decides that he will not then trouble the Station to 
analyze the goods he has obtained, but will set aside samples 
which he can send for examination in case the crops report 
adversely as to their quality. It is always better to send all sam- 
ples at once to the Station where they can be directly analyzed or 
so prepared. that they shall keep without chemical change. 

With the Instructions for Sampling, the Station furnishes a 
blank Form for Description of Samples, a copy ol which is here 
given. 



16 THE CONNECTICUT AGRICULTURAL 

Form for Description of Sample. 

Station No Rec'd at Station, 18 

Each sample of Fertilizers sent for gratuitous analysis must 
be accompanied by one of these Forms, with the blanks below 
filled out fully and legibly. 

The filled out Form, if wrapped up with the sample, will serve 
as a label. 

Send with each sample a specimen of any printed circular, 
pamphlet, analysis, or statement that accompanies the fertilizer 
or is used in its sale. . 

Brand of Fertilizer, 

Name and address of Manufacturer, 

Name and address of Dealer from whose stock this sample is 

taken, 

Date of taking this sample, 

Selling price per ton or hundred, bag or barrel, 

Selling weight claimed for each package weighed, 

Actual weight of packages opened, 

Here write a copy of any analysis or guaranteed composition 
that is fixed to the packages. 

Signature and P. O. address of person taking and sending the 
sample. 



On receipt of any sample of fertilizer from the open market, the 
filled out " Form for Description," which accompanies it is filed in 
the Station's Record of Analyses and remains there as a voucher 
for the authenticity of the sample and for the fact that it has been 
taken fairly, or, at least under suitable instructions. It is thus 
sought to insure that manufacturers and dealers shall not suffer 
from the publication of analyses made on material that does not 
correctly represent what they have put upon the market. 

The " Form for Description" when properly tilled out, also con- 
tains all the data of cost, weight, etc., of a fertilizer which are 
necessary for estimating, with help of the analysis, the commer- 
cial value of its fertilizing elements, and the fairness of its selling 



EXPERIMENT STATION. 17 

price. Neglect to give full particulars occasions the Station 
much trouble, and it is evident that want of accuracy in writing 
up the Description may work injustice to manufacturers or deal- 
ers as well as mislead consumers. It is especially important that 
the Brand of a fertilizer and its Selling price should be correctly 
given. The price should be that actually charged by the dealer 
of whom it is bought, and if the article be purchased in New 
York or other distant market, that fact should be stated and the 
cost at the nearest point to the consumer, on rail or boat, should 
be reported also. 

In all cases, when possible, ton-prices should be given, and if 
the sale of an article is only by smaller quantities, that fact should 
be distinctly mentioned. 

When a sample of fertilizer has been analyzed, the results are 
entered on a printed form, which is filed in the Station Record of 
Analyses, facing the " Description of Sample " that was received 
with the fertilizer to which it pertains, and there remains for 
future reference. 

A copy of the analysis is also immediately reported to the party 
that furnished the sample, the report being entered on one page 
of another printed form and facing a second printed page of 
" Explanations " intended to embody the principles and data upon 
which the valuation of fertilizers is based. 

These Explanations are essential to a correct understanding of 
the analyses that are given on subsequent pages and are therefore 
reproduced here, as follows : 



EXPLANATIONS OF FERTILIZER-ANALYSIS AND VALUATION. 

Nitrogen is commercially the most valuable fertilizing element. 
It occurs in various forms or states. Organic nitrogen is the 
nitrogen of animal and vegetable matters generally, existing in 
the albumin and fibrin of meat and blood, in the uric acid of bird 
dung, in the urea and hippuric acid of urine, and in a number of 
other substances. Some forms of organic nitrogen, as that of 
blood and meat, are highly active as fertilizers; others, as that of 
hair and leather, are comparatively slow in their effect on vegeta- 
tion unless these matters are reduced to a fine powder or chemi- 
cally disintegrated. Ammonia and nitric acid are results of the 
decay of organic nitrogen in the soil and manure heap, and are 



18 THE CONNECTICUT AGRICULTURAL 

the most active forms of Nitrogen. They occur in commerce — 
the former in sulphate of ammonia, the latter in nitrate of soda. 
17 parts of ammonia contain J 4 parts of nitrogen. 

Soluble Phosphoric acid implies phosphoric acid or phosphates 
that are freely soluble in water. It is the characteristic ingredient 
of Superphosphates, in which it is produced by acting on " insolu- 
ble " or " reverted " phosphates with oil of vitriol. It is not only 
readily taken up by plants, but is distributed through the soil by 
rains. Once well incorporated with 6oil it shortly becomes 
reverted phosphoric acid. 

Reverted {reduced or precipitated) Phosphoric acid, strictly 
means phosphoric acid that was once freely soluble in water, but 
from chemical change has become insoluble in that liquid. It is 
freely taken up by a strong solution of ammonium citrate, which 
is therefore used in analysis to determine its quantity. " Reverted 
phosphoric acid" implies phosphates that are readily assimilated 
by crops, but generally have less value than soluble phosphoric 
acid, because they do not distribute freely by rain. 

Insoluble Phosphoric acid implies various phosphates not freely 
soluble in water or ammonium citrate. In some cases the phos- 
phoric acid is too insoluble to be rapidly available as plant food. 
This is true of South Carolina rock phosphate, of Navassa phos- 
phate, and especially of Canada apatite. The phosphate of coarse 
raw bones is at first nearly insoluble in this sense, because of the 
animal matter of the bone which envelopes it, but when the 
latter decays in the soil, the phosphate remains in essentially the 
" reverted " form. 

Potash signifies the substance known in chemistry as potassium 
oxide, which is the valuable fertilizing ingredient of "potashes" 
and " potash salts." It is most costly in the form of sulphate, and 
cheapest in the shape of muriate or chloride. 

The Valuation of a Fertilizer signifies estimating its worth in 
money, or its trade-value; a value which it should be remembered, 
is not necessarily proportional to its fertilizing effects in any 
special case. 

Plaster, lime, stable manure and nearly all of the less expensive 
fertilizers have variable prices, which bear no close relation to 
their chemical composition, but guanos, superphosphates and other 
fertilizers, for which $80 to $80 per ton are paid, depend chiefly 
for their trade-value on the three substances, nitrogen^ phosphoric 
acid and potash, which are comparatively costly and 6teady in 



EXPERIMENT STATION. 19 

price. The money-value per pound of these ingredients is easily 
estimated from the market prices of the standard articles which 
furnish them to commerce. 

The average Trade-values or cost in market per pound, of the 
ordinarily occurring forms of nitrogen, phosphoric acid and pot- 
ash, as found in the Connecticut and New York markets, and 
employed by the Station during 1879 and 1880, have been as 
follows : 

Trade-Values for 1879 and 1880. — See page 21. 

Cents per pound. 

Nitrogen in nitrates, 26 

" in ammonia salts, 22} 

" in Peruvian Guano, fine steamed bone, dried and fine ground 

blood, meat and fish, 20 

" in fine ground bone, horn and wool dust, 18 

" in fine medium bone, 1 7^ 

" in medium bone, 16} 

" in coarse medium bone, 15 J 

" in coarse bone, horn shavings, hair and fish scrap, 15 

Phosphoric acid soluble in water, 12} 

" " " reverted " and in Peruvian Guano, 9 

" " insoluble, in fine bone and fish guano, 7 

" " " in fine medium bone, 6} 

" " " in medium bone, 6 

" " " in coarse medium bone,. 5^ 

" " " in coarse bone, bone ash and bone black, 5 

" " " in fine ground rock phosphate, H 

Potash in high grade sulphate, 7 } 

" in low grade sulphate and kainite, 6 

" in muriate or potassium chloride, 4} 

These "trade-values" of the elements of fertilizers are not fixed, 
but vary with the state of the market, and are from time to time 
subject to revision. They are not exact to the cent or its frac- 
tion, because the same article sells cheaper at commercial or man- 
ufacturing centers than in country towns, cheaper in large lots 
than in small, cheaper for cash than on time. These values are 
high enough to do no injustice to the dealer, and properly inter- 
preted, are accurate enough to serve the object of the consumer. 

To Estimate the Value of a Fertilizer we multiply the per cent, 
of Nitrogen, etc., by the trade-value per pound, and that product 
by 20, we thus get the values per ton of the several ingredients, 
and adding them together we obtain the total estimated value per 
ton. 



20 THE CONNECTICUT AGRICULTURAL 

Iu case of Ground bone, the fineness of tbe sample is graded by 
sifting, and we separately compute the nitrogen value of each 
grade of bone which the sample contains, by multiplying the 
pounds of nitrogen per ton in the sample, by the per cent, of each 
grade, taking one one-hundredth of that product, multiplying it 
by the estimated value per pound of nitrogen in that grade, and 
taking this final product as the results in cents. Summing up the 
separate values of each grade, thus obtained, together with the 
values of each grade for phosphoric acid, similarly computed, the 
total is the estimated value of the sample of bone. For further 
particulars, see page 28. 

The uses of the " Valuation'''' are, 1st, to show whether a given 
lot or brand of fertilizer is worth as a commodity of trade what it 
costs. If the selling price is no higher than the estimated value, 
the purchaser may be quite sure that the price is reasonable. If 
the selling price is but $2 to $3 per ton more than the estimated 
value it may still be a fair price, but if the cost per ton is $5 or 
more over the estimated value, it would be well to look further. 
2d, Comparisons of the estimated values and selling prices, of a 
number of fertilizers, will generally indicate fairly which is the 
best for the money. But the "estimated value" is not to be too 
literally construed, for analysis cannot always decide accm-ately 
what is the form of nitrogen, etc., while the mechanical condition 
of a fertilizer is an item whose influence cannot always be rightly 
expressed or appreciated. 

The Agricultural value of a fertilizer is measured by the bene- 
fit received from its use, and depends upon its fertilizing effect, or 
crop-producing power. As a broad, general rule, it is true that 
Peruvian guano, superphosphates, fish-scraps, dried blood, potash 
salts, plaster, etc., have a high agricultural value which is related 
to their trade-value, and to a degree determines the latter value. 
But the rule has many exceptions, and in particular instances the 
trade- value cannot always be expected to fix or even to indicate 
the agricultural value. Fertilizing effect depends largely upon 
soil, crop and weather, and as these vary from place to place and 
from year to year, it cannot be foretold or estimated except by 
the results of past experience, and then only in a general and 
probable manner. 

For the above first-named purpose of valuation, the trade-values 
of the fertilizing elements which are employed in the computations, 
should be as exact as possible and should be frequently corrected 



EXPERIMENT STATION. 21 

to follow the changes of the market. For the second-named use 
of valuation, frequent changes of the trade-values are disadvan- 
tageous, because two fertilizers cannot be compared as to their 
relative money-worth, when their valuations are estimated from 
different data. The greatest good of the greatest number is best 
served, in an Annual Report, by a middle course, especially since, 
in such a document, the fluctuations in trade-value that may occur 
within the year, cannot be accurately followed, and the comjiari- 
sons of estimated values are mostly in retrospect. 

For the year 1881 it is projjosed to employ the following revised 
Trade- Values : 

Trade-Values for 1881. — See page 49. 

Cents per pound. 

Nitrogen in nitrates, . 26 

" in ammonia salts, 22-J 

" in Peruvian Guauo, fine steamed bone, dried and fine ground blood, 

meat and fish, superphosphates and special manures, 20 

" in coarse or moist blood, meat or tankage, in cotton seed, linseed 

and Castor Pomace •_ . 16 

" in fine ground bone, horu and wool dust, 15 

" in fine medium bone, 14 

" in medium bone, 13 

" in coarse medium bone, -- - 12 

" in coarse bone, horn shavings, hair and fish scrap, 11 

Phosphoric acid soluble in water, 1 2£ 

" . " " reverted" and in Peruvian Guano, -- 9 

" " insoluble, in fine bone and fish guano, 6 

" " " in fine medium bone, 5 J 

" " " in medium bone, 5 

" " " in coarse medium bone,. - 4-| 

" " " in coarse bone, bone ash and bone black, 4 

" " " in fine ground rock phosphate, Si 

Potash in high grade sulphate, - - 7 

' : in low grade sulphate and kainite, 5-J 

" in muriate or potassium chloride, 3£ 

The reasons for these changes are to be found in subsequent 
pages. 

ANALYSES AXD VALUATION OF COMMERCIAL FERTILIZERS. 

The Commercial fertilizers analyzed in the Station Laboratory 
during the year 1880, are as follows, viz : 
38 superphosphates and guanos. 
2 Pollard's Privy Guano. 



22 THE CONNECTICUT AGRICULTURAL 

15 ground bone. 

17 dried blood, etc. 

16 dried fish scrap. 
1 horn shavings. 

5 castor pomace and cotton seed meal. 
4 sulphate of ammonia. 
1 nitrate of soda. 
8 potash salts. 
1 leached wood ashes. 
1 unleached wood ashes. 
3 plaster. 

3 salt kiln-refuse and salt washings. 
1 stable manure. 
1 vegetable ivory. 
24 " special manures " or " formulas " for particular crops. 

141 
Here follow the details of those analyses which have any gen- 
eral interest, together with such remarks as may be useful) in 
explanation. 

Superphosphates, Guanos, &c. 

Of thirty-eight samples of this class of fertilizers sixteen were 
analyzed for private parties. 

The twenty-one fertilizers whose analyses follow, whatever may 
be their trade names, are all superphosphates in the commonly 
received sense of that word, i. e., they contain soluble or reverted 
phosphoric acid, as a distinctive ingredient. With one exception, 
436, they contain nitrogen, and in fifteen of them potash is pres- 
ent in a greater or less amount. Their nitrogen is in all cases 
mostly the nitrogen of fish, blood or other animal matters — so- 
called organic nitrogen. Their soluble and reverted phosphoric 
acids are mostly the result of acting on some native phosphate, or 
on bone with sulphuric acid. Their potash is in all cases due to 
admixture of some grade of potash salts. While, with the excep- 
tion of 436, they are of two kinds in respect to the number and 
nature of their active ingredients, they are practically of one 
and the same kind as far as the state and mode of action of these 
ingredients are concerned, and are alike in being compounded 
and manufactured of similar raw materials, as well as in the cir- 



EXPERIMENT STATION. 23 

cumstance that they are offered and used for the purpose of apply- 
ing to crops and soils in general. For these reasons they are 
classed and tabulated together, so that the consumer may be able 
easily to make comparisons as to their composition, cost, and esti- 
mated value. To facilitate the comparison of cost and valuation, 
they are arranged in the order in which value exceeds cost or the 
reverse. In regard to the last two columns of the Table p. 25, it 
must be remembered that the cost per ton depends somewhat upon 
the place where they are purchased ; the difference, for example, 
between New York and New Haven prices for articles manufac- 
tured or imported at the former place being $1.50 more or less per 
ton. Prices also usually vary for the same article, according to 
the quantity sold. Thus one and the same superphosphate was 
sold at New Haven for $38 per ton and at Bristol at $2.00 per 
hundred pounds, equal to $40 per ton. On comparing the composi- 
tion, valuation and cost of the same articles as obtained from dif- 
ferent sources at different times, as, for example, 374 with 410, 378 
with 386, 399 with 412, 380 with 456, 430 with 424 and 460, 
it is seen that the extreme fluctuation of cost in any of these cases 
is $2.00 per ton, while the valuation varies from about $0.50 to 
$3.50 per ton. The differences in the percent of valuable fertiliz- 
ing ingredients in the same brand are in some instances not incon- 
siderable, as will be seen by glancing through the columns of the 
Table on page 26, where in one case, soluble phosphoric acid 
varies from 2.4 to 4.9 per cent, and in another, potash ranges from 
1.9 to 4 6 per cent. In general, however, the samples are fairly 
accordant in composition, as nearly so, doubtless, as it is possible 
to make them, for the manufacturer can only get a uniform prod- 
uct when he is able to obtain raw materials of uniform quality. 

The differences to which attention has been drawn are, in 
fact, necessarily more or less incidental to the business of com- 
pounding fertilizers out of various raw or waste matters which 
are themselves variable in their composition. 

In round numbers, the average cost of these fertilizers, $39, 
exceeds the average valuation, $36, by $3. In them, therefore, 
the average cost of nitrogen, etc., is somewhat greater than the 
trade-values that have been employed by the Station for these 
fertilizing elements. 

The sample 436, an imported high-grade superphosphate, with- 
out nitrogen, supplies, per ton, 312 pounds of soluble phosphoric 
acid for $31.55, or at the rate of ten cents per pound. 



24 



THE CONNECTICUT AGRICULTURAL 



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26 



THE CONNECTICUT AGRICULTURAL 



Comparison of 



different samples of the 
Superphosphate, &c. 



SAME BRAND OF 



. 


Nitro- 
gen. 


Soluble 
Fhos. 
Acid. 


Revert. 
Plios. 
Acid. 


Insol. 
Fhos. 
Acid. 


Potash. 


hstlm. 
Value. 


Cost. 


Quirmipiac Fertilizer j 374 
Co's Superphosphate, (110 


3 31 


1.23 


7.60 


5.57 


2.77 


$40 28 


$38 00 


3 22 


1.26 


6.88 


4.68 


2.05 


36.81 


(40.00) 


Mapes Complete Ma- ( 378 
nure, j 386 


3.13 


4.86 


5.04 


2.48 


3.30 


40.64 


40.00 


2.44 


2.37 


7.34 


4.50 


3.16 


38.32 


40.00 


( 390 
Pine Island Guano, j .j. 


5.70 
4.79 


.86 
.92 


4.03 
5.57 


2.42 
2.47 


4.37 
4.60 


39.52 
39.09 


40.00 
42.00 


R Coe's Superphos- ( 380 
phate. ( 456 


1.13 


4.06 


2 02 


7.30 


1.35 


29.75 


36 00 


.84 


2.93 


2.45 


9.60 




28.53 


38.00 


Manhattan Blood Gu- j |^ 


2.37 
2.56 


5.57 
5.99 


1.52 
1.10 


6.08 
4.19 


.76 
.56 


36.33 
33.55 


45.00 
46.00 


an0 ' ( 460 


2.47 


6.09 


.75 


2.99 


1.29 


31.80 


45.00 


Fish and Potash, j *™ 


4.25 


1.44 


3.07 


.87 


4.66 


32.93 


34 00 


4.52 


1.27 


3.78 


1.88 


1.92 


32.42 


34.00 



Pollard's Pkivy Guano. 

The readers of the first Bulletins of this Station will remember 
that in August, 1877, analyses were published of two so-called 
" Improved Fertilizers," purporting to be made by Pollard Bros., 
then of New Haven. 

These fertilizers, a " Composition for Grass " and a " Composi- 
tion for Vegetables," were sold to some extent in the vicinity of 
New Haven for $32 per ton. They consisted essentially of dried 
harbor mud, with a little bone dust added, and were commercially 
worth about $1 per ton. 

In January, 1880, the newspapers announced the discovery by 
II. M. Pollard, of Providence R. I., of a new and valuable fertilizer 
made from night soil, and soon after a sample of " Concentrated 
Privy Guano " was brought to the Station by a party who gave 
his name and address as F. C. Cook, 119 Ellsworth Avenue, New 
Haven, and who represented the sample to have been sent him 
by the manufacturers, Pollard & Cook, of Providence. In Feb- 
ruary the same person brought another sample, which he stated 
was taken by himself in New Haven from a lot of ten tons which he 
had purchased for his own use. 



EXPERIMENT STATION. 27 

These samples were duly analyzed — the first completely, the 
second partially, and the reports of the analyses were made out in 
the usual form, signed hy me, and mailed to F. C. Cook. On April 
3, the analyses were published in Bulletin 38, as follows: 

347, 354, Concentrated Privy Guano, manufactured by Pol- 
lard & Cook, Providence. 

No. 347 sampled by the manufacturers and brought to the 
Station January 16, by F. C. Cook, 119 Ellsworth Avenue, New 
Haven. 

No. 354 sampled by F. C. Cook, in February, from lot of ten 
tons purchased by him. Cost, $65 per ton. 

COMPOSITION. 

347 354 

Moisture ... 5.10 

Organic Matter, (Nitrogen — 0.50)... 7.93 

Ammonia ( " 4.06) 4.92 

Nitric Acid... ( " 10.03) '. 38.70 

Phosphoric Acid, soluble 7.76 

Sulphuric Acid _ 4.71 

Chlorine. .22 

Soda... 2.06 

Potash 24.90 

Lime 3.70 

Magnesia trace 

100.00 
Total Nitrogen 14.59 14.29 

VALUATION OF 347. 

lbs. per ton. Val. per lb. Ton Value. 

Nitrogen of Nitrates 200.6 26 cts. $52.15 

Nitrogen of Ammonia 81.2 22£ " 18.27 

Organic Nitrogen 10.0 20 " 2.00 

Soluble Phosphoric Acid 155.2 12£ " 19.40 

Potash 498.0 7£ " 37.35 

Total Estimated Value $129.17 

Cost 65.00 

The analyses were accompanied with the following remarks : 
This Privy Guano has an unmistakable privy odor, but unlike 
night soil, it is almost entirely soluble in water, and unlike both 
night soil and urine, it consists mainly of nitrates and phosphates 
of potash, ammonia and soda. It is not manufactured from night 
soil, although it is flavored with this last-named substance. Its 
commercial value is almost double its cost, a fact that would be 
very welcome to the consumers of fertilizers if it could remain a 



28 THE CONNECTICUT AGRICULTURAL 

fact. But a " Privy Guano " of this composition cannot long be 
afforded for much less than $130 per ton, and the extraordinary 
value of the two samples that thus early have found their way to 
the Station, should put purchasers on their guard against a sud- 
den and great decline in its composition and value. 

Any parties who have laid in a supply would do well to have 
samples analyzed before waiting for a crop. 

In Bulletin 44, issued June 12, 1880, was reported : 

The last advices about the Pollard Fertilizers come from Phila- 
delphia, where, according to the letters of an inquiring corres- 
pondent, one Dr. H. M. Pollard, representing himself to have been 
at one time State Chemist to Rhode Island, and afterwards to 
Massachusetts, has been disposing of the right to make a patent 
fertilizer, the composition of which is attested by an analysis over 
the signature of the Director of this Station, giving its value at 
$127.59 per ton. My correspondent writes that he obtained this 
information from a party who had agreed to buy the patent right 
for a certain section of Pennsylvania, for a considerable sum of 
money, to whom Pollard represented that the fertilizer could be 
made for $13.56 per ton, and that the right to manufacture it had 
been sold for Easton, Pa., for $500, and had been negotiated for 
Allentown and Reading, Pa., and for Baltimore, Md. 

It would thus appear that H. M. Pollard " discovered " the 
Concentrated Privy Guano, and obtained its analysis from this 
Station for the purposes of a swindling expedition on which he 
is now engaged. 

Finally, in September, inquiry was made at the Station as to 
the cost of analyzing a sample of guano, or supposed guano, 
which it was stated had been supplied by H. M. Pollard to par- 
ties who had bought the " right" to manufacture for this State. 
It was further stated that the swindle had been discovered, and 
that II. M. Pollard had been under arrest for some reason 
therewith connected. 

Bone Manures. 
Method of Valuation. 
The method adopted for the valuation of bone manures has been 
already outlined on page 20. I give here further details. 

Experience has led me to distinguish, for the purposes of valua- 
tion, five grades of ground bone, the proportions of which are 
found by a mechanical analysis, /. c. by passing a weighed sample 



EXPERIMENT STATION. 29 

of the bone through a system of four sieves. These five grades 
have the dimensions, and have had, hitherto, the trade-values 
below specified, viz : 

lound. 
cid. 



Grade. 


Dimensions. 


1879 & 1880. 
Estimated value per n< 
MtroKen. i'lios. A< 


Pine, 


smaller than one fo inch, 


18 cts. 


7 cts. 


Fine medium, 


between -^ and 2 V inch, 


in- 


Si" 


Medium, 


" -/ g and -|V inch. 


16*" 


6 " 


Coarse medium, 


" fj and J inch, 


15f " 


5|" 


Coarse, 


larger than J inch, 


15 " 


5 " 



The chemical and mechanical analysis of a sample of ground 
bone being before us, we separately compute the nitrogen value 
of each grade of bone which the sample contains, by multiplying 
the pounds of nitrogen per ton in the sample by the per cent, of 
each grade, taking T ^rjth of that product, multiplying it by. the 
estimated value per pound of nitrogen in that grade, and taking 
this final product as the result in cents. Summing up the separate 
values of each grade, thus obtained, together with the values of 
each grade for phosphoric acid, similarly computed, the total is 
the estimated value of the sample of bone. 

As an example of the valuation of a bone manure by this 
method, the following may serve. 92,* raw bone, from Stepney 
Bone Mills, Monroe, contained phosphoric acid 20.56 per cent, or 
411.2 pounds per ton, and nitrogen 3.63 per cent, or 72. 6 pounds 
per ton. By the mechanical analysis it showed : 

26 per cent. fine. 

23 " fine medium. 

27 " medium. 

24 " coarse-medium. 
" coarse. 

The calculations are as follows : 

72.6 X 26 -^- 100 X 18 =$3.40 

72.6 X 23 -^ 100 X Hi = 2.88 

72.6 X 27 -J- 100 X 164 = 3.23 

72.6 X 24 -^ 100 X 15| = 2.84 

Estimated value of nitrogen — $12.25 

411.2 X 26 -H 100 X 7 =87.48 

411.2 X 23 -^ 100 X 64 = 6.15 

411.2 X 27 -^ 100 X 6 = 6.66 

411.2 X 24 -i- 100 X5J= 5.43 

Estimated value of phosphoric acid = $25.72 

Total estimated value=$37.97 
* Reported in 1878. 



30 THE CONNECTICUT AGRICULTURAL 

This result agreed within $2.00 of the cost ($40.00). 

When the sample of bone contains foreign matters introduced 
as preservatives, dryers or adulterants, such as salt, salt-cake, 
niter-cake, ground oyster-shells, spent lime, plaster, or soil, these 
must be taken account of in the mechanical analysis, especially 
since they would be likely on sifting to pass chiefly or eutirely 
into the finer grades. Lister's Bone usually contains a consider- 
able, sometimes a large percentage of salt-cake ; of sample 101*, 
54 per cent, passed the finest sieve, but the sample yielded to 
water 14 per cent, of salt-cake, which mostly passed the finest 
sieve. In such cases, the several grades as obtained by sifting, 
must be separately examined and the amounts of foreign matter 
which they contain must be suitably taken into the accouut. 

In some instances a further source of error in valuation may 
arise from the fact that the proportions of nitrogen and phos- 
phoric acid are not the same in the finer and coarser portions of a 
sample, which contains no adulterants, properly speaking, but 
partly consists of meat, tendon, etc., as is especially the case in 
certain kinds of " tankings." 

There is, however, a limit beyond which it is useless to attempt 
to refine the processes of valuation. When they become too com- 
plicated or costly they defeat the object which they should serve. 
It is sufficient when the errors of valuation are no greater than 
those which arise from unavoidable variations in different portions 
of the same lot of fertilizer, or in different lots of the same brand. 
A difference of two or three dollars between cost and estimated 
value cannot ordinarily demonstrate that either is out of the way. 

Analyses of Bone Manures. 
(See Tables on pp. 32 and 33.) 
Fifteen samples of this class have been analyzed, of which four- 
teen are here reported. As in former years, the valuation of bone 
manures in most cases exceeds the cost, when the figures adopted 
in previous reports for the values of nitrogen and phosphoric acid 
are applied. 

Of the fourteen samples, four are to be disregarded in a discus- 
sion of cost and valuation. 440, ivory dust, is exceptional on 
account of its extreme fineness, dryness and freedom from the sand 
and dirt which adhere to ordinary bone. It is also exceptional in 
respect to the small quantity to be had and because its texture is 
* Reported in 1818. 



EXPERIMENT STATION. 



31 



so dense that it probably acts more slowly than ordinary bone of 
the same fineness. In it, at $30 per ton, the cost of nitrogen per 
pound is but ten cents and that of phosphoric acid but four cents, 
while in making the valuation in the table, nitrogen is reckoned at 
eighteen cents and phosphoric acid at seven cents. 

•127 is a clean quality of bone, sold as cattle food and included 
here for sake of comparison with 383 and 388, which are equally 
fine and rich in phosphates, though not so clean, and with 441, 
which agrees almost perfectly with it in composition, is equally 
clean and pure, but slightly inferior in fineness, and scarcely to be 
distinguished from it in appearance, while the cost is much less. 

Again, 382 is exceptional in composition, as it contains but half 
the phosphoric acid of the best bone, being mixed with a consider- 
able quantity of salt-cake (sulphate of soda). Excluding, there- 
fore, 440, 427, 382 and 443 which is not in market, the average 
cost of the remaining ten samples is $33.00 and the average valu- 
ation is $41.74 per ton. Readers of my report for 1879, will 
remember that the average cost of eight samples of bone man- 
ures there noticed was $32.75 and the average valuation $40.50. 
In that Report I showed that the cost of bone manures in 1879 
would have justified reducing the estimated values of nitrogen 
and phosphoric acid in this class of fertilizers twenty per cent, 
below the values employed then and now for superphosphates. It 
is seen that the analyses of 1880 confirm this result, so that the 
following comparison between the Station valuation and the cost 
of the active fertilizing elements of bone manures, holds this year 
as it did last. 







Hitherto estimated 


Cost per pound 
in 1879 and 1880. 






value per pound. 


Grade. 


Dimensions. 








Nitrogen. 


Phos. acid 


Nitrogen. 


Phos. acid 


Fine, 


Smaller thau j\j inch, 


18 cts. 


7 cts. 


15 cts 


6 cts. 


Fine-medium, 


Between ^ and £g inch, 


17i" 


6J '■ 


14 " 


5* " 


Medium. 


" ,V and yV inch, 


16£ " 


6 " 


13 " 


5 " 


Coarse-medium, 


" yV and i inch, 


15f " 


H " 


12 " 


4* " 


Coarse, 


Larger than £ inch, 


15 " 


5 " 


11 " 


4 " 



It is therefore proper to abandon the estimated values* hitherto 
adopted for the ingredients of bone and to substitute for them the 
real tnide-values or cost per pound of those ingredients as estab- 
lished by the analyses of 18'<9 and 1880. This substitution will in 
fact be carried out in 1881. See p. 21. 

* In my first Report I was obliged 10 adopt ihe va'ues then currently employed, 
some of which were sufficiently exact, iiut others were less so, because of the 
insufficiency of the data at hand at that time for esiablis ing them. 



32 



THE CONNECTICUT AGRICULTURAL 



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34 



THE CONNECTICUT AGRICULTURAL 



The figures in the last column of the foregoing table are esti- 
mated values, reckoned with aid of these revised trade-values, and 
their fair general agreement with the cost figures, is evidence of 
their correctness. 

The analysis of sample 443 which was screened from bone of the 
quality of 442, would seem to show that the softer parts of bone 
are richer, both in nitrogen and phosphoric acid. This may have 
been the result of the more perfect drying of the finer part, but 
the difference of $7.00 in valuation is chiefly due to the difference 
in the results of the mechanical and not of the chemical analysis. 



Dried Blood and Tankage. 
Of 17 samples analyzed, 13 were examined for private parties. 
The other 4 gave results as follows : — 



No. 



391 Dried Blood, 


Ac. 


392 " 


" 


439 " 


(i 


468 " 


" 



Made by 



Sperry & Barnes, Xew Haven. 
Strong, Barnes, Hart & Co. 

S. E. Merwin & Co., N. Haven. 



Sampled by 



R. E. Pinney, Suffield. 

J. J. Webb, Hamden. 

J. D. Sage & Sons, Long Hill. 



Nitrogen, 

Phosphoric acid, 



Analyses. 
391 
6.20 
6.02 



Estimated value per ton,* 
Cost per ton, 

Valuation exceeds cost, . . 



Worth reckoned from average cost,** 



$33.23 

26.00 

7.23 

27.06 



392 

8.80 
3.55 

$36.65 
? 
? 



439 

8.25 
6.41 

|41.91 

30.00 
11.97 

34.09 



468 
7.38 
8.27 

$40.27 

35.00 

5.27 

33.54 



* Nitrogon reckoned at 20 cts. and phosphoric acid at 7 cts. 
** " " "16 cts. " " " " 6 cts. 

Here the average valuation is $38.47, and the average cost 
$30.31. The difference, $8.16, is twenty-one per cent, of the val- 
uation. Thus it is seen that the trade values of nitrogen and of 
phosphoric acid in dried blood hitherto used, viz. : twenty cents 
and seven cents, admit of the same reduction as in bone manures. 
The phosphoric acid of dried blood and tankage comes mostly 
from bone, and should therefore, when finely pulverized, properly 
rank with that of fine bone at six cents per lb. The nitrogen is 
somewhat more active than that of simple bone, owing to greater 
subdivision of the substance, and may therefore be reckoned at 
sixteen cents. The last figures in the table above, are the values 



EXPERIMENT STATION. 



35 



thus calculated from the average cost of the samples, and they 
show that six cents and sixteen cents are high enough valuations 
for the phosphoric acid and nitrogen, respectively, of this class of 
goods. 

The other analyses of dried hlood and so-called azotin, made in 
1880, are given below to show the proportions of moisture and 
nitrogen in these materials as employed by manufacturers in com- 
pounding fertilizers. Phosphoric acid was not determined. 



Dried Blood and Azotin. 











Ammonia 


Station No. 




Water. 


Nitrogen. 


equiv. to 
Nitrogen. 


343 


Dried Blood, 


29.88 


9.17 


11.13 


349 


" " 


24.78 


10.10 


12.26 


350 


41 II 


10.11 


10.73 


13.03 


355 


II II 


24. 78 


9.85 


11.96 


361 


II 11 


20.42 


10.53 


12.79 


368 


" " 


19.02 


9.32 


11.32 


444 


" " 


15.10 


7.33 


8.90 


344 


Azotin, 


8.32 


11.95 


14.51 


353 


" 


6.65 


11.96 


14.52 


360 


" 


10.21 


10.08 


12.24 


367 


u 


' 8.84 


11.90 


14.45 


369 


" 


11.27 


10.07 


12.24 


3T1 


" 


10.78 


10.40 


12.39 



Fish Scrap or Fish Guano. 

Of the sixteen samples examined, but two have been sent in by 
consumers, viz., 372 and 433, both made by the Quinnipiac Fer- 
tilizer Company of New London. The former was sampled by 
R. B. Bradley, from stock of R. B. Bradley & Co., New Haven. 
Cost, $40; valuation,* $44.31. The latter was sampled by E. F. 
Blake from stock of J. M. Belden, New Britain. Cost, $38; val- 
uation,* $42.75. 

The cost of nitrogen and phosphoric acid in these samples is 
about eighteen cents and six cents, respectively. 

The analyses of all the samples (phosphoric acid not determined 
except in two cases) are given below, with the average composi- 
tion as found in former years. 

* Nitrogen reckoned at twenty cents and phosphoric acid at seven cents. 



36 



THE CONNECTICUT AGRICULTURAL 



Analyses of Fish Scrap. 



Station 
No. 



372 
408 
429 
433 
445 
461 
463 
466 
478 
479 
480 
495 
498 
499 
501 
504 



Designation. 



Dry Fish Guano, . 
Fish, 

Dry Fish Guano, . 
Dry Ground Fish, 
Dry Fish Guano, . 

Fish Guano, 

" Scrap, 

Dry Fish, 



Fish Guano, . 



Average for 1880, 

" " 1879, 

" " 1878, 

" 1877, 

" " 1875 and 1876. 



Water. 


Nitrogen. 


Ammonia 
equiv. to 
Nitrogen. 


Nitrogen 
In water- 
free fish. 


10.16 


8.54 


10.37 


9.50 


20.85 


7.63 


9.27 


9.51 


16.26 


8.04 


9.76 


9.60 




8.14 


9.88 




19.24 


8.02 


9.74 


9.93 


17.39 


8.26 


10.03 


9.99 


16.55 


8.40 


10.20 


10.06 


18.78 


8.35 


10.14 


10.28 


15.65 


7.84 


9.52 


9.29 


23.61 


7.57 


9.19 


9.91 


20.11 


7.86 


9.54 


9.84 


17.87 


8.08 


9.80 


9.83 


19.00 


7.77 


9.43 


9.59 


21.86 


7.30 


8.87 


9.34 


16.11 


8.10 


9.84 


9.65 


16.43 


7.86 


9.54 


9.40 


17.99 


8.11 


9.85 


9.89 


19.13 


7.70 


9.34 


9.46 


14.90 


7.65 


9.24 


7.91 


13.66 


8.24 


10.01 


9.36 


11.78 


7.80 


947 


8.84 



Phos. 
Acid. 



7.25 



7.28 



Buffalo Horn Shavings. 

432. Sent by J. W. Hemingway from factory of F. S. John- 
son, Plainville. 

ANALYSIS. 

432 

Nitrogen 14.50 

Phosphoric Acid .15 

Cost per ton .$30.00 

Cost of Nitrogen 10£ cts. per lb. 

The sample is quite identical in composition with that from the 
same source reported last year, and the cost of nitrogen in it 
nearly the same as in coarse bone, i. e., eleven cents. 



Castor Pomace and Cotton Seed Meal. 



No. Name. 

390 Castor Pomace, 

398 



418 

394 Cotton Seed Meal, 
402 



Manufacturer. 
Collins Co., 

St. Louis. 
H. J. Baker A Bro., 

New York. 

Same. 



Dealer. 

F. Ellsworth, 

I lartford. 
Manufacturers, 

F. Ellsworth, 

Hartford. 
Smith, Northam A 
Robinson, Hartford. 
0. H. Carringfon, 

Naugatuck. 



Sent by 
L. S. Wells, 

New Britain. 
M. S. Baldwin, 

Naugatuck. 
L. S. Wells, 

New Britain. 
R. E. Pinney, 

Suffield. 
M. S. Baldwin, 
Naugatuck. 



EXPERIMENT STATION. 



37 



Analyses and Valuations. 



Station No. 


Nitro- 
gen. 


Phos. 
Acid. 


I'otasli. 


Estimated 
value 
per ton. 


Cost. 


Valuatiou 

exceeds 

cost. 


Worth reck- 
oned from 
average 
cost. 


Castor Pomace, 
















390 


5.73 


1.79 


1.29 


$27.30 


$20.00 


$7.30 


$21.52 


398 


5.0G 


1.86 


1.02 


$24.50 


$19.00* 


$5.50 


$19.24 


418 


4.64 


1.34 


.53 


$21.45 


$20.00 


$1.45 


$16.88 


Average, 


5.14 


1.66 


.95 


$24.42 


$19.66 


$4.75 


$19.21 


Cotton Seed Meal, 
















394 


7.20 


3.33 


2.11 


$36 69 


$25 00f 


$11.69 


$28.72 


402 


6.89 


3.49 


2.07 


$35.69 


$30.00 


$5.69 


$27.89 


Average, 


7.04 


3.41 


2.09 


$36.19 


$27.50 


$8 69 


$28.30 



* In New York. 



f In 10 ton lots. 



The average estimated value exceeds average cost by nearly 
nineteen and one-half per cent, in case of castor pomace, and by 
twenty-four per cent, in case of cotton seed meal. The trade 
values used for reckoning the above valuations were twenty cents 
for nitrogen, nine cents for phosphoric acid, and four and one-half 
cents for potash. The same reduction of trade values that we 
have seen to be justified by the bone manures and by dried blood 
applies therefore to these fertilizers. Calculating on the basis of 
nitrogen sixteen cents, phosphoric acid six cents, and potash three 
and one-half cents we obtain as the average value of castor pom- 
ace $19.20, and of cotton seed meal $28.30, which agree fairly 
with the average market prices, and with the single exception of 
418 the valuation thus obtained is above the actual cost of the 
samples. 

The composition and actual value of these samples of cotton 
seed meal is not essentially different from that of the damaged 
cotton seed analyzed last year. The cost is more by several dol- 
lars per ton. 



Sulphate op Ammonia. 
The four analyses of this fertilizer were made for manufactur- 
ers. The results show the quality of the commercial article. The 
cost was not made known. 

346 

Nitrogen.. 20.36 

Equivalent to Ammonia *. 24.72 

Equivalent to Sulphate of Ammonia. 95.98 



362 


370 


375 


20.03 


19.84 


19.82 


24 31 


24.19 


24.07 


94.42 


93.91 


93.49 



38 



THE CONNECTICUT AGRICULTURAL 



Sulphate of ammonia is cheaply manufactured as a bye product 
from the illuminating-gas works, and furnishes more nitrogen in a 
given weight than any other fertilizer employed in agriculture. 
Its nitrogen being in the state of ammonia, and the salt itself 
being freely soluble in water, convenient to handle, and perma- 
nent under transport, it is eagerly bought by compounders of fer- 
tilizers. It is now manufactnred in the large towns of Connecti- 
cut, so that consumers have the opportunity to bid for the pur- 
chase of it at first hand. 



Nitrate of Soda. 
482. From stock of Sisson & Butler, Hartford. Sampled and 
sent by T. N. Bishop, Plainville. 

Nitrogen 15.91 

Equivalent to Nitrate of Soda . . _ . . 96.30 

Moisture 1.61 

Undetermined matters 2.09 

100.00 

Calculated value per 100 lbs. ...$4.13 

Cost 4.50 

The cost of nitrogen in this sample is 28£ cents per lb. 

Potash Salts. 

Muriates. 
No. Importer. Dealer. Sent by 

387 Mapes Formula and Peru- Importers. L. S. Wells, 

vian Guano Company, New Britain. 

New York. 

438 H. J. Baker & Bro., Importers. J. J. Webb, 

New York. Hamden. 

509 ? A. Lathrop. H. H. Austin, 

Suffield. 

Sulphates. 

389 Mapes Formula and Peru- Mapes' Ct. Val- L. S. Wells, 

vian Guano Company, ley Branch, New Britain. 

New York. Hartford. 

397 H. J. Baker k Bro., Importers. M. S. Baldwin, 

New York. Naugatuck. 

428 H. J. Baker k Bro., Importers. P. M. Augur, 

New York. Middlefield. 

457 C. V. Mapes k Co., Mapes' Branch, R. E. Pinney, 

New York. Hartford. Suffield. 

A. Lathrop, H. II. Austin, 
508 ? Suffield. Suffield. 



EXPERIMENT STATION. 



39 



Potash Salts. — Analyses. 







Mui'hites. 






Sulphates. 






387 


13s 


509 


389 


39T 


428 


45* 


508 


Potash (potassium oxide), 
Equivalent to pure muriate. 
" " sulphate, 
Chlorine, 


50.3.1 

79.80 


52.18 
82.50 


53.83 
85.25 


35.68 

66.00 
1.56 


49.17 

91.00 
none 


47.37 

87.50 
noue 


46.87 

86.70 
0.40 


27.38 

50.74 
1.20 


Potash guaranteed or im- 
plied in brand, 


43.23 


44.85 




37.83 


48.64 




44.05 


27-29 


Cost per ton, 

Estimated value per ton,f 

Cost per 100 lbs. of potash, 


$40.00 
$45.33 

$3.97 


$40.00 $32.00 

$46.96 $48.45 

$3.83 $2.97 


$65.00 
$53.52 

$9.10 


$72.00* 

$73.76 

$7.32 


$65.00 

$71.06 

$6.86 


$66.66**(? 
$70.31 
$7.11 


$35.00 

$41.07 
$6.39 


Sent in month of 


April 


May j Nov. 


April 


April 


May 


June 


Nov. 



* In New York. ** " Cost 34; in Hartford." 

f Potash reckoned in muriate at 4-J cts., in sulphate at 7£ cts. per lb. 

The fluctuations in the cost of potash are like those noticeable 
in former years. The samples bought in April and May yield 
potash as muriate for about four cents, and as sulphate for seven 
to nine cents ; those sent in November furnish potash for three 
cents and six and one-half cents per lb. It would appear from 
these data, together with those of last year, that for the purposes 
of valuation at present three and one-half cents is a fair trade 
value for potash in muriate and seven cents in sulphate. 



Wood Ashes. 

400. Ashes from stock of W. W Cooper, Suffield. Sent by 
R. E. Pinney, Suffield. 

401. Canada Leached Ashes from stock of James A. Bill. 
Sent by Otis Snow, Rockville. 

Sample 400 is apparently unleached ashes, and the analysis 
closely resembles, in most particulars, one made at this station 
last year on hickory ashes. The sample has evidently been ex- 
posed to wet, and may have lost a portion of alkali. Reckoning 
in it the potash at seven and one-half cents, lime at one-quarter of 
a cent (cost at kiln in New Haven), magnesia at two cents, phos- 
phoric acid at seven cents, and sulphuric acid at one-half cent per 
pound, the estimated value of 100 pounds is $0.57|, while the cost 
is $0.83. Allowing lime to be worth at Suffield one-half cent per 



40 THE CONNECTICUT AGRICULTUKAL 

pound, to cover transportation, would raise the valuation to $0.66. 
On the other hand, considering the potash worth no more than in 
muriate (four and one-half cents) would reduce the value fourteen 
cents.per hundred pounds. The ashes are thus really worth about 
fifty to sixty-five cents per 100 pounds, the former price for ordi- 
nary crops, the latter for tobacco where muriate of potash is 
objectionable. The valuation of fertilizers like this sample is less 
exact than in case of superphosphates, etc., because those ingre- 
dients, like lime, which make up a large part of its weight, have 
very variable commercial values, according to locality and state 
of market. 

100 401 

Potash 4.66 1 .26 

Soda 1.20 .54 

Lime 34.02 24.37 

Magnesia 2.41 2.43 

Iron Oxide and Alumina 1.41 2.13 

Phosphoric Acid . .. 1.19 1.26 

Sulphuric Acid. 95 .10 

Carbonic Acid 19.25 14.99 

Silica and Sand 11.11 15.71 

Charcoal. 6.86 3.11 

Moisture expelled at 212° 13.42 32.02 

Combined water and loss 3.52 2.08 

100.00 100.00 

Carbonate of Lime, equivalent to Lime 60.7 43.6 

Weight per bushel 42 lbs. 56 lbs. 

The weight per bushel was not stated, but 56 lbs. appears to be the average. 

Cost per bushel 35 cts. 21 cts. 

Cost per 100 lbs 83 cts. 37^ cts. 

401 has essentially the composition usually found in leached 
wood ashes. It contains, indeed, more sand and silica than the 
average, but also more potash, while lime and phosphoric acid 
are \ip to the average. 

In previous Reports I have endeavored to ascertain by calcula- 
tion what mixture of other materials can furnish a substitute for 
the Leached Ashes that are imported from Canada and so highly 
valued for their effect on the land and crops. In the hope that my 
conclusions may be of service to some who have not seen 
those Reports, and that some of our farmers may take the trouble 
to make some experiments in this direction and publish the results, 
I reprint a paragraph from the Report for 1879, which was writ- 



EXPERIMENT STATION. 41 

ten with reference to three analyses of Leached Ashes made that 
year. 

"These ashes, applied at the rate of a ton (36 bushels) per 
acre, furnish, besides a large dose of carbonate of lime (1,100 lbs.), 
serviceable quantities of potash (20 lbs.), of magnesia (60 lbs.), 
and of phosphoric acid (30 lbs.) ; but the chief effects of the appli- 
cation come from the carbonate of lime. With the help of the 
analyses of oyster-shell lime, we can calculate closely the compo- 
sition and cost of a mixture which would be equal in all respects, 
or even superior to these leached ashes. The essential fertilizing 
matters of 100 lbs. of leached ashes would be contained in 

Slacked Oyster-Shell Lime. 54 lbs. costing* 9 cts. 

Muriate of Potash 2 (i " 5 " 

Ground Bone 8" " 12 " 

Total 26cts. 

* At kiln. 

One hundred pounds of leached ashes cost, in 1879, on the aver- 
age, twenty-five cents. Our mixture, however, would contain, 
in its bone, about four cents' worth of nitrogen which is absent 
from leached ashes, so that the value of the materials of this mix- 
ture is not less than that of the ashes. The mixture would 
contain hydrate of lime which would make it in most cases a bet- 
ter application to the soil, but might perhaps do damage to the 
plant unless carefully distributed." 

The less cost of the leached ashes analyzed last year (25 cents 
per bushel on the average) was owing in part at least to the fact 
that two of the samples were delivered on tide water (for 12£ 
and 14 cents per bushel). The third sample cost at Canterbury 
16$ cents per bushel. 

The comparison as to cost between the above mixture and 
leached ashes at any given locality may easily be made by apply- 
ing local prices to the reckoning. 





L 


and Plaster. 




No. 


Manufacturer. 


Dealer. 


Sent by 


414 


E. B. Alvord, 


S. A. Weldon & Son, 


S. R. Gridloy, 




Jamesville, N. Y. 


Bristol. 


Bristol. 


419 


George Abbott, 


Manufacturer. 


D. H. Van Hoosear, 




Branehville. 




East Wilton. 


431 


? 


E. N. Pierce, 


T. N. Bishop, 






Plainville. 


Plainville. 



42 THE CONNECTICUT AGRICULTURAL 

Analyses. 

Pure Gypsum. 414 431 419 

Sand and insoluble matters 7.48 7.81 3.83 

Carbonate of Lime etc. (by din*.), 17.08 17.03 2.34 

Sulphuric Acid 46.51 35.09 34.96 43.64 

Lime 32.56 24.56 24.47 30.56 

Combined water 20.93 15.97 15.73 19.63 

Hydrated Sulphate of Lime: 100.00 75.44 75.16 93.83 

100.00 100.00 100.00 100.00 

Costperton.. $7.50 $7.00 $6.00 

One hundred lbs. of pure Gypsum cost 0.50 0.46£ 0.32 

at Bristol, at Plaiuville. at Branchville. 

419 is doubtless Nova Scotia plaster, and contains 94 per cent., 
or about the average amount of gypsum (hydrated sulphate of 
lime or hydrated calcium sulphate) found in that article. 414 and 
431 are the plaster of Jamesville, N. Y., containing 75 per cent, 
of gypsum and 17 per cent, of carbonate of lime. 



Products op Salt Manufacture. 

357. Refuse Salt Washings. 

358. Kiln Refuse. 

359. No. 2 Fine Salt. 

The above were sampled by the Secretary of the Onondaga 
Salt Association at Syracuse, N. Y., and were sent to the Station, 
March 1, by S. A. Smith, Esq., of Cheshire. 

Analyses. 

357 358 359 

Chloride of Sodium (salt) ,. 67.92 97.20 98.30 

Chloride of Potassium (muriate of Potash) .54 .54 

Sulphates and Carbonates of Lime and Magnesia. .. 29.58 2.09 .97 

Moisture.. -- 2 - 50 - 17 - 19 

100.00 100.00 100.00 
Cost, delivered on cars in Cheshire, in lots of ten and twenty 
tons, $4.67 and $0.67 per ton, and $1.32 per barrel, respectively. 
The samples having been sent in paper boxes contained less 
moisture when received than when put up. The following analy- 
ses, published by the Salt Association, show what proportions of 
of moisture are contained in the fresh article. These figures are 
probably an average, the refuse being naturally somewhat varia- 
ble in composition. 



EXPERIMENT STATION. 43 

Refuse Salt Washings. Kiln Refuse. 

Chloride of Sodium. 50 70 

Sulphate of Lime.- 18 15 

Carbonate of Lime and Magnesia 8 5 

Insoluble Matter 4 2 

Moisture 17 6 

Organic Matter 3 2 

100 100 

Mr. Smith was desirous of knowing how much potash the sam- 
ple contained. The amount is too small to be worth considering. 
The commercial value of these articles is evidently the price put 
upon them by the manufacturers, there being no competition in 
this class of goods in our market. The fertilizing value for any 
given soil or crop is only to be determined by actual trial. On 
some soils, salt (like gypsum on many soils) produces a good 
effect, not commonly by directly nourishing crops, for agricultural 
plants require no soda and very little chlorine, but by its solvent 
action whereby it disengages plant food from the minerals of the 
soil, or in some other indirect manner. 

Stable Manure. 
385. New York Stable Manure, sold by H. A. Peck & Co., 
First Avenue, cor. 38th Street, New York, sampled and sent 
March 30, by John II. Jennings, Green's Farms, from a cargo pur- 
chased by him. 



385 

Moisture 69.295 

Organic Matter* .... 19.772 

Potash .633 

Soda. 145 

Lime .742 

Magnesia 288 

Oxide of Iron and Alumina .554 

Phosphoric Acid. 670 

Chlorine. 110 

Sulphuric Acid. . . .156 

Sand and Insoluble matter 7.426 

Carbonic Acid . 209 

Undetermined matters 

100.000 
* With Nitrogen as Ammonia .. .118 
" Nitrogen, total. 693 







Wolff's average, 


Horse Manure, 


moderately rotted 


Sew York, 


1874. 


Stable Manure. 


75.76 




75.00 


19.17 




19.20 


.51 




.63 


.09 




.19 


.30 




.70 


.19 




.18 


.19 




— 


.41 




.26 


.07 




.19 


.09 




.16 


3.20 




1.68 







1-81 


100.00 




100.00 


.26 




? 


.53 




.50 



44 THE CONNECTICUT AGRICULTURAL 

385 Has nearly the same composition as the sample of New 
York Stable Manure analyzed in 1874 for the Board of Agricul- 
ture ; the results published in the Report of the Board for 1873-4, 
page 350, and here reproduced for the sake of comparison, and also 
fairly agrees in most respects with Wolff's average of moderately 
rotted Stable Manure as found in German farming. 

385, however, contains about nine per cent, less of moisture 
and insoluble substances and the proportions of some of the fer- 
tilizing matters are correspondingly greater. The cost of this 
article was six cents per " bushel " of about forty quarts, or one 
and one-third cubic feet. Mr. Jennings states that several hundred 
small cargoes of fifty to seventy-five tons each are bought at 
Green's Farms each year. The cargoes are unloaded on the shore 
where wanted. 

The cost of the horse manure in 1874 at New Haven by rail 
was $4.00 per ton of forty-nine cubic feet, equal to eight cents per 
cubic foot, or ten and two-third cents per "bushel" of forty 
quarts. 

Vegetable Ivory Sawdust and Turnings, 
403 From the manufactory of E. Smith, Union City, sent by 
M. S. Baldwin, Secretary Naugatuck Farmers' Club. 

This article was sent to the Station with the request to report 
upon its agricultural value as a fertilizer and cattle food. A sim- 
ilar sample, 69, from Cheshire, was examined in 1878 in respect 
to its value as a fertilizer. 
The analyses are as follows : 

G» 403 

Moisture - - 1 8.78 

Organic Matter 80.14 

Ash - - - 1-08 

100.00 
Nitrogen in Organic Matters 0.48 0.54 

As plant food this vegetable ivory has about the same value as 
straw or dead leaves. It would probably have the same, or a 
slightly greater value as an ingredient of compost. It is stated 
to heat and ferment when wet in bulk. Its value in oompost, 
however, requires further observation, since it does not consist 
mainly of cellulose or woody tissue, but contains sixty-eight per 
cent, of a oarbhydrate soluble in alkalies. See its further analysis 
under Feeding Stuffs. 



EXPERIMENT STATION. * 45 



Special Fertilizers. 

The use of this class of fertilizers would seem to be on the 
increase. In 1878, twelve samples, in 1879, twelve samples, and 
this year twenty-four samples have been sent in for analysis. In 
the first Table of Analyses, p. 47, these fertilizers are arranged in 
the order in which their cost exceed valuation and the reverse. 
It is seen from that Table that in the case of fifteen of the samples 
the cost exceeds the valuation from $1.00 to nearly $25.00, while 
the valuation of the other nine exceeds the cost from $0.70 to 
nearly $6.00. It will be noticed that nitrates are the exclusive 
source of nitrogen in one sample, 469, and furnish a part of the 
nitrogen in another, 473. In a single sample, 423, all the nitro- 
gen is present as ammonia salts. In three samples, 413, 363, 
and 476, the nitrogen exists entirely in the form of organic mat- 
ter ; in all other cases, the nitrogen is present partly in organic 
matter and partly as ammonia salts. In seventeen samples the 
potash exists as muriate, or at least is associated with enough 
chlorine to form potassium chloride.* In two instances, 425 and 
473, the potash is quite pure sulphate, the samples containing 
less than one-half per cent, of chlorine. In five samples both sul- 
phate and muriate are present. 

In a separate Table, page 48, the composition of these fertilizers 
as guaranteed, and as found by the Station analyses is given in par- 
allel columns. The results of the analyses are there abbreviated to 
one place of decimals. In case of phosphoric acid, the guarantee 
sometimes applies to soluble, sometimes to total, in most cases to 
" available," which is understood to signify soluble and reverted 
taken together. In each instance the phosphoric acid in the col- 
umn " found " corresponds in state or form to that signified in the 
column " guaranteed." In case of 363 and 476 the guaranteed 
composition has not been made known to the Station. 

Examination of the figures shows that out of the sixty-six com- 
parisons the percentage found falls behind that guaranteed in but 
five instances, and in but two of these does the deficiency amount 
to one-half per cent. 

The Table on pages 50 and 51 is a comparison of all the analyses 

of special fertilizers that have been made at the Station, together 

with a few published by Dr. Goessmann in Massachusetts, and by 

Prof. Cook, of the New Jersey Experiment Station. In this table 

* i. e., 35.5 of chlorine to 47 of potash. 



46 



THE CONNECTICUT AGRICULTURAL 



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Matfield Corn. _ __ . 


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Forrester Wheat 

Mapes Grass & Grain, 
Forrester Fruit Tree, 

Mapes Potato, . 

Stockbridge Tobacco, 
Mapes Corn, 

Forrester Cabbage, . 
Forrester Rye, . 


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48 



THE CONNECTICUT AGRICULTURAL 
Special Fertilizers. 



Station No. 


Nitrogen 


Phosphoric 


Acid. 


Potash. 


Guaranteed. 


Found. 


Guaranteed. 


Found. 


Guaranteed 


Found. 


Bowker — 














113 


2.9 — 3.7 


3.0 


5-6* 


5.1 


6-7 


9.8 


Stockbridge — 














363 














407 


4.1-4.9 


4.7 


5-6* 


5.2 


5.5-6.5 


6.8 


409 


3.3-4.1 


4.1 


6-7 


5.9 


7-8.5 


8.1 


417 


3.3-4.1 


3.8 


6—7 


6.2 


7-8.5 


8.0 


435 


5 —6 


6.1 


4-5* 


5.7 


5-6 


5.6 


Hatfield — 














476 




6.1 




2.0 




5.3 


Mapes — 














376 


3.7-4.1 


3.9 


8 -10+ 


10.4 


6-8 


7.7 


377 


4.1-5.8 


4.7 


9- 8+ 


8.8 


6-7 


6.6 


379 


3.7-4.1 


3.7 


10-12J 


11.9 


6-7 


7.2 


Forrester — 














416 


5.8 


7.4 


3.5 


4.6 


7 


7.3 


420 


3.5 


4.8 


5.5 


5.4 


10 


11.3 


421 


5.1 


4.8 


5.5 


6.1 


9 


14.6 


423 


4.3 


5.6 


5 


6.3 


7 


8.2 


425 


6.8 


8.3 


3 


3.2 


8.3 


9 1 


426 


5.4 


6.6 


4 


5.0 


8 


9.2 


469 


2.7 


4.4 


5 


5.7 


5 


12.6 


470 


1.6 


3.6 


3 


3.6 


10 


15.1 


471 


5.1 


4.5 


4 


4.6 


4 


5.6 


472 


2.5 


2.9 


5 


8.9 


6 


8.7 


473 


4.1 


4.4 


1 


3.9 


8.3 


9.7 


474 


4.9 


5.4 


2 


2.1 


6 


7.5 


475 


4.9 


5.4 


4 


4.3 


8 


11.3 


500 


4.9 


5.3 


4 


4.8 


8 


9.5 



* Soluble. + Total. 

the fertilizers are arranged according to the crops for which they 
are intended, and hy the name with which they are commonly 
designated. The table serves. to show (1) the variations which 
the same brand has been subject to from year to year, and (2) 
the often wide variations between different brands made for the 
same crop. Since the manufacturers give abundant testimonials 
from practical farmers, showing that each of these fertilizers is 
well-adapted for its purpose, we can hardly avoid concluding that 
it makes very little difference to the corn crop, for example, 
whether a corn fertilizer contains 6.2 or 3.7 per cent, of nitrogen, 
11.4 or 2 per cent of available phosphoric acid, 14.6 or 4.6 per 
cent, of potash ! 



EXPERIMENT STATION. 49 

When we consider that soils differ very widely from each other 
in native producing power, and may be made to differ as widely 
by the treatment they receive under what we term "cultivation," 
there can be no doubt that any one of these special fertilizers 
may be used as profitably on any other crop as on that after which 
it is named. 



Cost of Active Ingredients of Fertilizers during 1880. 

Organic Nitrogen has cost in the manipulated fertilizer's, viz*: 
superphosphates and special manures, on the average, more than 
the amount allowed in the valuations, i. e. twenty cents per 
pound. In dry fish scrap the cost has been eighteen cents. In 
the samples of low-grade dried blood and tankings analyzed by 
the Station, nitrogen has cost sixteen cents and in castor pomace 
and cotton seed meal it has also cost sixteen cents. The nitrogen 
of fine bone has been bought for fifteen cents. The ruling market 
price of nitrogen in the highest grades of dried blood, has been 
during the spring, until mid-summer, about fifteen cents. In the 
autumn, as usual, the price advanced because of active demand 
ainong the manufacturers of superphosphates, etc., and reached 
eighteen cents per pound. 

It is plain that there is a considerable and permanent difference 
between the trade-value or cost to the farmer, of organic nitrogen 
in the superphosphates and other manipulated fertilizers and that 
of the raw materials ordinarily accessible to the retail purchaser. 
To adapt our system of valuation more perfectly to this state of 
things, I shall continue to rate organic nitrogen in superphos- 
phates and special manures and in fine steamed bone, finely 
ground and dry meat, blood and fish, and in Peruvian guano, at 
twenty cents. In view of the market prices that have ruled for 
two years, I shall rate together tho nitrogen of coarse or moist 
meat, blood, tankage, castor pomace and cotton seed meal at six- 
teen cents. The trade-values of nitrogen in the various grades of 
bone will also be reduced to conform to their actual cost. See 
statement and Table on page 81. 

Nitro,en in the form of Ammonia-Salts and Nitrates. — 
Ammonia salts do not appear in our retail market except as 
ingredients of some manipulated fertilizers, and the Station valua- 
tion for their nitrogen will remain as formerly. Nitrates in the 
single sample of nitrate of soda analyzed, has furnished nitrogen 



50 



THE CONNECTICUT AGRICULTURAL 



Comparison or Special Manures. 

According to their Brands and the Crops for which they are offered. 

(See paragraph at bottom of pp. 45 and 48.) 



Station 
No. 


Name. 


Year. 


Nitro- 
gen. 


Phos. acid 
sol. and rev. 


Pot- 
ash. 

6.6 


Crop. 


137 


Stockbridge. 


1878 


5.9 


5.4 


- 


195 


" 


'78 


6.2 


3.8 


7.0 




407 


.i 


'80 


4.7 


6.0 


6.8 




N.J. 


" 


'80 


4.8 


7.2 


6.2 




476 


Matfield. 


'80 


G.l 


2.0 


5.3 


- Corn. 


379 


Mapes. 


'80 


3.7 


10.2 


7.2 


N.J. 


" 


'80 


4.0 


11.4 


4.6 




N.J. 


" 


'80 


3.9 


6.5 


7.7 




300 


Forrester. 


'79 


5.5 


5.3 


13.1 




431 


" 


'80 


4.8 


6.0 


14.6 


J 




highest 


per cent. 


6.2 


11.4 


14.6 






lowest 


" 


3.7 


2.0 


4.6 




146 


Stockbridge. 


'78 


3.5 


6.4 


10.2 


1 


260 


" 


'79 


3.8 


7.0 


8.8 




409 


" 


'80 


4.1 


5.9 


8.1 




417 


" 


'80 


3.8 


5.2 


8.0 




Mass. 


" 


'79 


4.4 


3.8 


7.6 




116 


Forrester. 


'78 


5.7 


7.6 


11.4 


- Potato. 


282 


" 


'79 


4.6 


5.5 


9.1 




304 


ti 


'79 


4.8 


5.3 


10.3 




420 


11 


'80 


4.8 


5.4 


11.3 




128 


Mapes. 


'78 


3.7 


4.5 


14.8 




376 


" 


'80 


3.9 


8.6 


7.7 


J 




highest 


per cent. 


5.7 


8.6 


14.8 






lowest 


" 


3.5 


3.8 


7.6 




258 


Stockbridge. 


'79 


3.9 


6.4 


8.3 


^ 


363 


ti 


'80 


3.1 


5.3 


7.9 




259 


Mapes. 


'79 


5.7 


6.2 


7.5 


■ Onion. ■ 


301 


Forrester. 


'79 


7.4 


4.5 


7.4 




416 


" 


'80 


7.4 


4.6 


7.3 


- 




highest 


per cent. 


7.4 


6.4 


8.3 






It'WCSl 


ti 


3.1 


4.6 


7.3 

1 





EXPERIMENT STATION. 



51 



Station 
No. 


Name. 


fear. 

'79 


Nitro- 
gen. 

.-,.7 


Phos. acid. 
?ol. and rev. 


Pot- 
ash. 


Crop. 


274 


Stockbrklge. 


1.4 


7.4 


1 


435 


•• 


'80 


6.1 


6.1 


5.6 


> Tobacco. 


UaSS. 


" 


'7!) 


6.7 


1.9 


9.4 


f 


473 


Forrester. 


'80 


5.5 


3.9 


9.7 


J 




highest 


per cent. 


G.7 


6.1 


9.7 






lowest 


" 


5.5 


1.9 


5.6 




175 


Stoekbridge 


'78 


4.4 


7.8 


6.5 


) 


284 


Forrester. 


'79 


3.0 


10.3 


5.9 


}- Strawberry. 


472 




'80 


2.9 


8.9 


8.7 


) 




highest 


per cent. 


4.4 


10.3 


8.7 






lowest 


11 


2.9 


7.8 


5.9 




471 


Forrester. 


'80 


4.5 


4.6 


5.6 


Wheat. 


475 


" 


'80 


5.4 


4.3 


11.3 


Rye. 


500 




'80 


5.3 


4.8 


9.5 


Rye. 


426 




'80 


6.6 


5.0 


9.2 


Oat. 


Mass. 


Stoekbridge. 


'79 


5.4 


4.6 


6.2 


Oat. 




highest 


per cent. 


6.6 


5.0 


11.3 






lowest 


u 


4.5 


4.3 


5.6 




144 


Ma pes. 


'78 


4.3 


6.0 


3.7 


Grass & grain top dr. 


377 


" 


'80 


4.7 


7.5 


6.6 


" " '• 


197 


Stoekbridge. 


'78 


8.7 


2.1 


10.4 


Grass top dr. 


280 




'79 


6.1 


4.1 


7.5 


(1 a 


201 


Forrester. 


'78 


5.7 


4.1 


12.1 


Grass. 


474 


" 


'80 


5.4 


2.1 


7.5 


ii 


469 




'80 


4.4 


5.7 


12.6 


Lawn Dressing. 


181 


Bowker. 


'78 


8.0 


5.2 


6.4 


ii u 




highest 


per cent. 


8.7 


7.5 


12.6 






lowest 


" 


4.3 


2.1 


3.7 




193 


Stoekbridge 


'78 


4.6 


5.6 


7.2 


Kitchen Garden. 


196 


" 


'78 


5.1 


4.1 


7.7 


Squashes. 


413 


Bowker. 


'80 


3.0 


5.9 


9.8 


Kitchen Garden. 


281 


Forrester. 


'79 


6.3 


6.1 


7.4 


Cabbage. 


423 


u 


'80 


5.6 * 


6.3 


8.2 


" 




highest 


per cent 


6.3 


6.3 


9.8 






lowest 


" 


3.0 


4.1 


7.2 





52 THE CONNECTICUT AGRICULTURAL 

at twenty-eight cents, but since probably the price will fluctuate, 
no change in its trade-value appears to be called for. 

Soluble Phosphoric acid has been procurable in 1880 as in 
1879, at a cost of ten cents per pound in the imported superphos- 
phate 436, see p. 23. In our home-made manipulated fertilizers 
it still costs twelve and one-half cents, and that may therefore 
remain as the Station valuation. 

Reverted Phosphoric acid in the various manipulated fertilizers 
has cost no less than formerly, and the former price, nine cents, is 
retained. 

Insoluble Phosphoric acid in dry fish and in the different grades 
of bone, has cost one cent per pound less than last year's valua- 
tion. See Table, p. 31. 

Potash, in nearly pure, high grade sulphate, is reckoned at 
seven cents, and in muriate, at three and one-half cents per 
pound, p. 39. In low grade sulphates containing magnesium 
chloride, and in kainite, it would probably be fair to reckon potash 
at five and one-half cents. For comparison of the trade-values 
employed in 1880 with those it is proposed to use in 1881, see pp. 
19 and 21. 

Swamp Muck and Peat. 

Fifteen samples of this material have been subjected to analysis. 

. ,. _, .. , .. , „ 1 From farm of Messrs. John and 

16 Swamp Muck No. 1. Upper stratum. I Aml ,. exv Jackao mltQ1L Sent by 

447 Swamp Muck No. 1. Lower stratum, f „ |L 7 ff ^ Secrot ary Farm- 

4 IS Swamp Muck No. 2. j ^ ^ K; ^ ^ton. 

1^ ^"'f JJ U °v r Sent by S. B. Wakeman, Saugatuck. 

450 Fresh Muck. ) ' 

151 Muck. Sent by G. W. Stanley, New Britain. 

15* Fibrous Muck, from above 153. ) g b H „. Oxfol . d 

453 Bottom Muck, from below .462. J J J 

151 Mucky soil of drained meadow, from Augustus Storrs, Mansfield. 

Hi) Swamp Muck, from Ed. C. Birge, Southport 

467 A, Swamp Muck. Upper layer. ) ^ L ^ , )av . Mnfcml 

467 B, Swamp Muck. Lower layer. ) 

I'M Muck, from \V. B. Simonds. Canterbury. 

'""'I? I Muck from II. A. Slater, North Manchester. 
511 \ 

Samples 446, 447 and 44S arc from a swamp of ten acres, 
owned by Messrs. John and Andrew Jackson of Wilton. 446 
and 447 are from the head of the swale, the former from the sur- 
face, the latter from a lower stratum. 44S was taken from the 
same swale one-half mile distant and at a lower Level. Muck 
from both localities has been used for many years as an absorb- 
ent, and also has been applied in spring direct to crops after 



EXPERIMENT STATION. 53 

having been dug in fall and exposed to air and frost during 
winter. 446 and 447 have given very good results. 448 has 
been less valuable. 

The analyses show large differences of composition, in the fresh 
samples. We observe, first, that 446 is a very pure muck and 
quite fully saturated with (eighty per cent.) of water. 448 is 
drier and contains forty-five per cent, of soil and mineral matter, 
while 447 stands intermediate. If the three were applied in cor- 
responding states of dryness, we can see that in the first two we 
should have much more organic matters, with more nitrogen, and 
likewise more lime than in the last. This appears from the figures 
in the table, showing the composition of the dry, water-free 
mucks, p. 54. 

The per cent, of nitrogen, and that of lime in the dry samples 
may be taken as fair measures of their relative value. 446 ranks 
accordingly among the best, while 448 is nearly the poorest of the 
samples here reported. 

The inferiority of 448 is evidently largely due to the fact that 
nearly three-fourths of it is sand or soil. Reference to the last 
line of figures in the table shows that the organic matter which it 
contains is as rich in nitrogen as that of 446. We see, in fact, 
that in both these and in seven of the other samples the organic 
matters contain about two and one-half per cent, of nitrogen. 

449 and 450, from S. B. Wakeman, of Saugatuck, are, it is 
understood, two samples from the same bed, the former dug a 
year ago or more and exposed during the winter, the latter a 
freshly excavated sample. The cured muck, 449, is used as an 
absorbent and for composting. The questions asked by Mr. 
Wakeman are : — 

1. "Is the cured muck worth carting 100 rods to use as absorb- 
ent and in compost?" and, 

2. '"Has the muck any value in its fresh state ?" 

The differences in composition which appear in the undried 
samples are almost entirely due to their unlike proportions of 
water, viz : 38 and 85^ per cent. Dry, they agree in containing 
about 90 per cent, of organic matter with 2.2 per cent, of nitro- 
gen, and about 10 per cent, of ash with 2 per cent, of lime. 

To Mr. Wakeman's questions the following answers were given : 

1. 449 is well worth carting 100 rods to use as an absorbent. 

It contains as analyzed, with thirty-eight per cent, water, nearly 

twice as much nitrogen as good stable manure, and of this there 



54 



THE CONNECTICUT AGRICULTURAL 



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EXPERIMENT STATION. 55 

can be no reasonable doubt that a good portion would become 
available to crops, especially alter composting with dung and 
urine. It also contains four times as much lime as stable manure. 

2. As to the value of 450, the fresh dug muck, it would doubt- 
less be serviceable if well pulverized and distributed upon sandy, 
droughty soil. It contains nothing injurious to vegetation. 

The chief advantages of "curing" muck by exposure to air 
and frost are, 1, pulverization, 2, removal of a share of the use- 
less water, and 3, removal of the soluble poisonous salts of iron. 
The sample -450, like all but two of those here reported, is free 
from injurious iron-salts, and except for the cost of carting its 
extra water and the convenience of application, it might, most 
probably, be applied as well fresh as cured. 

451, from G. W. Stanley, of New Britain, was a well cured or 
dried sample, but still retained thirty-two per cent, of water. The 
composition in the dry state shows it to be rather above medium 
quality, with 1.9 per cent, lime and 1.3 per cent, nitrogen. Its con- 
tent of sand and soil (fifteen per cent, or more of the dry muck) 
depresses the nitrogen, but the organic matter itself contains a 
less proportion of this element than that of any other sample 
except 452. 

452 and 453, from Henry Hine, of Oxford, represent respec- 
tively the upper and lower layers of the same bed. 452 was 
coarse and fibrous from undecayed vegetation. The organic matter 
of 453 was more fully decomposed but was admixed with clay 
and fine soil, to the extent of seventy-four per cent. These are the 
poorest mucks here reported, averaging when water-free but one- 
third per cent, of lime and one per cent, of nitrogen. The bottom 
sample contains some soluble and poisonous iron-salts which would 
disappear by thorough weathering, or more speedily and cer- 
tainly by composting with ashes, potash or lime. Such muck 
would probably not pay to apply fresh, except on light, leachy 
land, and there would be of advantage mainly as an amendment 
of too great porosity and droughtiness and not as a fertilizer. 

454, from the farm of Augustus Storrs, Mansfield, is an inter- 
esting sample, as it represents a piece of meadow land that has 
been drained and cultivated for three or four years, but, as Mr. 
Storrs reports, all attempts to get crops of buckwheat, corn or 
turnips have totally failed — even weeds do not grow upon it. 
The surface of the ground when it dries becomes white as if salt 
or plaster had been sown upon it. 



56 THE CONNECTICUT AGRICULTURAL 

The barrenness of this soil is due to iron-salts soluble in water, 
mainly proto-sulphate of iron, the same thing as copperas or green- 
vitriol, which is present in considerable proportion and which 
poisons and destroys all vegetation. The remedy is a copious 
application of leached ashes or lime. Unless there is permanent 
bottom water also poisoned by iron-salts, the lime will shortly 
cure the difficulty. The sample is more of a muck than a soil, 
containing sixty per cent, of vegetable and volatile matters, and 
not only has excess of iron-salts but is deficient in lime and pre- 
sumably in other mineral plant food, so that leached ashes would 
be the most suitable application. 

465. This muck, from E. C. Birge, Southport, is seen, from the 
statement of its composition in the water-free state, to contain 
nearly ninety per cent, of vegetable matter with 2.3 per cent, of 
nitrogen, and 1.5 per cent, of lime; it is accordingly of excellent 
quality. Mr. Birge states that it can be delivered on the adjacent 
upland at eighteen cents per cart load of twenty -five bushels. Mr. 
Birge asks: 

1. After letting it dry on the upland, will it pay to cart to the 
yard one-half or three-fourths mile distant for litter? 

2. Will it pay to top-dress pastures near the swamp with raw 
muck? 

3. Will it pay to compost with lime at the swamp? 

Queries 1 and 3 were answered in the affirmative. In reply to 
the second question, a doubt as to the advantage of its direct use 
was expressed. Evidently, however, nothing but actual experi- 
ence can positively decide these questions, and the answers given, 
being offered without a careful examination of all the circumstan- 
ces of the case, are merely opinions that are intended to be safe, 
but are not expected to be exact. 

467A and 467 B, from Lewis Davis, IMilford, are respectively 
the black upper and brown lower layers of the same deposit. Mr. 
Davis asked which is the best, and if either or both are worth 
applying to sandy loam directly or after composting with some- 
thing besides yard manure. 

The analysis indicates the muck to be of the best quality- The 
lower portion is, however, largely mixed with soil. This renders 
it less rich in nitrogen and lime, and therefore inferior as a fertil- 
izer ; but as the soil it contains is mostly of very fine pulverization, 
it is not less valuable as an amendment on light, open-textured 
soils. The best materials next to stable manure to compost with 



EXPERIMENT STATION. 57 

would be unleached wood ashes, or fresh burned and slacked lime. 
By slacking the cheapest oyster-shell lime, mixed with say one- 
tenth as much kainite (potash salts) or low grade sulphate of 
potash, and composting with the muck, the latter will not only 
yield its nitrogen rapidly, but its lack of potash, magnesia, etc., 
will be supplied. To one cord or one hundred bushels of muck, 
ten bushels of lime may be used. 

492, From W. E. Simonds, Canterbury, is also a muck of high 
quality, judged from the analysis, the dry substance containing 
over two per cent, each of lime and nitrogen. 

510, Sent by H. A. Slater, North Manchester, taken from a 
ditch at the edge of a swamp of three or four acres which has had 
some wash from adjacent hillsides, and which yields a light growth 
of coarse hay. The sample was from a pile dug in the fall of 1879, 
and hauled in October, 1880, to a barn to be used as an absorbent. 

511 is from a depression of three to four acres on high ground, 
where the wash is less than in the case of 510. Vegetation is 
mainly moss with isolated bunches of grass and birch trees. The 
sample is from a heap that has been dug two years. 

510 and 511 are both mixed with a good deal of soil, but still 
contain more than the average of nitrogen. The 1.57 per cent, 
of lime in 510 water-free, stands doubtless in connection with the 
fact that it carries a growth of coarse grass, while the smaller 
amount (.17 per cent.) in 511 partly explains the absence of grass 
and prevalence of moss on the swamp from whence it was 
taken. 

In the same stage of dryness 510 is much the richer of the two, 
notwithstanding it contains more than twice as much soil as 511. 

For full details as to methods of handling and composting, the 
reader is referred to my Report on Peat and Muck, published in 
the Transactions of the Connecticut State Agricultural Society 
for the year 1858, and afterward revised and enlarged and issued 
by Orange Judd & Co., under the title, " Peat and its Uses as 
Fertilizer and Fuel." 



58 THE CONNECTICUT AGRICULTURAL 



Experiments on tiie Effects of Alkalies in Developing 
the Fertilizing Power of Peat. 

During the summer of 1862, the writer undertook a series of 
experiments with a view of ascertaining the effect of various com- 
posting materials upon peat. 

An account of these experiments was published in " Peat and 
its Uses," and I copy that account here, for two reasons : 1. To 
show the very positive effect of alkalies in rendering the nitrogen 
of peat available to vegetation. 

2. To illustrate the benefit of pot-experiments when properly 
made. 

The Station ought to carry on such experiments constantly, 
and is only hindered from doing so by the want of any suitable 
place for prosecuting them. 

Experiments. 

Two bushels of peat were obtained from a heap that had been 
weathering for some time on the " Beaver Meadow," near New 
Haven. This was thoroughly air-dried, then crushed by the 
hand, and finally rubbed through a moderately fine sieve. In this 
way, the peat was brought to a perfectly homogeneous condition. 

Twelve one-quart flower-pots, new from the warehouse, were 
filled as described below; the trials being made in duplicate: 

Pots 1 and 2 contained each 270 grams* of peat. 

Pots 3 and 4 contained each 270 grams of peat, mixed with 10 
grams of ashes of young grass. 

Pots 5 and 6 contained each 270 grams of peat, 10 grams of 
ashes, and 10 grams of carbonate of lime. 

Pots 7 and 8 contained each 270 grams of peat, 10 grams of 
ashes, and 10 grams of slaked (hydrate of) lime. 

Pots 9 and 10 contained each 270 grams of peat, 10 grams of 
ashes and 5 grams of lime, slaked with strong solution of 
common salt. 

Pots 11 and 12 contained each 270 grams of peat, 10 grains of 
ashes, and 3 grams of Peruvian guano. 

Tn each case the materials were thoroughly mixed together, and 
so much water was cautiously added as served to wet them thor- 
oughly. Five kernels of dwarf (pop) corn wen planted in each 
pot, the weight of each planting being carefully ascertained. 
* 1 gram=14i grains. 1 oz. = 28£ grams. 



EXPERIMENT STATION. 



59 



The pots were disposed in a glazed case within a cold grapery,* 
and were watered when needful with pure water. The seeds 
sprouted duly, and developed into healthy plants. The plants 
served thus as tests of the chemical effect of carbonate of lime, 
of slaked lime, and of salt and lime mixture on the peat. 

The plants were allowed to grow until those best developed, 
enlarged above, not at the expense of the peat, etc., but of their 
own lower leaves, as shown by the withering of the latter. They 
were then cut, and, after drying in the air, were weighed, with the 
subjoined results. 



Medium of growth. 



„ (■ Peat alone. 

. [ Peat, and ashes of grass. 

5 j Peat, ashes and carbonate of 

6 J lime. 

„ [ Peat, ashes and slaked lime. 

9 ) Peat, ashes, slaked lime and 
10 f salt. 

11) Peat, ashes and Peruvian Gu- 
12 J ano. 



Weight of crops 
in grams. 



4.20 



32.44 



38.41 



42.22 



46.42 



53.78 



Compara'ive 

weight of crops. 

'lie sum of 1 and 

2 being taken as 

unity. 


Ratio of weight 

of crops to 
weight of seeds, 

the latter as- 
sumed as unity. 


1 


2* 


8 


20} 


9 


25} 


10 


28} 


11 


30} 


13 


35} 



Let us now examine the above results. The experiments 1 
and 2 demonstrate that the peat itself is deficient in something 
needful to the plant. In both pots, but 4.2 grams of crop were 
produced, a quantity two and a half times greater than that of 
the seeds, which weighed 1.59 grams. The plants were pale in 
color, slender, and reached a height of but about six inches. 

Nos. 3 and 4 make evident what are some of the deficiencies 
of the peat. A supply of mineral matters, such as are contained 
in all plants, being made by the addition of ashes, consisting 
chiefly of phosphates, carbonates, and sulphates of lime, magne- 
sia, and potash, a crop is realized nearly eight times greater than 
in the previous cases ; the yield being 32.44 grams, or 20£ 
times the weight of the seed. The quantity of ashes added, 
viz : 10 grams, was capable of supplying every mineral element, 
greatly in excess of the wants of any crop that could be grown 
in a quart of soil. The plants in pots 3 and 4 were much 
stouter than those in 1 and 2, and had a healthy color. 

* To the kindness of Joseph E. Sheffield, Esq., of New Haven, the writer is 
indebted for the use of the glass house for setting up theso experiments. The 
young vines did not seriously obstruct the sunlight. 



60 THE CONNECTICUT AGRICULTURAL 

The experiments 5 and 6 appear to demonstrate that carbonate 
of lime considerably aided in converting the peat itself into plant- 
food. The ashes alone contained enough carbonate of lime to 
supply the wants of the plant in respect to that substance. More 
carbonate of lime could only operate by acting on the organic 
matters of the peat. The amount of the crop is raised by the 
effect of carbonate of lime from 32.44 to 38.44 grams, or from 
20£ to 25| times that of the seed. 

Experiments 7 and 8 show, that slacked lime has more effect 
than the carbonate, as we should anticipate. Its influence does 
not, however, exceed that of the carbonate very greatly, the yield 
rising from 38.44 to 42.22 grams, or from 25^ to 28^ times the 
weight of the seed. In fact, quicklime can only act as such for a 
very short space of time, since it rapidly combines with carbonic 
acid, which is supplied abundantly by the peat. 

In experiments 7 and 8, a good share of the influence exerted 
must therefore be. actually ascribed to the carbonate, rather than 
to the quicklime itself. 

In experiments 9 and 10, we have proof that the " lime ami 
salt mixture " has a greater efficacy than lime alone, the crop 
being increased thereby from 42.22 to 46.42 grams, or from 28^ 
to 30£ times that of the seed. 

Finally, we see from experiments 11 and 12 that in all the fore- 
going cases it was a limited supply of nitrogen that limited the 
crop ; for, on adding Peruvian guano, which could only act by 
this element (its other ingredients, phosphates of lime and potash, 
being abundantly supplied in the ashes), the yield was carried up 
to 53.78 grams, or 35^ times the weight of the seed, and 13 
times the weight of the crop obtained from the unmixed peat. 



Influence of Lime on the Effect of Fertilizers. 

Relative Fertilizing Value of Soluble and Reverted Phosphoric 
Acid. — In March last, Mr. S. B. Wakeman, of Saugatuok, inquired 
of the Station, " if caustic lime be put on the ground and super- 
phosphate of lime also applied, what action has the lime on the 
soluble phosphoric acid ?" 

Mr. T. B. Wakeman, of Green's Farms, wishing to manure three 
acres of onion ground heavily with stable manure, blood guano 
and superphosphate, and also to apply eight barrels of slacked 



EXPERIMENT STATION. 61 

lime and 1500 pounds of salt, for the purpose of destroying 
worms, likewise inquired whether the lime would injure the effect 
of the superphosphate. 

These inquiries touch several important points, viz: the effect 
of caustic lime on the nitrogen and phosphoric acid of fertilizers, 
and consequently the relative value for fertilizing purposes of the 
various forms or states of phosphoric acid. Before reproducing 
here the brief answers given to the above inquiries, a short dis- 
cussion of these points is offered. 

If we mix lime intimately with manures containing ammonia- 
salts, the ammonia is set free as a gas and escapes into the air. 

Again, if we mix lime with a fertilizer containing phosphoric 
acid, or phosphates soluble in water, there is formed so-called re- 
verted phosphoric acid, i. e., phosphate of lime insoluble in water. 

From these facts it has been inferred that lime should not be 
mixed with fertilizers containing either ammonia-salts or soluble 
phosphoric acid. This is, in fact, generally speaking, sound doc- 
trine as applied to mixing fertilizers with lime before application. 
It should be remembered, however, that few fertilizers contain much 
ammonia-salts. Stable manure contains but three or four pounds of 
ammonia to the ton, and the ordinary superphosphates and special 
manures rarely contain more than two or three per cent, of ready- 
formed ammonia. On mixing with lime, enough ammonia might 
be liberated to affect the sense of smell, more or less powerfully, 
but the loss thus occasioned would be in most cases comparatively 
trifling, and far smaller than might be inferred from the odor, be- 
cause the nose is a very sensitive test for ammonia, and because 
the intermixture and contact of the lime and the manure would 
be extremely rough and incomplete, and therefore such a mass 
might be left for days, giving off the smell of ammonia all the 
time, and then have lost but a fraction of that originally present. 
It has also been taught that it is a wasteful or injurious practice 
to apply lime to the land at or near the time of dressing it with 
stable manure, guano and superphosphates. This teaching is not 
always or altogether correct. 

The mixing together, in the soil, of lime and fertilizers containing 
ammonia-salts, can scarcely occasion much loss, because the soil, 
by its moisture, by its humus, i. e., vegetable matter in decay, and 
by the absorbent silicates, which are never absent from earth that 
has any moderate productive power, is ready to take up at once 
the liberated ammonia, and prevent any sensible waste. 



62 THE CONNECTICUT AGRICULTURAL 

The very slight escape of ammonia that would result from ap- 
plying together lime and manure containing ready-formed ammonia 
may, therefore, oftentimes be more than compensated by the far- 
mer's convenience, or by other actual or prospective advantages. 
To mix together lime and a soluble phosphate, (one containing 
soluble phosphoric acid), at first sight would appear to be a grievous 
error, because the soluble phosphate is obtained by acting on an 
insoluble phosphate with oil of vitriol, at such an expense that 
one pound of soluble phosphoric acid costs as much as three or 
four pounds of insoluble. 

To mix the soluble phosphate with lime is said to undo what was 
done by the oil of vitriol, and this is true in a sense, and to a degree. 
But the original insoluble phosphate, whether South Carolina rock 
phosphate, Canadian apatite, bone black, or whatever else, is a 
very different thing from the precipitated phosphate which results 
from the action of lime on soluble phosphoric acid. The former 
is coarse, dense and very insoluble, and under ordinary circum- 
stances without immediate sensible effect on crops. The latter is 
an efficient fertilizer, quite similar in nature or at least in effects, 
to the phosphates of the fertile soil, being excessively fine in its 
division and no doubt readily taken up by the roots of plants. 
On the other hand, soluble phosphoric acid in some circumstances 
may act detrimentally, so that in such circumstances a superphos- 
phate, mixed with lime at or previous to application, would do 
better than when applied without lime. 

It was long ago remarked in agricultural practice in France, 
that certain low-grade native phosphates, which could not be 
economically made into superphosphates, gave little immediate or 
perceptible benefit when applied finely ground to various loamy or 
sandy lands, but on certain other soils, rich in humus, operated 
promptly and strikingly. This fact indicates that insoluble phos- 
phates are made soluble and available to vegetation by the various 
acids resulting from vegetable decay. Quite in harmony with 
this is the experience of Dr. Ravenel, of Charleston, S. C, who 
has found that finely-ground Charleston phosphate rock is quite 
assimilable by vegetation, when applied in conjunction with vege- 
table matter, obtained by plowing under a large growth of the 
Southern pea, or letting it decay on the surface of sandy and 
otherwise nearly worthless land. In fact, the decay inir vegeta- 
tion would appear to dissolve the phosphate as effectually and 
more economically than sulphuric acid. That is to say, a better 



EXPERIMENT STATION. 63 

economical result is obtained, by applying a dollar's worth of fine 
ground phosphate rock with a decaying green crop, than by using 
the same worth of artificially dissolved phosphate, the latter con- 
taining about one-third or one-fourth as much phosphoric acid as 
the former. 

Various experimenters have, in fact, found that humus dissolves 
the insoluble crude phosphates. Quite recently M. Beletzky has 
observed that a mineral phosphate (phosphorite) containing fifteen 
per cent, of phosphoric acid, put in contact with five times as 
much peat, (swamp muck), in presence of water, yielded in five 
days one-eighth of its phosphoric acid in solution to the liquid. 

Hon. S. L. Goodale, for many years secretary to the Board of 
Agriculture of the State of Maine, states that some farmers of his 
acquaintance prefer the " Cumberland Phosphate," made at Port- 
land, I believe, after it has, by keeping, suffered the " reversion " 
of nearly all its soluble phosphoric acid. 

Various pot and field experiments, recently made in Germany 
and Belgium, have shown in some cases an equally good or even 
better effect from reverted than from soluble phosphoric acid. On 
a " sterile lime sand," Dr. Weill, of Munich, found that reverted 
phosphoric acid gave considerably better results than soluble 
phosphoric acid, or than soluble superphosphate of lime. It 
would thus appear that in some cases it may be no disadvantage 
to apply lime and superphosphate together; in other cases it may 
be a positive advantage. On the other hand, in many instances, 
the superiority of soluble over reverted and insoluble phosphates 
would seem to have been fully demonstrated, not only for sandy, 
loamy and clayey soils, but also for those rich in humus. In sev- 
enteen field trials, recently reported from the Experiment Station 
at Kiel, in Holstein, the result is that on the loamy soils, in gen- 
eral, a pound of reverted phosphoric acid gave about half the 
effect obtained from the same amount of soluble. On sandy soils, 
adjacent to moorland and rich in humus, the soluble operated de- 
cidedly better than the reverted. On newly reclaimed moorland, 
the reverted gave better results than the soluble, but on moorland 
that had been limed, the soluble gave the better results. 

Exceptions to the most general rule were not wanting. In one 
case reduced phosphate surpassed soluble on a loam. Fleischer, 
near Bremen^ found in a series of nine comparative trials on five 
moor soils, that the soluble phosphate surpassed the reverted, 
strikingly in one case, was strikingly surpassed in one case, while 
in seven instances both operated about equally welL 



64 THE CONNECTICUT AGRICULTURAL 

From a careful review of the facts now on record bearing on 
this question, it is plain that we have not the means of deciding 
with certainty when and why one or the other forms of phos- 
phoric acid is best. The recently published experiments are more 
suggestive than conclusive. The subject has been engaging atten- 
tion at the German Stations, and doubtless we shall soon obtain 
positive information on these points. 

So far as can be concluded from the data at hand, it is probable 
that soluble phosphoric acid is uneconomical on soils containing 
superabundant humus, because such soils already have a surplus 
of acid. In them not only do carbonic acid and the peculiar acids 
of humus abound, but even acetic acid (the acid of vinegar) and 
similar equally energetic acids, are likely to be formed under a 
favorable temperature. 

It has been demonstrated that agricultural plants are injured or 
destroyed by either a slight amount of free acid or free alkali in 
contact with their roots. Therefore, when the soil is itself acid, 
any added acid, (and soluble phosphates are usually acid), in- 
creases an already present or impending evil. 

Soils rich in humus do not, however, necessarily have a surplus 
of acid. They may contain originally or may have added to 
them carbonate of lime in such quantity that the development of 
free acid is rendered impossible. In fact, such soils may become 
alkaline in hot, moist weather from the development of ammonia. 
The circumstances in which lime may act detrimentally on a su- 
perphosphate, are probably when the lime is present in relatively 
large quantity, and the soil is at the same time deficient in or- 
ganic matter. 

To Mr. S. B. Wakeman's inquiry, was answered substantially 
as follows : When soluble phosphoric acid is put in the soil, it 
gradually passes into the state of reverted phosphoric acid, by the 
action of the lime and iron of the soil. If caustic lime be applied 
to the land, the process is simply hastened. Whether or not this 
effect of the caustic lime is a disadvantage or an advantage, ap- 
pears to depend on circumstances. In mucky soil or soil contain- 
ing a good deal of vegetable matter, reverted phosphoric acid 
oftens works as well, or even much better, than soluble phosphoric 
acid. In fact, soluble phosphoric acid should be cautiously ap- 
plied on such land. On soil where bone does little good — dry, 
sandy loam with little vegetable matter — soluble phosphoric acid 
usually operates well, better than reverted. The inference is that 



EXPERIMENT STATION. 65 

lime would work well with superphosphate on soil containing 
abundant humus, but had better not be applied at the same time 
with soluble phosphoric acid on dry lands deficient in vegetable 
matters. Lime is best applied on grass ; superphosphate on grain 
or hoed crops. I don't suppose, however, that on land in good 
condition it would ordinarily make a difference worth considering, 
whether the two be used together or separately, but in some cases 
the lime operates against the superphosphate. 

To Mr. T. B. Wakeman was answered : It is not probable that 
a moderate application of salt and lime will damage the manure 
and phosphate on your onion land to a degree worth mentioning. 
If they could be put on some time apart, it would perhaps be bet- 
ter, but even if applied at the same time and at once worked in, 
no serious loss or detriment could occur on well-manured loamy 
land, suitable for onions. 

Mr. T. B. Wakeman writes, Dec. 9, 1880, that the use of lime 
and salt has been, this seasou, quite effectual in staying the ravages 
of the worms, which otherwise have made serious havoc with 
the onion crop. He states, further, that in his opinion the 
caustic lime has not interfered with the action of the manures, 
and says that next Spring, lime and salt will be considerably 
used, both on onion and strawberry land, for the purpose of 
destroying worms. 

Where it is intended to apply potash-salts as a fertilizer, it would 
be an advantage to use muriate of potash, instead of salt (mu- 
riate of soda) in slacking the lime. Muriate of potash would 
doubtless have, in connection with lime, substantially the same 
effect in destroying worms that salt exerts, and would be after- 
wards much more serviceable to the crop than common salt can 
be, because considerable quantities of potash are indispensable to 
all plants, w T hile soda is either not necessary to their growth, or is 
required in only very small amount. 



Leather Chips. 

The Station has had several inquiries as to the value of Leather 
Chips for fertilizing purposes. Leather chips contain usually 5 
to 8 per cent, of nitrogen, but this nitrogen is totally unavailable 
to vegetation unless the leather is brought into a state of decay 
or is acted upon by some powerful chemical agent. Leather is, 



66 THE CONNECTICUT AGRICULTURAL 

however, specially prepared to resist decay, and hence chips of it, 
when brought into the soil, are very slow to benefit vegetation. 
The activity of leather is hastened by fine division, but there has 
been devised no ready and cheap means of pulverizing so tough a 
substance. It may indeed be rendered brittle by roasting at a 
moderate heat and then may be easily ground to powder. Prof. 
F. H. Storer has made a series of valuable pot-experiments for the 
purpose of testing the effects of raw and roasted leather on vege- 
tation. These investigations, published in the Bulletin of the 
Bussey Institution, vol. II, pp. 58-71, 1877, have demonstrated 
that raw sheep-skin and sole-leather are totally incapable of feed- 
ing plants, are in fact rather detrimental to vegetation. The 
experiments likewise prove that roasted leather, while it shows 
some slight nourishing value, is still comparatively so inert that 
it can scarcely have any definite money value as a manure. It is 
in fact no better fertilizer in respect to nitrogen supply, than sim- 
ple peat. 

It is therefore evident that leather is not of sufficient worth as 
a fertilizer to have a commercial value put upon it for that pur- 
pose. Nevertheless, just as the nitrogen of peat may be brought 
into an available condition by composting with alkaline matters, 
so that of leather may be transformed, in part at least, into plant- 
food, and by similar means. 

If leather chips be boiled in a strong potash-lye, ammonia is 
given off copiously, and while the farmer cannot use this fact as a 
method of utilizing leather, he may no doubt safely infer from it 
that leather chips are a serviceable ingredient of the compost, in 
which on the one hand, urine and ammonia-yielding animal mat- 
ters, or, on the other, lime and ashes or salt and lime are ingredi- 
ents. In the ordinary compost, leather chips require a long time, 
a year or so, to become properly disintegrated. The oil in leather 
hinders the penetration of water and thus opposes decay. 
Drenching the leather with a moderately strong potash-lye, which 
dissolves the oil, would therefore appear to be a useful prelimi- 
nary in composting it, but the question how far such expedients 
can be economically resorted to on the farm, is one that experi- 
ence can only determine. 

By heating leather chips mixed with alkali (lime and soda) to 
redness, all the nitrogen may be extracted in the form of ammo- 
nia, and it is perhaps not improbable that this process might be 
carried out on a manufacturing scale with a profit, where leather 
refuse is largely accumulated. 



EXPERIMENT STATION. 67 



Apple Pomace. 

The question whether Apple Pomace has any fertilizing value 
has been proposed to the Station, and a sample was received from 
D. H. Van Hoosear, of East Wilton. Since Prof. F. II. Storer has 
examined this material, it appeared unnecessary to analyze the 
sample. Practical trial has established that there is very trifling 
fertilizing value in apple pomace, and the analysis sustains and 
explains this view. Prof. Storer found in it as made from Bald- 
win apples:* 

Water,. - - 77.21 

Organic matter, + - - - 22.29 

Ash. - .50 

100. 00 
t With nitrogen, .18 

The ash is nearly half potash. The organic matter consisting 
mainly of carbhydrates, might be serviceable in a compost, in the 
same sense that the organic matter of swamp muck or saw dust 
may be, but evidently there is nothing in the apple pomace to 
justify much handling of a material which consists so largely of 
water. 

Soils. 

Detailed analyses of four samples of soil have been made in 
the hope of learning the causes of their unproductiveness. A 
sample of clay has also been examined. 

489 and 490 are samples from adjoining fields belonging to the 
farm of D. H. Van Hoosear, president of the Wilton Farmers' 
Club. Both are what would be termed sandy loams with suffi- 
cient vegetable matter to give them a rich dark appearance when 
wet. The subsoil is sandy or loamy. They are said not to need 
draining, are not shaded, and there is no apparent reason why 
the soil whence these samples were taken should not be as good 
as the surrounding land, which is in part remarkably productive. 
Mr. Van Hoosear states that 489 during fourteen years of his 
ownership has been manured heavily, but all crops, grass, grain, 
corn, potatoes, have not been up to standard. As to 490 he 
says that during forty years he has not been able to get a good 
crop, although all crops have been tried, with heavy applications 
* Bulletin of the Bussey Institution, vol. I, p. 365. 



68 THE CONNECTICUT AGRICULTURAL 

of stable manure, and as the land was light cattle have been 
foddered on it to make it more compact, but this has been of no 
avail. 

In order to appreciate the analytical results we must compare 
them with the composition of soils of known character for fertility. 
In the Table, page 70, are given analyses of two soils, one a natu- 
rally poor sandy loam made capable of yielding a ton of tobacco 
per acre by copious manuring, the other a naturally fertile prairie 
soil. The former was analyzed by Dr. C. U. Shepard, Jr., State 
Chemist of South Carolina, to whom I am indebted for the valu- 
able series of papers in which it was published. The latter was 
analyzed by Dr. Voelcker, Chemist to the Royal Agricultural So- 
ciety of England, and is copied from Caird's " Prairie Farming in 
America." The analyses were all made, I believe, by essentially 
the same method and are fairly comparable. 

The analysis of the soil and its hydrochloric solution as given 
on page 70, totally fails to give any explanation of the infertility 
of 489 and 490. Notwithstanding these soils with 12 and 8 per 
cent, of water are compared with the nearly or quite dry tobacco 
and wheat soils, they surpass the tobacco soil in organic matters, 
in nitrogen, in potash, in soda, in magnesia, and in sulphuric acid. 
489 surpasses the tobacco soil in lime and contains nearly as much 
phosphoric acid. 490 has indeed less lime but has more phos- 
phoric acid than the tobacco soil. 489 and 490 surpass the prairie 
soil in quantity of organic matter, of potash, soda and magnesia. 
Both contain less lime and sulphuric acid, 489 has a little less phos- 
phoric acid and nitrogen, 490 has half as much nitrogen but more 
phosphoric acid than the prairie soil. 

Some years ago M. Grandeau studied the composition of cer- 
tain soils which possessed very different productive powers but 
which by the usual method of chemical analysis (of the acid solu- 
tion) gave similar results. He found, however, that, after remov- 
ing carbonates by a very dilute acid, and treating the residues with 
ammonia, solutions were obtained in which potash, phosphoric 
acid, etc., together with a black organic matter, or humus, 
" matiere noire" were present in quantity corresponding to the 
fertility of the soil. 

Grandeau has in fact been led by these studies to adopt the 
theory that in fertile soils generally the presently available 
plant-food exists in combination with humus, and that in the am- 
monia extract of a soil we have a comparatively ready and certain 



EXPEKIMENT STATION. 69 

measure of its fertility. Since these soils from E. Wilton contain 
a large proportion of organic matter, it was decided to examine 
them after the method of Grandeau, and the table on page 71 
gives the results, where they may be compared with Dr. Shep- 
ard's analysis by the same method of the N. Hadley tobacco soil. 

It is seen that 489 and 490 yielded as much or more ammonia 
extract than the tobacco soil, and that the amounts of potash ex- 
tracted were quite the same, but that there was in comparison to 
the tobacco soil a decided deficiency of lime and magnesia. 

Without at once concluding that Grandeau's notion of the value 
of the analysis of the ammonia-extract is correct applied to these 
soils, it certainly would be interesting to try upon them moderate 
applications of lime either caustic or air-slacked. If the result 
were favorable it would go to sustain Grandeau's theory. 

I should add that no traces of poisonous ingredients — soluble 
iron-salts — could be found. 

Sample 493 was received from Hon. T. S. Gold, Secretary of 
the Board of Agriculture, who gives the following history of it : 

" The earth which I send you was taken from the surface soil 
where formerly stood an old stable which was kept full of cows 
every winter for some fifty years. The stable was removed in 
the spring of 1878, and the manure which had accumulated 
under the stable-floor taken away down to the loamy soil. The 
place has been exposed to the weather for over two years yet noth- 
ing grows upon it. This sample was taken in September, after a 
rain which wet down some six inches, the season having been rather 
dry. At the depth of two or three feet we find hardpan, so there 
could not be much leaching, and as the spot is nearly level not much 
washing could take place. We have always found the earth from 
under old buildings which have contained cattle a powerful fer- 
tilizer, but expected the rains of two years would reduce its 
strength so that it would allow something to grow. 

Some twenty years ago I cleared away another old stable and 
there observed the same barrenness for several years. Now the 
spot cannot be determined by its vegetation." 

493 manifests, by the analysis of its acid solution, no deficiency 
of any mineral element. Its ammonia-extract however, page 71, 
contains but little lime and magnesia. What perhaps explains 
its present infertility is the comparative absence of nitrogen. This 
extremely interesting fact is the more surprising because the soil 
has been during the winters of half a century constantly charged 



70 



THE CONNECTICUT AGRICULTURAL 



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EXPERIMENT STATION. 



71 



Analyses of Soils. 
Ammonia-extract. 
Well manured 

N°oX'Hadt, 489 49 ° 193 

Mass. 

Humus in ammonia extract. . 1.000 2.190 1.633 .072 

Ash " " " . .319 .344 .293 .556* 

Containing: 

Silica 039 .042 .031 .142 

Oxide of iron and alumina, ... .179 .148 .222 

Lime, 035 .005 .003 .009 

Magnesia, 119 trace trace .004 

Potash 007 .009 .008 .032 

Phosphoric acid, .097 .083 .059 .098 

Sulphuric acid, soda, &c, by 

difference, 022 .026 .044 .049 

.319 .344 .293 .556 

Total ammonia extract (ma- 
tier e noire), 1.319 2.534 1.926 .628 

* The ammonia extract contained much fine clay which could not be separated 
by filtration. 



with cattle urine, and unless some special cause existed for the 
dissipation of this element, the sample should contain much more 
nitrogen than is commonly found in soils. 

The very natural supposition that the barrenness of this earth 
is due to an excess of soluble plant-food, would appear from the 
analysis to be the reverse of true. The soil as analyzed is rather 
unproductive from deficiency than from surplus of nitrogen ; 
probably there is deficiency of presently available lime. 

The soil was tested for poisonous salts and a very minute trace 
of protosulphate of iron was detected, but the proportion was 
altogether too insignificant to affect vegetation. Evidently the 
carbonate of ammonia which results from the decay of urine has 
acted upon the original organic nitrogen of the soil and rendered 
it soluble just as we have seen that lime acts on the nitrogen of 
peat. The soluble matters have leached away through the clay 
subsoil doubtless because of the physical effect which dissolved 
salts have in coagulating clay and rendering it penetrable. Not 
only has nitrogen thus disappeared, but the carbonate of ammonia 
has carried off in solution a large share of the humus originally 
present and with it the alkalies and other plant-food which are found 
in Grandeau's ammonia-extract. The soil illustrates in its present 
barrenness the effects of too much saline and ammoniacal manures. 



72 THE CONNECTICUT AGRICULTURAL 

and serves perhaps to explain the exhaustion which has been ob- 
served to follow a too heavy course of Peruvian Guano. 

This soil — which has resulted from the disintegration of granitic 
rocks and exhibits abundance of feldspar and mica — is naturally 
rich and will shortly recover a good supply of the ash-elements of 
plant-food by the weathering of its minerals. It would seem that 
the spot whence the sample came needs nothing but nitrogen in 
order to become again productive in a year or two. 

It is, however, possible that the soluble saline matters which 
we should expect to find in a soil that has been so liberally 
manured with urine, have been merely washed into the subsoil 
by the heavy rain which fell just before the sample was taken, 
and would, on recurrence of dry weather, ascend with the 
evaporating water to the surface, and accumulate there in quan- 
tity sufficient to injure vegetation. 

The sample 503 is from a spot in a tobacco field, the property 
of Mr. George Abbey, of East Hartford, which is stated to be 
unproductive notwithstanding various and copious manurings. 
The plants are said to do well for a time after setting out, but in 
a few weeks become discolored and blighted and shortly perish. 
The soil contains no poisonous salts. The analysis of the acid 
solution reveals no deficiency except perhaps that of lime. Ni- 
trogen is present in fair proportion. The sample supplied was 
not sufficient for studying the ammonia-extract. As I informed 
Mr. Abbey before undertaking the analysis, the failure of the 
tobacco plants as he described it pointed rather to a physical 
than a chemical difficulty. The blight is such as would result 
from a failure of water supply which might be due either to a 
bed of hardpan or of open gravel at a little depth. 

491 is a sample of "clay" sent by D. H. Van Hoosear with 
regard to which the question was raised whether it would have 
any value as a fertilizer. As a soil it h seen to be rather rich in 
potash but is destitute of nitrogen and deficient in phosphoric 
acid. It has in fact nothing to recommend it as a fertilizer, 
although it might be useful to amend the texture of a coarse 
leachy soil. It is not, in fact, strictly speaking, a clay, i. e., it 
contains no considerable amount of those exceedingly fine matters 
which confer plasticity on clays, but is merely a fine silt or sand. 

The analyses of Connecticut soils hitherto made 6how, as 
might be predicted from a knowledge of the rocks and minerals 
whence they are derived, thai they commonly contain abundance 



EXPERIMENT STATION. 73 

of potash derived from the feldspar of our rocks and of magnesia 
coming from the mica (or isinglass) which is found in our granites 
and schists. Lime though not entirely deficient in most cases is not 
abundant, as is further evidenced by the fact that the water of 
our streams and springs is commonly soft. Whether or not 
these elements exist in presently available condition depends 
upon the texture of the soil, the supply of humus and the cropping 
they have been subjected to. 



Florida Magnesian Limestone. 

A sample of limestone from Orange County, Florida, was sent 
to the Station by Charles E. Lord, Secretary of the Farmers' Club 
at Chester, who writes: "Several of our towns-people are inter- 
ested in Orange groves in Florida, and would be pleased to learn 
your opinion of the fertilizing value of this rock, which is found 
there in large quantities, and could be got out and transported at 
about the same cost as the gypsum of Nova Scotia. Would it be 
valuable as a top-dressing about orange trees, and would it com- 
pare with gypsum and wood ashes as an application to onions ?" 

The analysis of the rock gave the subjoined result : 

Silica and matter insoluble in acids, 9.89 

Iron oxide, trace 

Lime, 29.99 

Magnesia, 9.98 

Potash, ... _ O.Ki 

Soda, 0.41 

Sulphuric acid, __ 0.30 

Phosphoric acid, 0.9;> 

Chlorine, trace 

Carbonic acid and water (by difference), 48.20 

100.00 

The rock consists accordingly, in round numbers, of: — 

Carbonate of lime, 52 pr. ct. 

Carbonate of magnesia, 21 

Phosphate of lime, 2 

Sulphates and carbonates or silicates of potash and soda, 1 

Silica, sand and insoluble matters, 10 

Water, 11 

100 



7+ THE CONNECTICUT 'AGRICULTURAL 

The rock is a magncsian limestone. Its phosphate of lime 
would be worth, commercially, $1.00 per ton of the pulverized 
rock. The alkali-salts are present in too small quantity to have 
much effect on the fertilizing value. On soil deficient in lime and 
magnesia, this rock, either pulverized or burned, would under 
judicious application, in connection with organic matter, make a 
serviceable fertilizer. Since lime is the chief ash-element of all 
trees, a top-dressing of the pulverized or of the burned rock, after 
air-slacking, would probably be of benefit to orange trees. It 
can hardly be an efficient substitute for gypsum and wood ashes, 
applied to onions. 



FODDER AND FEEDING STUFFS. 

Seventeen samples of Feeding Stuffs have been analyzed, viz : 

9 of maize ; 2 of meal, and 7 of kernel. 

2 of hay. 

2 of wheat flour. 

2 of cotton seed meal. 

1 of dried brewers' grains. 

1 of vegetable-ivory dust. 

Besides the above, Bowker's Bone Meal for Cattle has been 
examined, and already noticed under Fertilizers, see p. 31, where 
its valuation is considered. 

As in former Reports, I give here a few pages explanatory of 
the analysis of Fodder and Feeding Stuffs. The recent publica- 
tion of Dr. Armsby's Manual of Cattle Feeding * enables me to 
refer to that book for further information on these and other 
points connected with the composition and use of feeding stuffs. 

It is chiefly owing to the investigations that have been carried 
on in the European Experiment Stations, that the chemical 
analysis of an article of cattle food may be usefully employed 
in fixing its nutritive value and place in the feeding-ration, and 
also in deciding how much the farmer can afford to pay for it, or 
at what price, and to what extent he can substitute it for other 
materials customarily used. 

* Manual of Cattle Feeding, a Treatise on the Laws of Animal Nutrition and 
the Chemistry of Feeding Stuffs in their application to the Feeding of Animals. 
With Illustrations and an Appendix of useful Tables. By Henry P. Armsbt, 
Chemist to the Connecticut Agricultural Experiment Station. New York: John 
Wiley* Sons. IB Astor Place 1880 



EXPERIMENT STATION. 75 

In order to make our analyses of cattle feed directly useful, it 
is needful to adduce sonic of the results of the prolonged study of 
this subject made in other countries. 

The following 'fable of the Composition and Contents of Digest- 
ible Nutritive Ingredients and Money Value of some of the most 
important Feeding Stuffs (page 78), is taken from the German of 
Dr. Emil Wolff, of the Agricultural Academy at Hohenheiin, and 
represents the most recent and most trustworthy knowledge on 
these subjects.* 

The composition of feeding stuffs, as here stated, is the average 
result of the numerous analyses that have been made within 
twenty-five years, mostly in the German Experiment Stations. 

In his Manual, Dr. Armsby has adopted the Table of Kuhn, 
who gives essentially the same averages as Wolff, and in addi- 
tion shows the range of composition by stating the greatest and 
smallest per cent, of each ingredient. 

The quantities of digestible nutrients are partly derived from 
actual feeding experiments, and are partly the result of calcula- 
tion and comparison. 

The percentage of the three classes of digestible matters, viz: 
Albuminoids,^ Garbhydrates\ and Fat, form the basis of calcu- 
lating the money value of feeding stuffs. The values attached to 
them by Dr. Wolff are the following, the German mark being 
considered as equal to twenty-four cents, and the kilogram equal 
.to 2.2 pounds avoirdupois. 

1 pound of digestible albuminoids is worth 4^ cents. 
1 " " fat S< 4£ " 

1 " " carbhydrates " ^ " 

These figures are intended to express the average money values 
of the respective food-elements in the German markets. Whether 
or not these values are absolutely those of our markets, they 
represent presumably the relative values of these elements, 
approximately, and we may provisionally employ them for the 

* From " Mentzel u. Lengerke's Kalender" for 1879. 

f The Albuminoids here include a proportion of amides whose quantity in feed- 
ing stuffs has very recently become a subject of investigation, and whose nutri- 
tive value is not yet fully understood. 

| The " nitrogen free extract'' (N. fr. Kxtract) in grains consists almost exclu- 
sively of carbhydrates, viz: starch, sugar, gum, and allied bodies; in grass and 
hay it includes, in addition, substances of whose properties we are iguorant but 
which, so far as they are digestible, rank with the carbhydrates. 



76 THE CONNECTICUT AGRICULTURAL 

purpose of comparing together our feeding stuffs in respect to 
money value. 

These money or market values are to a degree independent of 
the feeding values. That is, if of two kinds of food, for example, 
Hungarian hay and malt sprouts, the one sums up a value of 6(5 
cents, and the other a value of $1.31 per hundred, it does not fol- 
low that the latter is worth for all purposes of feeding twice as 
much as the former, but it is meant that when both are properly 
used, one is worth twice as much money as the other. In fertili- 
zers we estimate the nitrogen of ammonia salts at 22-£ cents per 
pound, and soluble phosphoric acid at 12^ cents, but this means 
simply that these are equitable market prices for these articles, 
not that nitrogen is worth twice as much as soluble phosphoric 
acid for making crops. In the future more exact valuations may 
be obtained from an extensive review of the resources of our mar- 
kets, in connection with the results of analyses of the feed and 
fodder consumed on our farms. 

The column headed " nutritive ratio" in the table on page 78 
gives the proportion of digestible albuminoids to digestible carb- 
hydrates inclusive of fat.* The albuminoids, which are repre- 
sented in animal food by the casein or curd of milk, the white of 
egg and lean meat, and in vegetable food by the gluten of wheat 
(wheat gum), and other substances quite similar to milk-casein 
and egg-albumin, have a different physiological significance from 
the carbhydrates, which are fiber or cellulose, starch, the sugars,, 
the gums, and similarly constituted matters. 

The albuminoids may easily be made over by the animal into 
its own substance, i. e., into muscles, tendons, and the various 
working tissues and membranes which are necessary parts of the 
animal machine, because they are the same kind of materials, are, 
chemically speaking, of the same composition. 

The carbhydrates, on the other hand, probably cannot serve at 
all for building up the muscles and other parts of the growing 
animal, and cannot restore the waste and wear of those parts of 
mature animals, because they are of a very different nature. 
They contain no nitrogen, an element which enters into all the 
animal tissues (albuminoids) to the extent of some fifteen per cent, 
of their dry matter. 

The carbhydrates cannot restore the worn out muscles or mem- 

* Fat and carbhydrates have, it is believed, nearly the same nutritive function, 
and it is assumed that 1 part of fat equals 2.4 of carbhydrates. 



EXPERIMENT STATION. 77 

branes of the animal any more than coal can be made to renew 
the used-up packing, bolts, valves, flues and gearing of a steam- 
engine. The albuminoids are to the ox or the man what brass 
and iron are to the machine, the materials of construction and 
repair. 

The carbhydrates are, furthermore, to the animal very much 
what coal and fuel are to the steam-engine. Their consumption 
generates the power which runs the mechanism. Their burning 
(oxidation) in the blood of animals produces the results of life 
just as the combustion of coal in the fire-place of the steam-engine 
produces the motion and power of that machine. 

There is, however, this difference between the engine and the 
animal. The former may be stopped for repairs, the latter may 
run at a lower rate, but if it be stopped it cannot resume work. 
Hence the repairs of the animal must go on simultaneously with 
its wastes. Therefore, the material of which it is built must 
admit of constant replacement, and the dust and shreds of its 
wear and tear must admit of escape without impeding action. 
The animal body is as if an engine were fed with coal and w r ater 
not only, but with iron, brass and all the materials for its repair, 
and also is as if the engine consumed its own worn out parts, void- 
ing them as ashes or as gas and smoke. The albuminoids, or 
blood- aud tissue-formers, are thus consumed in the animal, as 
well as the carbhydrates, or fuel proper. The fact that the albu- 
minoids admit of consumption implies that when the carbhydrates 
or proper fuel are insufficient, they, the albuminoids, may them- 
selves serve as fuel. Such is the case, in fact. But, nevertheless, 
the two classes of substances have distinct offices in animal nutri- 
tion, and experience has demonstrated, that for each special case 
of animal nutrition a special ratio of digestible albuminoids to 
digestible carbhydrates is the best and most economical, and, 
within certain limits, is necessary. This proportion we designate 
as the nutritive ratio, and these explanations make its significance 
evident. 

To allow of directly comparing the money-value of feeding 
stuffs with some universally accepted standard, the last column 
of the table (page 78) gives a comparison with good average 
meadow hay taken as 1. 



78 



THE CONNECTICUT A.GRICULTURAL 



Average Composition, Digestibility and Money Value of Feeding Stuffs as given by Dr. Wolff 
for Germany for 1879, except those in italics. 



Meadow hay, poor. 
" " fair__ 



" " average 

" " very good. 
" " extra 

Clover hay, average 

" " best 

Timothy hay 

Hungarian hay ... 

Rye straw 

Oat " 

Rich pasture grass 

Average meadow grass, 
fresh 

Green maize, German 

" Mr. Webb, 1874 

Cured Maize Fodder, Mr. 
Webb 

Potatoes . 

Carrots 

Mangolds _ 

Rutabagas . . 

Turnips 

Sugar beets 

Maize, German ._ 

" American 

Oats 

Rye 

Barley _ _ 

Peas 

Field beans 

Squashes.. 

Malt sprouts 

Wheat bran, coarse 

" fine 

Middlings 

Rye bran 

Palm-nut cake 

Cotton seed cake decorti- 
cated . 

Scrap, by GoodaWs process 

Fish-scrap, dry ground . . 

Dried blood 

Whey 

Milk 



14.3 
14.3 
14.3 
15.0 
16.0 
16.0 
16.5 
14.3 
13.4 
14.3 
14.3 
78.5 

70.0 
85.0 
86.0 

27.3 
75.0 
85.0 
88.0 
87.0 
92.0 
81.5 
14.4 
14.4 
14.3 
14.3 
14.3 
11.3 
14.5 
89.1 
10.1 
12.9 
13.1 
11.5 
12.5 
10.5 

11.2 

11.5 
11 

12.0 
92,6 

NT..", 



5.0 
6.4 
6.2 
7.0 
7.7 
5.3 
7.0 
4.5 
5.7 
4.1 
4.0 
2.2 

2.1 
1 
0.8 

4.2 
0.9 
0.9 
0.8 
1.0 
0.7 
0.7 
1.5 
1.5 
2.7 
1.8 
2.2 
2.4 
3.1 
1.0 
7.2 
6.6 
5.4 
3.0 
5.2 
4.2 

7.6 



4.1 
0.7 
0.7 






7.6 
9.2 

9.7 

11.7 

13.5 

12.3 

15.3 

9.7 

10.8 

3.0 

4.0 

4.5 

3.4 
1.2 
0.8 

4.4 

2.1 

1.4 

1.1 

1.3 

1.1 

1.0 

10.0 

10.7 

12.0 

11.0 

10.0 

22.4 

25.5 

0.6 

2-1.3 
15.0 
14.0 
13.9 
14.5 
16.9 

38.8 
64.0 
51.5 
80.8 
1.0 
3.2 



33.5 
29.2 
26.3 
21.9 
19.3 
26.0 
22.2 
22.7 
29.4 
44.0 
39.5 
4.0 

10.1 
4.7 
4.8 

25.0 
1.1 
1.7 
0.9 
1.1 
0.8 
1.3 
5.5 
2.0 
'.».:; 
3.5 
7.1 
6.4 
9.4 
2.7 
14.3 
10.1 

8.7 

4.8 

5.7 

17.4 

9.2 



38.2 
39.7 
41.4 
41.6 
40 4 
38.2 
35.8 
45.8 
38.5 
33.3 
36.2 
10.1 

13.4 
7.6 

7.3 

37.9 
20.7 
10.8 
9.1 
9.5 
5.3 
15.4 
62.1 
66.6 
55.7 
67.4 
63.9 
52.5 
45.9 
6.5 
42.1 
52.2 
55.0 
63.5 
58.6 



Digestible 
nutrients. 



1.5 
2.0 
2.5 
2.8 
3.0 
2.2 
3.2 
3.0 
2.2 
1.3 

2.0 

1.0 

1.0 
0.5 

0.3 

1.3 
0.2 
0.2 
0.1 
0.1 
0.1 
0.1 
6.5 
4.9 
6.0 
2.0 
2.5 
2.0 
1.6 
0.1 
2.1 
3.2 
3.8 
3.3 
4.5 



ll.ii Di.ii 

19.6 L3.7 

.... 1.6 

' 8.1 

(1.5 
0.6 
3.6 



2.6 
6.1 

5.0 



•O be 

'"■2, 
■53 
•£ = 

«o 

OB 



3.4 
4.6 
5.4 
7.4 
9.2 
7.0 
10.7 
5.8 
6.1 
0.8 
1.4 
3.4 

1.9 
0.7 

0.6 

3.2 

2.1 

1.4 

1.1 

1.3 

1.1 

1.0 

8.4 

9.0 

9.0 

9.9 

8.0 

20.2 

23 (I 

0.4 

19.4 

12.6 

11.8 

10.8 

12.2 

16.1 

31.0 
57.6 
46.4 
54.1 
1.0 
3.2 



34.9 
36.4 
41.0 
41.7 
42.8 
38.1 
37.6 
43.4 
41.0 
36.5 
40.1 
10.9 

14.2 
7.4 
8.3 



is.:: 



2.6 
5.1 
5.0 



0.5 
0.6 
1.0 
1.3 
1.5 
1.2 
2.1 
1.4 
0.9 
0.4 
0.7 
0.6 

0.5 
0.2 
0.2 

1.0 
0.2 
0.2 
0.1 

0.1 
0.1 
0.1 
4.8 
3.7 
■1.7 
1.6 
1.7 
1.7 
1.1 
(i.l 
1.7 
2.6 
3.0 
2.9 
3.6 
9.5 

12.3 
1.1 
6.2 
0.5 
0.6 
3.6 



10.6 
8.3 
8.0 
6.1 
5.1 
5.9 
4.0 
8.1 
7.1 
46.9 
29 :> 
3.6 

8.1 
11.3 
14.4 

14.4 
10.6 
9.3 
9.3 
8.3 
5.8 
17.0 
8.6 
8.0 
6.1 
7.0 
7.9 
2.9 
2.3 

IS. 4 
2 5 
3.9 
1.1 
5.7 
4.6 
4.9 

1 

0.2 

0.3 

6.6 
4.4 



2.67 

2.28 

2.39 

.11 

.34 



4.17 

3.56 

3.76 

.18 

.53 



* Nutritive ratios are read, 1 : 10.6, 1 : 8.3. etc. See page 76. 



EXPERIMENT STATION. . '.' 



Maize. 

LXXIII, Maize Meal. Ground by Marsh, White & Co., N. Y. 

From old western corn. One week in store. From 

stock of D. B. Crittenden & Co., New Haven. Cost 

$25 per ton. 
LXXIV, Maize Meal. Fresh ground from old New York corn. 

From stock of N. W. Merwin, New Haven. Cost 

$25 per ton. 
LXXVI, Maize Kernel, " High-mixed." 1879 crop. From stock 

of N. W. Merwin, New Haven. Cost 65 cents per 

56 lbs. 
LXXVII, Maize Kernel, new western corn. Crop 1879. From 

stock of D. B. Crittenden, New Haven. Cost 65 cts. 

per 56 lbs. 
LXXVIII, Maize Kernel, " High-mixed." New crop western 

corn. From stock of N. W. Merwin, New Haven. 

Cost 65 cts. per 56 lbs. 
All the above were sampled and sent by J. J. Webb, Hamden, 
Nov. 14, 1879. 

LXXIX, King Phillip Corn, 8-rowed (Flint). 
LXXX, Common Yellow Corn, 8-rowed (Flint). 
LXXXI, Early Scioto Corn (Dent). 
LXXXII, White Flint Corn, 8-rowed. 

The last four samples were received from Chas. Fairchild, Mid- 
dletown, Jan. 9, 1880, and were raised in the vicinity of that 
place, in 1879. 

The water-content of market Corn. 

The numerous analyses of Indian Corn recently made here and 
elsewhere, most of which were printed in the last Report of this 
Station, have been mainly performed on samples which from long 
storing in heated apartments, had become much more dry than 
corn commonly is when marketed. Thus Dr. Jenkins found in 
summing up the results of 63 analyses of American maize, that 
the amount of water ranged from 6 to 15 per cent., the average 
being 104 per cent. In Wolff's tables the average is 14.4, in 
Ktihn's tables 13.7 per cent., the minimum being 7.6, the maxi- 
mum 22.4 per cent. Dr. C. A. Goessmann, in reporting recently 
eleven analyses made by himself and six made by Mr. S. P. Sharp- 



80 THE CONNECTICUT AGRICULTURAL 

les, gives them all 10 per cent, of water. In my first Report for 
1877, analyses of three samples of corn meal were published 
which contained, respectively, 12.9, 20.7 and 21.7 per cent, of 
water. It therefore appeared important to make further examin- 
ations of corn as it is offered in the market, in order to learn the 
quantities of water which belong to the commercial article. In 
case of the samples whose analyses are herewith given, the water 
was determined upon the meal or kernel as it reached the Station, 
and before any moisture then present could be lost by drying. 
It is seen from the analyses that all the samples, with one excep- 
tion, contain 15 or more per cent, of water. The meal made 
from old Western corn and that from old New York corn, as well 
as the corn raised in this State, that was cured until Jan. 10th, 
contained an average of 15.6 per cent. One of the samples of 
" High-mixed New Crop Western," taken Nov. 14th, had 16.4 
per cent. In the two other samples examined at the same date, 
the water averaged 20.45 per cent. These determinations there- 
fore go to indicate that — 1, the water in maize kernel and maize 
meal, as these are found in market, may range from 13 to 22 per 
cent. 2, well-cured corn and meal contain from 15 to 1 7 per cent., 
and 3, new corn and meal are likely to contain 20 to 21 per cent. 
It is evidently therefore a matter of some importance in large 
transactions whether, at a given price, corn and corn meal be 
bought in a slightly or thoroughly cured state. In the two sam- 
ples of corn meal examined at this Station in 1877, containing 
respectively 12.9 and 21.7 per cent, of water, if they were sold at 
the same price, say $1.25 per hundred pounds, _tht\ purchaser 
would get, in the drier sort 87 lbs., and in the damper article but 
78 lbs., of actual corn-meal. In the former case this dry matter 
would cost Si. 44, and in the latter $1.60 per hundred pounds. 
Or were the drier sample worth $1.25 per hundred, the damper 
one, if otherwise of equal quality, would be worth but $1.12. 

Between the samples LXXIII and LXXVI there is a calculated 
difference of value of 9 cents per hundred lbs., which is mostly 
due to the larger quantity of water in the latter. 

Every farmer is of course aware that there is a difference be- 
tween new and old corn in the amount of moisture they contain, 
but the extent of the difference is, I believe, not generally appre- 
ciated. 



KXI'KRIMENT STATION. 



81 



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82 THE CONNECTICUT AGRICULTURAL 

Comparative value of the Corn-Meal and shelled Corn in market. 

In the first Keport of this Station, the composition of three 
samples of commercial maize-meal was compared with that of 
five varieties of unground corn, and it was remarked that the 
meal was considerably inferior to the corn, containing, on the 
average, in dry matter, one per cent, less of fiber, two per cent, 
less of albuminoids, and two per cent, less of fat than the un- 
ground maize. It was in order to make further comparisons be- 
tween commercial meal and corn that the first five analyses above 
given were carried out in detail. 

Comparison of averages {dry matter). 



1877. 


187! 


i. 


1879. 


Dr. Jenkins' 


Commercial 


Commercial 


Selected 


Averages 


Meal. 


Meal. 


Corn. 


Conn. Corn. 


Flint. Dent. 


Fiber, 1.68 


2.34 


2.09 


1.70 


1.71 2.10 


Albuminoids,. .9.75 


10.43 


10.28 


11.17 


12.13 11.81 


Pat, 3.69 


4.72 


4.39 


4.95 


5.77 5.46 



From the above table of averages we see that the specimens of 
corn-meal examined in 1877 were inferior to those of 1879. The 
commercial meal and corn of 1879 were practically the same in 
composition. The corn on ear of 1879 contained on the average 
0.8 per cent, more albuminoids than the market shelled-corn of 
the same year, and 1.5 to 1.8 per cent, less than Dr. Jenkins' aver- 
ages of 31 analyses of flint and 19 of Dent. On the other hand, 
one of the samples of Connecticut corn of 1879, viz: the early 
Scioto, contained but 9.8 per cent, of albuminoids and 4.48 of fat, 
nearly approaching in inferiority the meal of 1877. Doubtless 
Dr. Jenkins' averages rate maize too high for the commercial 
standard, because they represent well-matured, selected, sound 
and clean corn, while the article in the wholesale market includes 
whatever is merchantable, although sometimes of inferior quality, 
and not altogether free from cob and other impurities. 

Probably our home-raised corn is generally somewhat better 
than the western shelled-corn, because it is cleaner and drier, and 
the meal in market is liable to be inferior to both, because of 
more moisture and impurities, and perhaps also because damaged 
corn can be worked into it without ready detection. 



EXPERIMENT STATION. 83 

On choice of varieties. 

The four samples from Mr. Fairohild were selected and sent by 
him with the object to ascertain which kind was most valuable to 
raise for feed. Mr. Fairchild gave the following data as to 
weight, &c. : 

The bushel or 38 lbs. of ears yielded 31 lbs. corn and 7 of cob, 
in case of common yellow and white flint, and 3(H lbs. corn in 
case-of King Phillip and early Scioto. One bushel of shelled 
early Scioto weighed 56 lbs. ; one bushel of each of the others 
weighed 57£ lbs. The early Scioto, which here is the lowest in 
quality and money value, is, probably, in a favorable climate, 
more productive than the other varieties, and from the softness of 
its kernel is perhaps more easily and completely digestible, which 
fact offsets its less favorable composition. It is not likely that 
the differences above observed are constant or characteristic of 
the varieties: very probably they are to a good degree accidental 
or dependent upon special circumstances attending the growth of 
these samples. Evidently it would be necessary to compare the 
composition and the yield of these kinds of corn during several 
years, as raised on quite similar soils, and under the same condi- 
tions of growth throughout, in order to establish any positive 
superiority of one over the others. 



Hay. 

LXXXIII, Clover Rowen. First year after seeding. Cut Aug. 
21, 1879. From C. S. Gillette, Cheshire. Mostly 
red clover, with small admixture of weeds and grasses. 

LXXXIV, Second cut after seeding. Cut about July 1, 1879. 
From C. S. Gillette, Cheshire. Mixture of timothy 
(Phleum pratense) and red top (Agrostis). A few 
weeds and sedges. 

Water free. 
LXXXIII. LXXXIV. LXXXIII. LXXXIV. 

Water, 17.40 13.12 

Ash, 3.89 4.11 4.10 4.73 

Albuminoids,* ..13.54 6.91 10.37 7.95 

Fiber, 25.86 28.11 31.33 32.35 

Nitrogen-free extract,. 3 7. 07 45.73 44.90 52.65 

Pat, ... 2.24 2.02 2.70 2.32 

100.00 100.00 100.00 100.00 

* Including "amides" =1.85 % in LXXXIII and 0.85 % in LXXXIV. 



84 THE CONNECTICUT AGRICULTURAL 

Digestible Nutrients in Air-dry Substance. 

I. XXXIII. LXXX1V. 

Albuminoids, or protein, 8.12 3.59 

Carbhydrates, 37.07 45.73 

Fat,. 1.32 0.99 

Nutr. ratio. 1 : .j.n 1: 13.4 



Notes to Hay Analyses, by Dr. Armsby. 

"The albuminoids of the clover hay (LXXXIII) are higher 
than the average of German analyses, and about equal to Wolff's 
'Very good' Clover Hay. Its crude fiber is, however, relatively 
high, being about equal to that of Wolff's ' Average,' but lower 
than the average of all analyses as given by Kuhn. The digesti- 
bility of protein appears to be largely determined by the percent- 
age of crude fiber, but to be also affected by the percentage of 
protein. We may therefore assume the albuminoids of this sam- 
ple to be rather more digestible than in Wolff's ' Average,' but 
less so than in his ' Very good,' estimating it at 60. For fat we 
may assume 59, the corresponding coefficient, without serious 
error. The digestible carbhydrates are represented approximately 
by the nitrogen-free extract of the analysis. 

LXXXIV has about the composition of Wolff's 'Inferior' 
Meadow Hay, though it is deficient in albuminoids, and we may 
assume his coefficients for albuminoids and fat, viz: 52 aud 49, 
respectively, while the nitrogen-free extract represents the digesti- 
ble carbhydrates." 

Cotton Sked Meal. 

LXXXV, From stock of Northam & Robinson, Hartford, Ct. 

Sent by R. E. Pinney, Suftield. Price $25.00 per ton, 

in 10 ton lots. 
LXXXVIII, From stock of C. H. Carrington, Naugatnck. Sent 

by M. S. Baldwin, Naugatnck. $30.00 per ton. 

LXXXV. LXXXVIII. 

Water, 887 8.87 

Ash, 6.99 7.34 

Albuminoids,... 45.00 43.06 

Crude Fiber, 4.65 4.83 

Nitrogen-free extract, 22.89 23.73 

Fat, .11.60 12.17 



EXPERIMENT STATION. 85 

Water free. 

LXXXV. l.WXVIII. 

Ash,. --- 7.69 8.05 

Albuminoids,... - 49.35 47.24 

Crude Fiber, 5.11 5.30 

Nitrogen-free extract, 25.11 26.03 

Fat, ...12.74 13.37 

100.00 100.00 

Digestible Nutrients in Air-dry Substance. 

LXXXV. LXXXVIII. 

Albuminoids, 33.30 31.86 

Carbhydrates .11.60 12.03 

Fat, ..10.56 11.07 

Nutritive ratio,.. 1:1.1 1:1.2 

Estimated value per 1 00 lbs.. $2.00 $1.97 

These samples of Cotton Seed Meal have been already reported 
on as Fertilizers (Nos. 39-A and 402, p. 36). They agree very 
closely in composition. Their value, estimated by Wolff's figures, 
is $40 per ton. The feeding experiments from which the digesti- 
bility of cotton seed meal was deduced, were made with a very 
impure and inferior Egyptian meal, and as Dr. Armsby implies in 
his Manual of Cattle Feeding, p. 347, it is probable that the di- 
gestibility of the pure meal is greater. If that be the fact, then 
the above estimated value is relatively too low. 

Either as Fertilizer or as Cattle Food, cotton seed meal is one 
of the cheapest articles in the market, and deserves to be used to 
a much greater extent than it now is. By employing it first in 
the feeding trough, its fat and carbhydrates are utilized to the 
best advantage. Thence a large share of its nitrogen, its phos- 
phates and potash pass into and enrich the manure. 



Wheat Flour. 

LXXXVI, New Process Flour, from Minnesota Spring Wheat. 

Sent by N. W. Merwin & Co. 

W 
LXXXVII, Fine Flour from entire wheat W„.W brand. 

W 

Prepared from same kind of wheat as the preceding- 
sample. Sent by N. W. Merwin & Co. 



86 



THE CONNECTICUT AGRICULTURAL 



LXXXVI. LXXXVII. 

Water. 12.79 12.89 

Ash... ... 0.50 1.44 

Albuminoids, 12.31 14.12 

Crude Fiber, 0.07 1.22 

Nitrogen-free extract, 73.14 68.32 

Fat, 1.19 2.01 

Water free. 

LXXXVI. LXXXVII. 

Ash,. .57 1.(15 

Albuminoids, 14. 12 16.20 

Crude Fiber, 08 1.39 

Nitrogen-free extract, 83.86 78.46 

Fat, 1.37 2.33 

100.00 100.00 



Dust of Vegetable Ivory. 

LXXXIX, Refuse of button factory. Sent by M. S. Baldwin, 
Naugatuck. 

LXXXIX. Maize Cob, Date Stones, 

average. average. 

"Water,... 18.78 9.16 9.27 

Ash,.. --- 1.08 1.32 1.04 

Albuminoids, 3.37 2.22 5.46 

Crude Fiber, 7.50 32.04 23.06 

Nitrogen-free extract, 68.57 5 I BE 52.67 

Fat, - 70 .41 8.50 

100.00 100.00 100.00 

Water free. 

Ash, 1.33 1.45 1.15 

Albuminoids, 4.15 2.44 6.02 

Fiber, 9.23 35.31 25.24 

Nitrogen-free extract, 84.43 60.35 58.05 

Fat, .- .86 .45 9.37 

100.00 100.00 100.00 

Nothing, at first sight, would appear to be of less value as cat- 
tle food, than the so-called vegetable ivory, the fruit of the Phy- 
telephas, a tree of South America. Mr. Baldwin writes, however, 
that " it has been used as feed for cattle. It is claimed that they 
eat it with great relish, and fatten upon it." The analysis shows 
it to contain 68^ per cent, of non-nitrogenous extract, which con- 
sists largely if not entirely of carbhydrates, the precise nature of 



i:\PERIMENT STATION. >w 

which is under investigation. The vegetable ivory resembles 
maize cob in composition, except that it contains, water-free, 26 
cent, less fiber and 24 per cent, more carbhydrates, as well as 
somewhat more albuminoids and fat. 

The vegetable ivory is nearly equalled in its carbhydrates by 
date stones, which closely resemble it in appearance, hardness 
and apparent worthlessness as cattle food. The date stones con- 
tain, however, 2 per cent, more albuminoids and 8^ per cent, more 
fat. Date stones, the analysis of which we owe to Prof. Stbrer,* 
are, according to the testimony of travelers, made use of, in Ara- 
bia and Africa, after pounding and soaking in water, as food for 
camels, cows and sheep. 

The vegetable ivory unquestionably cannot rank high as a cat- 
tle food, either because of its abundance or on account of its nutri- 
tive quality; it may, nevertheless, be worth economizing, where 
its dust or fine turnings are to be had, but should evidently be 
fed in conjunction with cotton seed meal, brewers' grains or other 
concentrated foods that can supply the albuminoids and fat, in 
which it is relatively deficient. 



Kiln-Dried Brewers' Grains. 

Brewers' Grains, i. e., the residue of barley after it has been 
malted and used for making beer-wort, has long enjoyed a high 
repute as cattle food, especially for milk cows ; and notwithstand- 
ing the fresh grains contain an average of 78 per cent, of water, 
they are much sought after by farmers living within a few miles 
of the breweries. During the warmer season, however, large 
quantities sour and spoil before they can be fed. The only plan 
of saving them hitherto has been by putting them into pits after 
the manner of ensilage. Recently it has been attempted to make 
them capable of indefinite preservation and of easy handling by 
removal of most of the water which not only constitutes three- 
fourths of their weight when fresh, but renders them so suscept- 
ible to damage. The sample whose analysis is herewith given has 
been thus prepared. This sample was brought to the Station by 
A. J. Ramsdell, Esq. of New Haven. 

♦Bulletin of the Bussey Institution, vol. I. pp. 373-7. 



88 THE CONNECTICUT AGRICULTURAL 

Kiln-dried Brewers' grains, Oats, 

xcin. average. 

Water 2.57 13.7 

Ash 3.97 2.7 

Albuminoids 20.38 12.0 

Crude Fiber 11.79 9.0 

Nitrogen-free extract 54.89 56.6 

Pat 6.40 6.0 

100.00 100.00 

The amount of water above found is perhaps smaller than 
can well be practically realized on a large scale. On exposure to 
air, the grains containing but 2\ per cent, of water will no doubt 
gradually absorb several per cent, of moisture. With even 10 per 
cent, of water the dried brewers' grains will be, so far as chemical 
analysis can indicate, equal or superior to any grain or seed com- 
monly used among us as food for animals. They correspond most 
nearly to oats in their composition, containing the same proportion 
of fat, a little more fiber and ash and some 8 per cent, more of the 
most costly and valuable food element, viz. albuminoids. Peas, 
beans and flax seed are the only seeds raised at the North which 
contain so much albuminoids. If experience shall show that the 
drying of brewers' grains can be carried on economically, the 
process will saVe a large amount of valuable cattle food from 
waste. 

I understand it is claimed by some that the drying of brewers' 
grains seriously injures them for feeding purposes. This notion is in 
agreement with the idea put forward by the partisans of ensilage, 
some of whom assert that dried corn-fodder is greatly inferior to a 
corresponding quantity of the same put down as ensilage. In total 
absence of any exact comparative trials these claims must be 
regarded as entirely questionable. Without doubt dry brewers' 
grains may be considered equally nutritious with dry grains of 
any sort, that correspond to them in chemical composition. 



EXPERIMENT STATION, 89 

POISONS. 

London Purple. 

This cheap substitute for Paris Green has been reported to be 
efficacious as an insecticide. A sample sent by P. M. Augur, 
Esq., was found to contain 41'-i per cent, of arsenic acid. The 
complete analysis by Prof. Collier shows the arsenic acid to be 
united to lime. The arsenate of lime is sufficiently soluble in 
water and in the digestive fluids of animals to act as an effective 
poison. The London Purple may therefore be regarded as fairly 
the equivalent of Paris Green for destructive purposes. 

The West Avon Poison Case. 

On Sunday morning, May 2nd, 1880, eight milk cows belong- 
ing to Messrs. Edward Woodford «fc Son, of West Avon, first 
began to show loss of appetite and at night refused their custom- 
ary feed of ground corn and rye. In the Connecticut Farmer 
of May 15, Mr. P. It. Day* relates that on Tuesday he saw the 
animals standing with arched backs, heads pressing against the 
fence or over the watering trough, into which they would occa- 
sionally put their noses to sip a little and let it drop from their 
feverish mouths. One was blind and the eyes of all were dull 
and sunken. There was a profuse flow of urine ; the slight bowel 
discharge was mostly of a dysenteric character. 

Among the earlier symptoms were a grunt of pain at each 
respiration, twisting their jaws, crunching of the teeth, afterwards 
convulsions, blind running against the fences, then rapid whirling 
from left to right in a circle, then falling to the ground, with 
agonizing bellowings, until death supervened. The first death 
occurred Wednesday afternoon, the second and third Wednesday 
night, the fourth Thursday morning, the fifth and sixth the same 
afternoon and night, the seventh Friday night, the eighth Sunday 
morning, one week from the first appearance of the illness. Dr. 
Cressy's post mortem showed extensive inflammation and corrosion 
of the mucous membrane of the digestive tract, while all other 
organs were healthy. The appearances indicated that the animals 
had swallowed some energetic poison. Portions of stomach- and 
bowel-tissue — the muscular coats — were brought to the Experi- 

* The statement here given of the symptoms and post mortem appearances 
is condensed from Mr. Day's account. 

1 



90 THE CONNECTICUT AGRICULTURAL 

ment Station in order to be subjected to examination for poisons. 
Dr. R. H. Chittenden, Instructor in Physiological Chemistry and 
Toxicology in the Sheffield Scientific School, made a full analysis 
but failed to identify any poison. In fact, so long a time had 
elapsed between taking poison and death and the tissues had been 
so denuded of the mucous membrane, that there was little hope of 
finding poison in them. Application was made, May 11, to Dr. 
Cressy to obtain, if possible, some of the feed which had been 
given to the cows, and shortly a small quantity of meal was 
received from the Messrs. Woodford. The meal bin became 
empty on Monday, May 3, the day after the cows became sick, 
and was that day replenished. The sample sent to the Station 
was obtained by nearly emptying the bin of the new feed and 
carefully gathering up what remained on the bottom and in the 
corners. In this sample the poison was identified without diffi- 
culty as Oxalic Acid. It is stated that all the animals which 
were fed from that bin died as described. Horses, fed on the 
same kind of feed, but from another box, were unaffected. 

Paris Green on Corn-Stalks. 

Under date of Sept. 17, Mr. D. C. Spencer of Old Saybrook 
wrote the Station as follows : " Last Spring I applied Paris 
Green, mixed with water, to my corn when it was about three to 
five inches high, to stay the ravages of the army worm. I desire 
to know whether you have analyzed any corn thus treated, or can 
inform me if it will now be safe to feed the corn-stalks and 
husks ? If not, will the Station analyze a sample for me ?" 

Mr. Spencer was requested to forward to the Station a dozen 
to fifteen stalks taken from different parts of the field. The 
sample came in good order, well tied up in papers and secured 
with sacking. The stalks were run through a straw cutter, and 
all the dust, together with a good portion of the well-mixed cut- 
tings, were examined by Dr. Jenkins for arsenic. No trace of 
this poison could be found by the processes which serve to detect 
"5^&7TT tn °f a grain °f white arsenic. It thus appears that the 
Paris Green applied to the young plants had been completely 
removed by the rain. It has been well established by Dr. 
McMurtrie that vegetation takes up into its interior no arsenic 
from the soil with which Paris Green has been mingled in the 
quantities which are used lor destroying insects, a result which is 
fully confirmed by this examination. 



EXPERIMENT STATION. 91 



WHAT BECOMES OF THE RAIN-FALL? 

Its Evaporation and Percolation. 
Inquiry. 
Professor S. W. Johnson: 

Dear Sir — At a meeting of the Killingworth Farmers' Club 
last winter, the question was raised whether there was not incon- 
sistency between the teachings of science in regard to the action 
of water as a distributing agent for the fertilizing elements of 
manure, and the practice of surface application of manures to 
fields long in advance of plowing. 

The action of water in bringing fertilizing elements from the 
highway upon fields favorably situated for receiving them was 
referred to in illustration, and the question in substance was : If 
water does take up and carry wherever it goes, the valuable ele- 
ments of manure, must there not be in many situations risk of 
very serious loss by this practice ? The one upon whom it 
devolved to answer the question was probably not very well 
qualified for his task. What he said was in substance as follows: 

"There is no practicable method of handling manure which does 
not involve some waste. It decomposes rapidly under ordinary 
conditions and its valuable elements are volatile or soluble or 
both. Water which falls upon manure in the field will certainly 
take up some of its valuable elements and carry them in whatever 
direction it goes until some stronger force releases them. Gravity 
will release those held simply. in suspension before they get very 
far. Those held in solution the soil will seize upon and hold if 
they get within its reach. But where does the water go to ? 
Ordinarily it goes into the soil at or very near the point where it 
falls. The soil of a cultivated field has many times the absorptive 
power that the roadbed of a highway has, and while in heavy 
rains and upon steep hillsides a considerable amount may run off, 
the percentage is less than would seem and is not ordinarily 
enough to occasion serious waste or to overbalance the advan- 
tages, economical and otherwise, of this method of application." 

A wide difference of opinion was developed as to the proportion 
of rain-fall which escaped from the surface of sloping fields, and 
upon this point more than any other the question seemed to turn. 
Upon this point no one present had anything but guesses to offer 
and the guesses varied widely. 



92 THE CONNECTICUT AGRICULTURAL 

Now my object in writing to you is to ask if any observations 
have ever been made which give an answer to the question. 
Where, and how, does the water that falls upon the surface of a 
cultivated field, during the year, escape? What is its destination, 
and by what road does it travel ? I know of course that the 
conditions of the question are uncertain and that no answer at 
once simple and exact can be giveu, but one that approximates 
to accuracy would, I think, be interesting and valuable. Should 
you agree with me in this opinion, I should be glad to have you 
tell us what is known of the matter through the columns of the 
Connecticut Farmer. 

Very truly yours, 

J. M. Hubbard. 

Middletown, Ct., May 17, 1880. 

Answer* 
J. M. Hubbakd, Esq. : 

My Dear Sir — It is evident that the water which falls upon 
the soil of a cultivated field partly passes through the soil, partly 
remains in it, partly evaporates into the air and may partly flow 
off the inclined surface to a lower level. 

To what extent these several modes of disposal affect the rain- 
fall evidently depends upon a variety of conditions. Among these 
conditions are the quantity, frequency and rate of rain-fall, the 
depth and texture of the. mass of soil, the texture and state of 
dryness of the surface of the soil, the presence or absence of 
growing vegetation, the weather and climate, as they influence 
evaporation. 

The ordinary rain-gauge affords the means of ascertaining how 
much rain falls on any field. The lysimeter, a rain-gauge filled 
with soil, first constructed about 80 years ago in England by Dr. 
Dalton, shows how much water percolates or passes through the 
soil. The difference is what evaporates from or remains in the 
soil. The amount of water that remains in the soil at any given 
moment is ascertained by the loss of weight which a sample 
undergoes on drying. 

Tlic first observations to which I am able to refer, giving com- 
parisons of the rain-gauge and the lysimeter are those made by 
Mr. Dickinson of Herts, England, of which an account by Josiah 
Parkes is given in Vol. V. of the Journal of the Royal Agricultu- 

* Reprinted from the Connecticut Ftarmtr with additions. 



EXPKRIMKNT STATION. 93 

r.il Society of England. Mr. Dickinson made regular daily 
observations for eight years, from 1830 to 1 84:5 inclusive. His 
lysimeter was "an open-top cylinder 12 inches in diameter, sunk 
vertically in the earth, level with its surface, having a false bottom 
perforated with holes, like a cullender, which supported three feet 
depth of soil within the cylinder, through which and through the 
cullender the excess of the rain — or the portion not evaporated — 
filtered to the close bottom of the vessel " where it was drawn off 
and measured. This lysimeter " was filled with the soil of the 
region, a sandy, gravelly loam and had constantly grass growing 
on it." 

The average total rain-fall was 26 T \ inches per annum ; of 
this HfV inches or 42£ per cent, filtered through the soil so that 
57£ per cent, of the rain-fall evaporated from or remained in the 
soil. In so long a period, we may assume without serious error 
that the soil at the close of the observations contained as much 
water as it did at the beginning, and therefore that 57£ per cent, 
of the rain-fall evaporated from the surface. 

But the rain-fall and the evaporation were naturally different 
from one year to another. The annual rain-fall ranged from 21 
to 32 inches, or 2,137 to 3,139 long tons per acre, the annual 
evaporation w r as from 43 to 67 per cent, of the rain-fall. 

During the six colder months, from October to March inclusive, 
the average rain-fall was nearly 14 inches; the evaporation was 
but 3^/g- inches, or 2b\ per cent., the filtration being ] Oy 3 ^ inches, 
or 74 J per cent. 

During the six warmer months, from April to September inclu- 
sive, the average rain-fall was 12 T ? ( f F inches, of which the evapora- 
tion was H-tVo-, equal to 92 T \ per cent., and the percolation fa 
inch, or 7 T \f per cent. During the warmer months of 1840 and 
1841 no percolation took place at all. In 1836 the summer per- 
colation was 17 per cent, of the rather less than average rain-fall. 

The results of similar observations made by Dalton (3 years), 
Greaves (2 years), and Lawes & Gilbert (5 years), in England, 
gave respectively for the annual percolation 25, 27 and 36 per 
cent, of the rain-fall which was 26 to 28 inches. Experiments in 
Switzerland by Maurice (2 years), Risler (2 years), and by 
Gasparin (2 years) in France, gave the percolation at 39, 20 and 
30 per cent, of the rain-fall which was 26 and 28 inches, except in 
Risler's case where it was 41 inches. 

In this country we have the observations of Dr. Sturtevant at 



94 THE CONNECTICUT AGRICULTURAL 

South Framingham, near Boston, and of Professor Stockbridge 
at Amherst. Dr. Sturtevant observed during two years an 
annual rain-fall of 43£ inches, and an average percolation of 
18 T 6 7 per cent., through a gravelly loam 25 inches deep covered 
with growing grass. The percolation in 1876 was 10-^ per cent., 
that in 1877 was 26 T \ per cent, of the nearly identical rain-fall. 
Professor Stockbridge's observations extended from May to 
November inclusive, of the year 1878. They were made on a 
"very leachy" soil 3 feet deep, the upper 10 inches of which was 
a sandy loam with intermixed pebbles, underlaid for 14 inches by 
gravelly loam, beneath which wore 14 (?) inches of stones and 
gravel. The surface was kept bare of all vegetation. 

The rain-fall for the 7 months was 25.7 inches, the percolation 
was 20 per cent. During the same period the South Framingham 
lysimeter received 27 T 6 „ inches of rain and its percolation was 14^ 
per cent. 

While the per cent, of percolation is greater in England than 
in this country, the total amounts measured in inches, that pene- 
trate the soil, are not so different in the various countries. The 
English results of Dickinson were ll T 3 ff inches, of Greaves 6-j^ 
inches, of Lawes 10 inches, the Swiss figures of Maurice were 
10 T V inches, of Risler 12 T 3 ^ inches, the French ot Gasparin 5 T ^ 
inches, the American of Sturtevant in 1876 5 T \ inches, in 1877 
11 Aj- inches, and those of Stockbridge for 7 months of 1877 5-j*^ 
inches. These figures enable us to say that the filtration of water 
through the lysimeter amounts to from 5 to 10 inches annually 
with a rain-fall of 26 to 44 inches. The heavier rain-falls are 
evidently compensated by greater and more rapid evaporation. 
Evaporation and rain-fall vary within much wider limits than 
percolation, which is relatively constant. 

The greatest amount of percolation usually occurs during the 
cooler half of the year from October to March inclusive. During 
the warmer six months the percolation is comparatively small. 

Some better idea of the amount of water that falls, percolates 
and evaporates, per acre, yearly, may perhaps be obtained with 
help of the fact that 1 inch of rain on an acre of surface, equals 
27 154 IT. S. gallons or 862 barrels. 

Dr. Wollny of the Munich experiment Station for the study of 
Soils, found that the same calcareous loamy soil exposed to the 
same rain-fall permitted 38 percent, of the water to filter through 
when the surface was bare of vegetation, while but 20 per cent. 



EXPERIMENT STATION. 95 

percolated when the soil carried grass or clover, the experiment 
lasting from April 14 to November 18, 1874. 

In another series of trials, three soils, namely Band, peat and 
clay were compared side by side in three conditions, viz: 1, bare 
of vegetation, 2 in grass, and 3 covered with a layer of horse 
manure 21 inches deep. The percolation through these soils was 
as follows in per cent, of the rain-fall : Bare sand 64, bare peat 44, 
bare clay 32 ; grassed, sand 14, peat 9, clay 1 ; mulched, sand 45, 
peat 39, clay 49. This experiment lasted from April 23 to Octo- 
ber 31, 1875. It shows 1st how superior clay and peat are to 
sand as mechanical absorbents of water, 2d that vigorous vegeta- 
tion greatly diminishes the percolation, because the plants take 
up and exhale large quantities of water, 3d that a heavy mulch 
makes the percolation less than it is in naked sand or peat but 
increases the percolation in clay. 

In 1876 Dr. Wollny made a similar series of observations with 
sand, peat and clay, both naked and covered with horse manure 
to the depth of ^ inch. Under this light mulch the percolation 
was somewhat greater, i. e. the evaporation was less than from 
bare soil. A coating of gravel had the same effect in lessening 
evaporation and increasing percolation as the mulch. 

All the above observations refer to soils with a level surface. 
Some of them, viz., those of Lawes & Gilbert and of Stockbridge, 
refer to soils in their agricultural state of compactness, i. e. to 
soils not in any way loosened up below the plow-depth, the undis- 
turbed soil having been surrounded by the lysimeter. In the 
other cases, mostly, the soil was dug away to sink the lysimeter 
and then filled into the cavity thus made. It being impossible to 
restore a disturbed sub-soil to its original compactness the obser- 
vations made under conditions thus differing are not strictly com- 
parable, although they cannot differ very widely. 

Again, the very fact that a stratum of soil is undermined for 
collecting the water that percolates through it, decidedly affects 
percolation and evaporation, — usually diminishes the percolation 
and increases evaporation, by breaking the continuity of the 
porous earth which when continuous sucks down water from the 
surface when this is the wetter, and sucks up water from the sub- 
soil when that is the wetter, thus limiting the movement of the 
water of the soil within a narrower range than it naturally would 
have. 

As regards the flow of water from sloping fields there are no 



96 THE CONNECTICUT AGRICULTURAL 

measurements extant to my knowledge, and it is evident that 
the amount of flow must vary iudefinitely with the degree of 
slope and other circumstances. The surface of soil that has long 
been exposed to drought is difficult to wet, in fact, at first repels 
moisture, and a "cloud-burst" or sudden heavy rain may flow off 
in large proportion from a surface of very slight inclination, 
when the latter has become dust-dry. On the other hand, the 
water of a slow-beginning but long-continued and more abundant 
rain may all penetrate the well-moistened surface of a considera- 
ble slope. 

A gravelly or coarse-sandy surface is always ready to take up 
the heaviest rainfall. A fine loam, if moist, will swallow rain 
rapidly, but dry dusty loam imbibes it slowly. Moist peat 
(swamp muck) or vegetable mold can hardly be overcharged 
by any rain, but snuff-dry peat, like a dry and shrunken sponge, 
requires considerable time to recover moisture. 

These various results and considerations answer your question 
as satisfactorily as the facts within my reach permit. 

Yours truly, t S. W. Johnson. 

SEED TESTS. 

The Station has not been called upon by consumers to examine 
any seeds during 1880. That the Station might be of great ser- 
vice to farmers in this way there can be no doubt. It is very 
common to hear that a crop is lost or half lost because of the 
poor quality of seed. 

On the other hand, some of our dealers are appealing to the 
Station for information as to the quality of the seeds they purchase, 
and I give below a summary of results mostly obtained during 1880, 
ID making tests for the trade, with onion, lettuce, and cucumber 
seeds. In case of onion seeds the tests are classed according to 
the age of the seed, as well as its variety. Most of these seeds 
were grown in Connecticut. A number came from Western 
States, some from California. The samples of onion seed were 
examined immediately after their arrival at the Station. 

The results confirm in a very striking manner the opinion of 
experienced seedsmen that seeds rapidly deteriorate in quality by 
keeping. They also show that seeds of the same variety and age 
may differ in quality by as much as 30 per cent. ; this difference 
depending upon the circumstances of growth, curing and keeping. 



PXPKKLMENT STATION. 



97 



In making seed-tests, it is found that a portion of the seeds 
germinates within a reasonable time, 10-14 days, a second portion 
becomes soft and dead, and thereupon moulds or decays, while 
a third usually small proportion remains sound. If the experi- 
ment be prolonged these sound seeds either sprout or decay. 
Dr. Nobbe, who has had the most extensive experience in seed- 
examinations advises to add to the per cent, of actually sprouted 
seeds of all perennial forage plants, grasses, clover, etc., one-third 
that of the seeds that remain sound, implying that, on the 
average, such a proportion of the ungerminated but sound seeds 
would germinate under favorable conditions. This sum-total he 
designates seed capable of germination. Most generally in case 
of onion seed, and other annuals, those seeds which do not 
germinate within 10-14 days do not germinate at all, but on 
prolonging the trial gradually soften and decay. 

In some few instances with onion seed two years old, the seeds 
go on sprouting for three weeks or more. Out of twenty instances 
where the trial of old onion seeds has been prolonged beyond 
10-12 days there has been in but four cases additional germina- 
tion to the extent of 3 per cent. In one of these cases the addi- 
tional germination amounted to 12 per cent. Evidently the onion 
seeds which sprout after 10-14 days are of no practical use, as 
the thinning and weeding processes interfere with their growth. 
In our Reports, we shall give the per cent, of seed actually 
sprouted, and in case of perennials, shall add to it one-third of 
those remaining sound, to obtain the per cent, of " seed capable of 
germination'''' in the sense advised by Dr. Nobbe. 



Results op Seed Tests. 
By Dr. E. H. Jenkins. 



Seed 
Variety. Station No. sprouted 

J (per cent.) 



Seed s . 

(percent.) | (Percent.) 



H sprouted | 1,00(1 sic, Is 
seed permin- weigh 
ated in days, (grammes.) 



Cucumber Seed. 



37.5 
6.0 

84.5 



0.0 
0.0 
0.0 



62.5 
94.0 
15.5 



25.95 
27.99 
27.49 



No. 62 represents the cucumber seed as it came in bulk. Part of the seed ap- 
peared good, another part had apparently begun to sprout before it was prepared 
for market. No. 63 represents the damaged portion. No. 64 that which was 
apparently undamaged. 



98 



THE CONNECTICUT AGRICULTURAL 



Variety. Station No. 


Seed 
sprouted 


Seed 

remained 

sound 


Seed 
rotted 


H sprouted 
seed germin- 
ated in days. 


1,000 eeedB 
weigh 




(per cent.) 


(percent.) 


(percent.) 


(grammes.) 




Onion Seed less than 1 


year old. 






Wethersfield 


74.0 
80.0 


13.0 
3.0 


13.0 
17.0 


4 

7 





Lar^e Red. ■{ , . » 


89.5 


1.0 


9.5 


less than 7 


2.89 


[l26 


88.0 


6.0 


6.0 


5 


4.17 


Average, . . . 


82.9 


5.8 


11.3 


5 


3.53 
4.13 




" 69 


86.8 


3.5 


9.7 


3 




97 


98.0 


1.5 


0.5 


6 






98 


90.8 


5.0 


4.2 


4 






101 


92.2 


5.5 


2.3 


4 






102 


80.3 


7.5 


12.2 


4 




Dan vers Yellow, . . - 


109 


85.2 


8.5 


6.3 


4 




no 

118 


97.8 
88.5 


1.5 

1.0 


0.7 
0.5 


4 

less than 7 


¥.66 




133 


91.3 


4.0 


4.7 


5 






134 


92.2 


4.0 


3.8 


5 






135 


87.3 


9.0 


3.7 


5 






136 


88.5 


6.5 


2.0 


4 




■ 


55 


64.8 


11.0 


24.2 


7 


3.59 




1 58 


94.3 


2.0 


3.7 


4 


4.05 


Average, . 


88.4 


5.0 


6.6 


4* 
4 


3.60 


Extra Early Red, 80 


82.5 


12.0 


5.5 




fU4 


91.8 


2.5 


5.7 


4 




115 


88.0 


7.0 


5.0 


6 




White Portugal, . . . < ^ . „ 


89.0 


5.5 


5.5 


4 




[ 65 


95.2 


1.0 


3.8 


6 


3.63 


Average, 


91.0 


4.0 


6.0 


5 





( 113 


93.8 


2.0 


4.2 


4 




White Globe, -M29 


89.7 


7.0 


3.3 


4 




( 57 


96.0 


0.5 


3.5 


3 


3.83 


Average, 


93.2 


3.2 


3.6 


4 





Yell'w Gl'be Danvers, 127 


88.5 


6.0 


5.6 


5 


3.76 


Early Red Globe, 84 


85.8 


7.5 


6.7 


4 





Red Globe, 128 


86.0 


8.5 


5.5 


6 


4.31 


( 131 


75.3 


18.6 


6.2 


4 




Large Red, ] 132 


85.3 


5.3 


9.4 


4 


- - - - 


( 53 


82.3 


9.0 


8.7 


3 


3.95 


« Average, 


80.9 


10.9 


8.2 


4 




Yellow Dutch, 111 


80.0 


5.0 


15.0 


4 




Average of nil varieties, . 


§7.2 


5.§ 


7.0 


4 


3.73 


On 


ion Seed bet 


ween 1 


2 years old. 






r 7o 


80.6 


31 6 


8.0 


:'. 


:t.Ki 


99 


41.8 


12. 2 


ir.n 


6 




Danvers Yellow, ..< 1Q(1 


41.3 


36.6 


2.'!. 2 


6 




{ 5-1 


55.7 


1 8.0 


86 3 


7 


3.34 


Average, 


49.8 


31.8 


18.4 


6 


3.37 


White Portugal, 130 


64.5 


27.6 


8.0 


7 




White Globe, 56 


85.2 


7.0 


7.8 


4 


3.62 


Red Globe, 


112 


90.5 


5.0 


4.5 


4 









EXPERIMENT STATION. 



99 



Variety. Station No. 


Seed 
sprouted 
(per cent.) 


Seed 
remained 

sound 
(.per cent.) 


Seed 

rotted 

(per cent.) 


>4 sprouted 
Beed germin- 
ated in days. 


1.000 seeds 

weigh 
(grammes.) 


Extra Early Red, 59 

Large Red, 52 

Average of all varieties. . 


64.5 
72.3 
64.0 


23.5 

18.5 
23.0 


12.0 

9.2 

12.8 


4 
4 
5.2 


3.86 
3.73 
3.59 



Onion Seed between 2 and 3 years old. 



Wethersfield 
Large Red, 



( 87 

I 88 

A 90 

91 

[ 96 

Average, . 

Dan vera Yellow, .. -j ,„„ 

Average, 

Average of all varieties,. 



22.0 
27.5 
18.8 
66.2 
17.0 
30.3 

47.3 
32.7 
40.0 

33.0 



65.0 
64.0 
42.5 
30.5 
56.5 
51.7 

48.5 
57.0 
52.7 

52.0 



13.0 
8.5 

38.7 
3.3 

26.5 

12.0 

4.2 

10.3 

7.3 

15.0 



3.51 



Onion Seed between 3 and 4 years. 



Wethersfl'ld Large R., 51 


28.0 


? 


? 


7 


3.83 


( 103 
Danvers Yellow, . . ■< 104 
( 107 
Average, 


1.7 
1.8 

2.7 
2.1 


82.5 
75.5 
32.5 
53.5 


15.8 
12.7 
64.8 
34.4 


10 

10 

6 

9 


.... 


Extra Early Flat Red, 81 


1.8 


82.5 


15.7 


10 





Average of all varieties, . 


7.2 


6§.3 


24.5 


§.5 






Onion Seed between 4 and 5 years. 



Onion Seed between 5 and 6 years. 





0.3 


95.5 


4.2 


10 




Large Red, .....-{ „ , 


0.5 
0.5 


88.0 
91.0 


11.5 
8.5 


10 
3 





( 95 


0.3 


87.5 


12.2 


10 




Average, 


0.4 


90.5 


9.1 


8 





Danvers Yellow, 108 


0.3 


93.0 


6.7 


10 





Ex. Early Flat Red, j ^ 


2.0 
0.8 


78.0 
84.0 


20.0 
15.2 


10 
3 


.... 


Average, 


1.0 


85.0 


14.0 


8 





Average of all varieties, . 


0.7 


88.1 


11.2 


8 






Danvers Yellow, 



.1051 



0.0 



92.0 



8.0 



Lettuce Seed. 





119 


96.0 


0.0 


4.0 


3 


1.31 




120 


98.5 


0.0 


1.5 


3 


1.10 




122 


96.0 


2.0 


2.0 


3 


1.00 




123 


97.3 


2.0 


0.7 


3 


1.43 




124 


98 3 


1.5 


0.2 


3 


1.36 


Average, . . 




97.2 


1.1 


1.7 


3 


1.24 



100 THE CONNECTICUT AGRICULTURAL 

The Station's Instructions for sampling seeds, are as follows : 

THE CONNECTICUT AGRICULTURAL EXPERIMENT STATION. 
NEW HAVEN, CONN. 

Instruction* for Sampling Seeds. 

The Agricultural value of seeds intended for Farm and Garden 
use is learned by examining a small average sample. A weighed 
amount of seed is taken, the pure seeds are culled out and weighed, 
foreign matters and especially noxious seeds are identified, the 
vitality of the pure seed is tested by careful sprouting trials and 
a report is drawn up of the results. 

As the test of germinating power requires some time for its 
completion, a report on samp'les sent in cannot be ordinarily ex- 
pected in less than two weeks. 

The examination of grass-mixtvres can only be undertaken in 
special cases. It requires a large outlay of time and labor which 
is not often justified by the results. 

In selecting a sample for examination the greatest care should 
be used to have it represent accurately the whole amount from 
which it was taken. 

1. Mix well together with the hand and arm the contents of the 
package (bag or barrel) or packages of seed. 

2. Take out five or six small handfuls or cupfuls* from various 
parts of the package, mix these together and take a part of this 
mixture for the sample. 

3. Send of the smaller seeds — red top, white clover, timothy, 
etc., two (2) ounces ; of beets, turnips, red clover, etc., four (4) 
ounces ; of wheat and cereals, and of peas and other legumes, 
eight (8) ounces. 

4. Samples may be sent by mail, or otherwise, prepaid, and 
should be plainly labeled and addressed to 

Conn. Agricultural Experiment Station, 

New Haven, Conn. 

i \ small cup may be closed with tlie pahs of the hand, forced down to the 
desired place, then filled anil withdrawn). 



EXPEKIMKNT STATION. 1<»1 

Seeds sent in for gratuitous examination must be described on 
the subjoined Form. 

THE CONNECTICUT AGRICULTURAL EXPERIMENT STATION, 
NEW HAVEN, CONN. 

Farm, for Description of Sample. 

Station No. Rbc'd at Station. 188 . 

Each sample of Seed sent for gratuitous examination must be 
accompanied by one of these forms, with the blanks below filled 
out as fully as practicable. 

The filled out Form, if sent with the sample, will serve as a 
label ; but it must be returned in good order for filing in the 
Station Records. 

Send with each sample a specimen of any printed circular, or 
statement that accompanies the seed or is used in its sale. 

Name or label of seed, 

Name and address of Producer or Importer, 

Name and address of Dealer from whose stock this sample is taken, 

Date of taking this Sample, 

Selling price per pound or bushel, 

Known or reputed age of seed, 

Number of packages from which sample is taken, 

Quantity of stock which the sample represents, 

Was sample taken according to Station Instructions, or how? 



Signature and P. O. address of person taking and sending the 
sample. 



The results of the examinations are entered in a suitable record 
book, and are also reported to the parties sending, on forms of 
which the following is an example. 



102 THE CONNECTICUT AGRICULTURAL 



Report of Seed Test. 

THE CONNECTICUT AGRICULTURAL EXPERIMENT STATION, NEW- 
HAVEN, CONN., 188 . 
Examination of seed. 

Station No. Sender's Mark. Rec'd. 188 . 
From 

Pure seed, . . .per cent, by weight. 

Impurities, per cent, by weight. 

Pure seed sprouted during days, per cent, by number. 

Pure seed decayed during days, per cent, by number. 

Pure seed sound (unsprouted) after. . . days, per cent, by number. 

Of sprouted seed, \ germinated in days. 

1000 seeds weighed . grams. 

Per cent, value, 

The " per cent, value" of a sample of seed is obtained by multiplying its per 
cent, (by weight) of pure seed into the per cent, (by number) found, or able, to 
germinate, and dividing by 100. It refers the number of seeds found, or able, 
to germinate, from " pure seed" back upon the sample itself, in terms of per cent. 
In case of perennials only it takes account of & of the unsprouted sound seeds. 



EXPERIMENT STATION. 103 



THE DETERMINATION OF PHOSPHORIC ACID IN 
COMMERCIAL FERTILIZERS. 

In the second Report of this Station a volumetric method for 
the determination of phosphoric acid was described, which, in a 
number of trials, gave very satisfactory results. Further investi- 
gation showed, however, that this method could not be relied 
upon, because the changes of color which serve to indicate the 
completion of the reaction are rendered gradual and uncertain by 
the presence of considerable quantities of either salts of phos- 
phoric or tartaric acid. 

Our attention was then turned to the direct precipitation of 
magnesium-ammonium phosphate in citric solution and in pres- 
ence of iron, alumina and lime. By an extensive series of trials 
Mr. Wells found that very good analyses could be made by this 
method, and he had already learned how to apply it to all the 
classes of fertilizers that the Station is called upon to analyze, 
and, together with Dr. Jenkins and Dr. Armsby, had made 
numerous comparative trials by it and the molybdic method, 
when Ave learned from the foreign journals that Dr. Petermann, 
Director of the Experiment Station at Gembloux in Belgium, 
had anticipated us. 

The method is in our opinion quite accurate enough for the 
analysis of fertilizers, and is now regularly employed for that 
purpose in the Station, since its use saves much time and labor. 

We owe to Warington * the first employment of citric acid to 
prevent precipitation of Fe and Al. Spiller f first showed that 
Ca is also held in solution by ammonium citrate. Brassier J first 
applied this fact to phosphoric acid estimation, but held that sul- 
phuric acid must be separated in order to get entirely satisfactory 
results. 

Jouliefl considered the sources of error in Brassier's method 
and claimed to have overcome them by use of a solution 
of magnesium citrate with citric acid. Evidently, however, his 
plan was a failure. 

Ville§ had previously described a method based upon Bras- 
sier's, but from his own account it was not satisfactory. 

* Jour. Chem. Soc. London, 1863, 304. || Chem. News, xxvii, 228. 

f Jour. Chem. Soc. London. 1858, 112. § Compt. Rend., lxxv, 344. 

X Ann. de China, et de Phys. [4], vii, 355. 



104 THE CONNECTICUT AGRICULTURAL 

•Petermann,* first brought the process into a satisfactory form, 
but gave no sufficient details of the mode of working. 

Brunnerf has given a brief account of his experience with 
the method, which he considers to be satisfactory for technical 
purposes. 

Grape and TollensJ have also published some preliminary 
studies of the process. 

Mr. Wells' experiments were concluded before the two last- 
named papers were published, and before Petermann's paper was 
received at the Station. Here follows Mr. Wells' account of his 
work. 

On Determination of Phosphoric Acid in Citric Solution. 
By H. L. Wells, Ph.B. 

This investigation covers the following points : — 

1. In the precipitation of NH 4 MgP0 4 as ordinarily practiced, 
does NH 4 C1 have a solvent action on the precipitate? 

2. To what extent does ammonium citrate in solution dissolve 
NH 4 MgP0 4 ? 

3. When ammonium citrate is present, is magnesium citrate 
thrown down with NH 4 MgP0 4 in such quantity as to make it 
necessary to dissolve and reprecipitate. 

4. What effect has UaS0 4 in solutions in which NTI 4 MgP0 4 is 
precipitated in the presence of ammonium citrate ? 

5. What effect has CaCl 2 in the same case ? 

6. What effect have ferric salts ? 

1. What effect have aluminum salts ? 

8. After deciding on these points and shaping the method 
accordingly, practical trials were made controlling the determina- 
tions by the molybdic method. 

In each experiment a measured quantity of a slightly acid 
solution of Na 3 HP0 4 was used whose content of P a 6 was deter- 
mined by precipitating with magnesia mixture and weighing the 
magnesium pyrophosphate. To this solution was added the quan- 
tities of magnesia mixture,§ ammonium citrate and other solu- 
tions required and finally an amount of ammonia solution (sp. gr. 
0.96) equal to one-third of the previous volume of the liquid. The 
whole was stirred vigorously several times at intervals of half an 

* Versuchs-Stationen, xxiv, 327. J Ber. d. Deuts. Ch. Ges. XIII, 1269. 

f Fres. Zeitschr., 188(1, p. I t2. § Sic note ou p. L16. 



EXPERIMENT STATION. 1<>5 

hour, more or less, allowed to stand twelve hours, filtered on 
asbestos, ignited and weighed in Gooch's crucibles. 

Three different solutions of sodium phosphate were used in 
these experiments, viz : 

100 c.c. of solution I, used in experiments 1-8, precipitated with magnesia mix- 
ture gave the following amounts of magnesium pyrophosphate : 
a .3151 grams. 
b .ri 14. r > grams. 
Average :',148 grams. 

100 c.c. of solution 11, used in experiments A -II and 9-85, precipitated in a 
small volume of solution gave: 

a .2708 grams. 
b .27 11 grams. 
Average .'2 1 1 1 grams. 

100 c.c. of solution III, used in experiments 86-140 gave: 

a .3037 grams. 
b .3041 grams, 
c .3034 grams. 
d .3041 grams. 
Average .3038 grams. 

100 c.c. of solution III, precipitated and filtered, the precipitate dissolved in 
hydrochloric acid and reprecipitated with the addition of a very little Mg. 
mixture gave 

a .3034 grams. 
6 .3021 grams, 
c .3024 grams. 
d .3031 grams. 
Average .3028 grams. 

These results show an average variation of .00035 grams from 
the mean of all the determinations, or .0007 between the highest 
and lowest and an extreme variation of .0013 between the highest 
and lowest. The error of experiment amounts to from one-tenth 
to four-tenths of one per cent, of the total amount of pyrophos- 
phate. 

1. In the ordinary mode of precipitating NII 4 MgP0 4 does NH ( 
CI have a solvent action on the precipitate ? 

The results obtained were as follows : 





Magnesia 


NH 4 C1 


Total 


Weight of 


Per eer 




Mixture. 


(total.) 


volume. 


Mg 2 P 2 0,. 


A 


20 cm. 3 


1.4 grm. 


1G0 cm 8 . 


.2761 grm. 


101.7 


B 


20 


2.8 


160 


.2702 


99.0 


C 


20 


3.9 


185 


.2709 


99.!) 


D 


20 


5.3 


185 


.2704 


99.7 


E 


20 


6.4 


215 


.2703 


99.7 


P 


20 


7.8 


215 


.2700 


99.5 


G 


20 


13.9 


295 


.2701 


99.6 


H 


20 


13.9 


430 


.2703 


99.7 



106 . THE CONNECTICUT ACtKKTLTURAL 

A. contained no more ammonium chloride than was present in 
the magnesia mixture used. The precipitate probably contained 
magnesium hydrate. Experience has shown that it is necessary 
to have more ammonia salts present than the magnesia mixture 
itself contains in order to secure accurate results. 

In the other trials the largest error was .5 per cent, of the total 
amount of phos. acid, showing that the amount of NH 4 C1 and the 
volume of the solution may vary considerably without greatly 
affecting the result. 

2. To what extent does ammonium citrate in solution dissolve 
NH.MgPO. ? 

4 O 4 

In these experiments the precipitated NH 4 MgP0 4 was dis- 
solved on the filter in hydrochloric acid, a few drops of Mg. 
mixture were added and the solution reprecipitated with NII 3 . 
This was done to remove any magnesium citrate which might 
have come down in the first precipitation. 

Following are the results obtained — 





Magn. 


Citric 


Vol. 


Mg s P a O, 


Mg,P 2 7 


Difference 


Per 


No. 


mix. 


acid. 


found. 


required. 


grams. 


cent. 


46' 


15 err 


i 3 . 1 5 grm 


, 400 cm 


3 . .2668 grm 


. .2711 grm. 


— .0035 gnu. 


98.4 


47 


20 


15 


400 


.2668 


.2711 


— .0035 


98.4 


48 


40 


15 


400 


.2670 


.2711 


-.0033 


98.5 


49 


80 


15 


400 


.2680 


.2711 


-.0023 


98.9 


50 


100 


15 


400 


.2685 


.2711 


-.0018 


99.0 


98 


20 





250 


.3034 


.3028 


+ .0006 


100.2 


99 


20 





250 


.3027 


.3028 


-.0001 


99.9 


100 


20 


1 


250 


.3033 


.3028 


+ .0005 


100.2 


101 


20 


2 


250 


.3033 


.3028 


+ .0005 


100.2 


102 


20 


5 


250 


.3029 


.3028 


+ .0001 


100.0 


L03 


20 


10 


250 


.3024 


.3028 


-.0004 


998 


104 


20 


15 


250 


.3013 


.3028 


-.0015 


99.5 


105 


20 


20 


250 


.2980 


.3028 


-.0048 


98.4 


106 


20 


2:} 


250 


.2974 


.3028 


— .0054 


98.2 


107 


20 


23 


250 


.2981 


.3028 


-.0047 


98.4 


108 


20 


23 


250* 


.3002 


.3028 


-.0024 


99.1 


L09 


20 


23 


250* 


.3019 


.3028 


-.0009 


99.7 


110 


20 


23 


500 


.3000 


.3028 


-.0028 


99.0 


11 1 


20 


23 


500 


.2994 


.3028 


-.0034 


98.5 


112 


20 


23 


500 


.3013 


.3028 


-.0015 


99.5 



* Double the usual amount of ammonia. 

Experiments 46-50 show that the presence of 15 grams of citric 
acid may make the result come considerably too low, but that 
this tendency is counteracted somewhat by a large amount of 
magnesia mixture. Experiments 104 and 112 are exceptional. 

Experiments 100-107, 1 I0 and 111 show that amounts of citric 
acid less than 15 grams in 250-500 c.c. of solution have only a 
very slight solvent action, while larger quantities have consider- 



EXPERIMENT STATION. I<»7 

able effect. 108 and 109 show that this solvent action is almost 
wholly counteracted by using a larger amount of ammonia. 

3. In the presence of ammonium citrate is magnesium citrate 
thrown clown with NH 4 MgP0 4 in such quantity as to make it 
necessary to dissolve and reprecipitate ? 

In these experiments the precipitate was not dissolved, but was 
weighed directly. 

In tlie following table the results are arranged according to 
the amount of citric acid employed. An asterisk signifies that 
double the usual quantity of ammonia was used. 

Per 

cent. 

100.5 

96.7 

100.8 

100.2 

100.3 

100.0 

101.8 

99.7 

99.5 

101.8 

102.4 

99.1 

99.1 

100.9 

100.0 

102.6 

100.6 

100.1 

98.6 

98.8 

100.5 

98.9 

101.1 

99.6 

99.8 

98.7 

98.0 

98.2 

100.2 

98.3 

98.8 

98.6 

98.9 

98.5 

103.3 

98.4 

98.4 

98.5 

98.8 

99.0 

99.2 

98.5 



No. 


Magn. 
mix. 


Citric 
acid. 


Vol. 


Found. 


Required. 


Difference. 


15 


20 cm 3 


1 grin 


. 163 cm 3 . 


.2723 grm 


. .2711 grm. 


+ .0012 grm. 


35 


2 


1 


140 


.0262 


.0271 


-.0009 


36 


20 


1 


164 


.0273 


.0271 


+ .0002 


16 


20 


2 


166 


.2715 


.2711 


+ .0004 


17 


20 


2 


166 


.2719 


.2711 


+ .0008 


34 


20 


2 


400 


.2712 


.2711 


+ .0001 


37 


20 


2 


200 


.0276 


.0271 


+ .0005 


33 


20 


3 


400 


.2702 


.2711 


— .0009 


18 


20 


5 


315 


.2699 


.2711 


-.0012 


29 


80 


5 


260 


.2762 


.2711 


+ .0051 


30 


80 


5 


400 


.2778 


.2711 


+ .0067 


31 


20 


5 


180 


.2688 


.2711 


-.0023 


32 


20 


5 


400 


.2689 


.2711 


— .0022 


38 


10 


5 


276 


.0274 


.0271 


+ .0003 


39 


20 


5 


400 


.0271 


.0271 


+ .0000 


44 


80 


5 


400 


.0278 


.0271 


+ .0007 


113 


20 


7 


350* 


.3045 


.3028 


+ .0017 


6 


20 


10 


— ? 


.3151 


.3148 


+ .0003 


19 


20 


10 


200 


.2672 


.2711 


— .0039 


20 


20 


10 


400 


.2677 


.2711 


— .0037 


23 


. 80 


10 


400 


.2725 


.2711 


+ .0014 


27 


20 


10 


300* 


.2679 


.2711 


— .0032 


40 


20 


10 


400 


.0274 


.(1271 


+ .0003 


41 


20 


10 


400 


.0270 


.0271 « 


-.0001 


114 


20 


10 


350* 


.3023 


.3028 


-.0005 


7 


20 


15 





.3110 


.3148 


— .0038 


21 


20 


15 


565 


.2658 


.2711 


— .0053 


22 


20 


15 


420 


.2664 


.2711 


-.0047 


24 


80 


15 


400 


.2718 


.2711 


+ .0007 


25 


20 


15 


220 


.2665 


.2711 


-.0046 


26 


20 


15 


625 


.2677 


.2711 


-.0034 


28 


20 


15 


330* 


.2672 


.2711 


— .0039 


42 


20 


15 


400 


.0268 


.0271 


—.0003 


43 


20 


15 


400 


.0267 


.0271 


— .0004 


45 


80 


15 


400 


.0280 


.0271 


+ .0009 


46 


15 


15 


400 


.2668 


.2711 


-.0043 


47 


20 


15 


400 


.2608 


.2711 


— .0043 


48 


40 


15 


400 


.2670 


.2711 


-.0041 


49 


80 


15 


400 


.2680 


.2711 


— .0031 


50 


100 


15 


400 


.2685 


.2711 


— .0026 


116 


20 


15 


350* 


.3006 


.3028 


— .0022 . 


116 


20 


23 


350* 


.2985 


.3028 


-.0043 



108 THE CONNECTICUT AGRICULTURAL 

The experiments in which 7 grams or less of citric acid were used 
sin i w that such au amount does not seriously affect the accuracy 
of the result. The two errors already noticed, viz : the precipi- 
tation of magnesium citrate and the solution of NH 4 MgP0 4 in 
ammonium citrate very nearly offset each other. Throwing out 
Nos. 35, 36, 37, 29, 30, 38, 39, and 44, the averages are with 1 gram 
Ci 100.5 per cent. ; with 2 grams 100.3 per cent. ; with 3 grams 
99.7 per cent. ; with 5 grams 99.2 per cent. ; with 7 grams (where 
double the usual volume was employed) 100.6 per cent. Nos. 
20, :(0 and 44 are not comparable on account of the very large 
amount of magnesia mixture used. Nos. 35, 36, 37, 38 and 39 
contained very small amounts of P O 5 . The absolute error is 
small, in these cases, excepting perhaps 35 (where little magnesia 
mixture was used), quite within the unavoidable errors of experi- 
ment, but the percentage error is larger. 

Nos. 29, 30 and 44 indicate that with 5 grams of citric acid 
a very large excess of magnesia mixture (80 c.c.) introduces 
serious error. 

20 c.c. of magnesia mixture is sufficient to precipitate .4 grams 
P 6 , so that in all cases more than twice as much magnesia 
mixture was used as was absolutely necessary. 

Below r are tabidated the results of experiments where 10 grams 
of citric acid were used, arranged according to the volume of 
solution. 



No. 


Magn. mixture. 


Volume. 


Per cent. 


19 


20 cm 3 . • 


200 cm 8 . 


98.6 


27 


20 


300* 


98.9 


114 


20 


350* 


99.8 


20 


20 


400 


98.8 


40 


20 


400 


101.1 + 


11 


20 


400 


99-6+ 


23 


80 


400 


100.5 


6 


20 


? 


100.1 



Below are tabulated those experiments where 15 grams of Ci 
were used, arranged according to the volume of solution. 



io. 


Mirju. mix. 


Volume. 


Per cent. 


No. 


Magn. mix. 


Volume. 


Per cent. 


26 


20 om 8 . 


220 cm 8 


98.3 


50 


LOO cm 8 . 


10" .-m 


99.0 


28 


20 


330* 


98.6 


42 


20 


mil 


98.9+ 


L6 


20 


360* 


99.2 


43 


20 


400 


98.5+ 
103.2, 


L6 


15 


4(10 


98.4 


L6 


80 


400 


47 


20 


inn 


98. 1 


22 


20 


420 


98.2 


48 


hi 


400 


6 


21 


20 


565 


98.0 


24 


80 


400 


100.2 


•v, 


20 


626 


98.8 


49 


Sll 


too 


B8.8 











* Double the usual amount of ammonia. 

I lu these experintents the small amount of P 3 O t , used exaggerates the per 
,., ni error or difference ten times as compared with the others. 



E X PKK1 M EN T ST A TION. 



L09 



These figures indicate that with 15 grams or more of citric acid 
in solution, the results will be more than 1 percent, too low unless 
there is some compensation. A very large excess of magnesia 
mixture will tend to lessen this error. 

Dilution and a larger amount of ammonia also appear to tend 
in the same direction, but in respect to their influence the results 
are unsatisfactory. 

It will be noticed that the absolute error is much smaller and 
the percentage error is no larger in those cases where the total 
amount of P„0 6 is smaller. 

A comparison of these results with those under 2 indicates 
that nothing is gained by dissolving and reprecipitating the 
MgNH 4 P0 4 . 

4. What effect has CaS0 4 in solutions in which NH 4 MgP0 4 is 
precipitated in the presence of ammonium citrate ? 

The details of the experiments on this point are given below. 





Mag. 


Citric- 


CaS0 4 


Vol. 
cm 3 . 


Mg 2 P 2 7 


Mg 2 P. 2 0, 


Difference 


Am- 
monia. 


Per 
cent. 


No. 


mix. 
cm 3 . 


acid. 
grm. 


+2H.,0 
grm. 


found. 
grm. 

.2803 


required, 
grm. 

'.2711 


(Mg a P a O,.) 

grm. 


51 


20 


2 


.5 


240 


+ •0092 


idil. 


103.4 


52 


20 


3 


.5 


240 


.2740 


.2711 


+ .0029 


" 


101.0 


53 


20 


2 


.5 


400 


.2745 


.2711 


+ .0036 


" 


101.2 


54 


20 


3 


.5 


400 


.2746 


.2711 


+ .0037 


" 


101.2 


55 


20 


5 


.5 


400 


.2734 


.2711 


+ .0023 


u 


100.8 


56 


20 


2 


.5 


230 


.0296 


.0271 


+ .0025 


" 


109.2 


57 


20 


3 


.5 


230 


.0286 


.0271 


+ .0015 


u 


105.5 


58 


20 


5 


.5 


230 


.0276 


.0271 


+ .0005 


ti 


101.8 


59 


20 


5 


.5 


400 


.0282 


.0271 


+ .0011 


" 


103.9 


60 


20 


5 


.5 


400 


.2728 


.2711 


+ .0017 


" 


100.6 


61 


20 


7 


.5 


400 


.2728 


.2711 


+ .0017 


" 


100.6 


62 


20 


10 


.5 


400 


.2718 


.2711 


+ .0007 


" 


100.3 


63 


20 


15 


.5 


400 


.2709 


.2711 


— .0002 


" 


99.9 


64 


20 


5 


.5 


400 


.0278 


.0271 


+ .0007 


" 


102.5 


65 


20 


7 


.5 


400 


.0275 


.0271 


+ .0004 


u 


101.4 


66 


20 


10 


.5 


400 


.0269 


.0271 


— .0002 


" 


99.3 


67 


20 


15 


.5 


400 


.0270 


.0271 


— .0001 


" 


99.6 


72 


20 


5 


.5 


180 


.2736 


.2711 


+ .0025 


'• 


100.9 


73 


20 


15 


.5 


235 


.2701 


.2711 


— .0010 


_" 


99.6 


117 


20 


7 


.25 


350 


.3060 


.3028 


+ .0032 


i cone. 


101.0 


118 


20 


10 


.25 


350 


.3052 


.3028 


+ .0024 


" 


100.8 


119 


20 


15 


.25 


350 


.3040 


.3028 


+ .0012 


" 


100.4 


120 


20 


23 


.25 


350 


.3020 


.3028 


-.0008 


" 


99.7 


121 


20 


7 


1 


350 


.3093 


.3028 


+ .0065 


" 


102.1 


122 


20 


10 


1 


350 


.3085 


.302S 


+ .0057 


" 


101.2 


123 


20 


15 


1 


350 


.3053 


.3028 


+ .0025 


" 


100.8 


124 


20 


23 


1 


350 


.3041 


.3028 


+ .0013 


■" 


100.1 



The results in general are high : in all cases where less than 5 
grams of citric acid was used with .5 gram CaS0 4 -)-2H s O they are 
1 per cent, or more too high. Where 5 or more grams of Ci were 



110 



THE CONNECTICUT AGRICULTURAL 



employed they w ere in all cases satisfactory except in 117, 121 
and 122, where double the usual quantity of ammonia was em- 
ployed. 

5. What effect has calcium chloride on the precipitation of 

NH^MgPO, in the presence of Ci? 

The details of the experiments made are given in the following 
table. 

The same results essentially were obtained as with CaSO < -|-2H ;) 0, 
that is: the presence of calcium chloride tends to make the 
results too high. With more than 10 grams of Ci the error was 
less than 1 per cent, when quantities of calc. chloride were present 
equivalent to froni .25-1.0 grams of calc. sulphate. 





Mag. Ca 


Cl 2 . 


Citric 


Vol. 


Mg 9 P a O, 


Mg a P 9 0, 


Difference. 


Am- 


Per 


No. 


mix. 


•m. 


acid. 


cm 3 . 


found. 


required. 


grm. 


monia. 


cent. 




cm 3 . B 




grm. 




grm. 


grm. 

.3028 








125 


20 


15* 


7 


350 


.3078 


+ .0050 


i cone. 


101.6 


126 


20 


15* 


10 


350 


.3062 


.3028 


+ .0034 


•' 


101.1 


127 


20 


15* 


15 


350 


.3054 


.3028 


+ .0026 


" 


100.8 


128 


20 


15* 


23 


350 


.3028 


.3028 


.0000 


(t 


100.0 


129 


20 


6+ 


7 


350 


.3106 


.3028 


+ .0078 


" 


102.6 


130 


20 


6? 


10 


350 


.3078 


.3028 


+ .0050 


" 


101.6 


131 


20 


6+ 


15 


350 


.3058 


.3028 


+ .0030 


" 


100.7 


132 


20 


6t 


23 


350 


.3032 


.3028 


+ .0004 


it 


100.1 


133 


20 


15* 


7 


350 


.0306 


.0303 


+ .0003 


" 


100.9 


134 


20 


15* 


10 


350 


.0305 


.0303 


+ .0002 


" 


100.6 


135 


20 


15* 


15 


350 


.0308 


.0303 


+ .0005 


" 


101.6 


136 


20 


15* 


23 


350 


.0296 


.0303 


— .0007 


ii 


97.6 


137 


20 


6+ 


7 


350 


.0317 


.0303 


+ .0014 


" 


104.2 


138 


20 


•6+ 


10 


350 


.0313 


.0303 


+ .0010 


II 


103.2 


139 


20 


• 6 t 


15 


350 


.0305 


.0303 


+ .0002 


" 


100.6 


140 


20 


•6t 


23 


350 


.0294 


.0303 


-.0009 


II 


97.0 



* Equivalent to .25 gr. CaS0 4 + 2H,0. 
f Equivalent to 1 gr. CaSC + 2H a O. 

With large or small amounts of phosphoric acid the results are 
equally satisfactory. 

6. What effect on the precipitation have sesqui-salts of iron P 
Following are the details of the experiments — 



No. 

id 
12 
68 
69 
70 
71 
74 
75 
76 
77 



Mg. 
mix. 
20 cm 3 . 
20 
20 
20 
20 
20 
20 
20 
20 
20 



Ci. Fe 2 3 . Vol. 



5 gm 

8 

5 

7 

10 
15 

5 

7 
10 
16 



.5 gm. 

.5 

.5 



?cm 8 . 

? 

228 
400 
400 
400 

too 

111(1 

400 
400 



Mg,, !',()-, Mg 8 P»0, 
found. required. 
2756 gm. .2711 gm. 



.2106 

.0284 
.0283 
.0280 
.0270 
.2705 
.2732 
.2710 
.2689 



.2711 
.0271 
.0271 
.0271 
.0271 
.2711 
.2711 
.2711 
.2711 



Diff. 

+ .00-15 gm. 

— .0006 
+ .0013 
+ .0012 
+ .0009 
-.000] 
-.0006 
+ .0021 

— .0001 

— .0022 



Per 
cent. 

loi.e 

99.8 

104.8 

104.4 

L03.3 

99.6 

99.7 

100.7 

99.9 

99.1 



EXPERIMENT STATION. Ill 

In 10, 6S and 74- the Ci present was insufficient to produce a 
greenish yellow color; the solutions were red and the precipitates 
contained iron. In three cases where a small amount of phos- 
phoric acid was present, the results came much too high, and the 
absolute error was rather too large to be considered due to the 
errors of experiment. The error decreased as the amount of 
citric acid increased, and in 71 with 15 grams of Ci the result 
was satisfactory. 

With a larger quantity of P 2 6 the results came within 1 per 
cent of the actual amount, with the exception of 10, where 5 

grams Ci were used. 

7. What effect on the precipitation has the presence of salts of 
aluminum ? Following are the results — 



No. 


Mg. 

mix. 


Ci. 


Al a O s . 


Vol. 


Mg 9 P a 

found. 


; Mg 2 P 2 7 

required. 


]>iff. 


Per 
cent. 


9 


20 cm 3 . 


5 gm 


. .5 gm. 


? cm 8 . 


.2602 i 


»m. .2711 gm. 


— .0109 gm. 


96.0 


11 


20 


8 


.5 


? 


.2081 


.2711 


— .0030 


98.9 


13 


20 


11 


.5 


? 


.2680 


.2711 


— .0031 


98.8 


78 


20 


5 


.5 


400 


.2699 


.2711 


-.0012 


99.5 


79 


20 


t 


.5 


400 


.2702 


.2711 


— .0009 


99.7 


80 


20 


10 


.5 


400 


.2700 


.2711 


-.0011 


99.6 


81 


20 


15 


.5 


400 


.2674 


.2711 


-.0037 


98.6 


82 


20 


7 


.5 


400 


.0275 


.0271 


+ .0006 


101.4 


83 


20 


10 


.5 


400 


.0262 


.0271 


— .0009 


96.7 


84 


20 


15 


.5 


400 


.0258 


.0271 


— .0013 


95.2 



In general the presence of aluminum salts depresses the results. 
With .5 grms. A1 2 3 , 5-15 grms. Ci, 20 c. c. magnesia mixture, 
and 400 c. c. total volume of solution, the error falls within 1 per 
cent. 

Summary. 

The conditions which tend to introduce a plus error are these : 

1. Excessive amount of magnesia mixture in the presence of 
Cl. 

2. Presence of calcium as sulphate or chloride. 

3. Presence of ferric salts. 

The circumstances which tend to make a minus error are : 

1. Solvent action of ammonium citrate on MgNH 4 P0 4 . 

2. Presence of aluminum salts in the solution. 

The most serious error is likely to come from the solvent action 
of ammonium citrate, and it is to be avoided by increasing the 
amount of magnesia mixture as the amount of citrate increases, 
by moderate dilution, and when the amount of citrate is very 



112 THE CONNECTICUT AGRICULTURAL 

large (23 grams as in the case of reverted P 2 6 — estimations) by 
increasing the amount of ammonia employed. 

The following quantities of reagents were used in the subjoined 
analyses of commercial fertilizers. 

In case of superphosphates, the analysis by the citric method 
has sometimes been made on a single portion of 2 grams, which 
was first washed on a filter with water to extract soluble P 2 6 , 
then digested with ammonium citrate, as directed by Fresenins, 
Neubauer and Luck, and "reverted" P,0 6 thrown down from the 
solution, and lastly the residue was boiled with IIC1, and that 
solution treated for " insoluble" P 2 6 . In other cases total P,0 6 
has been determined in a separate portion and reverted P 2 6 
obtained by difference. 

In case of commercial fertilizers, the presence of calcium salts 
nearly or entirely compensates the solvent effect of the citrate. 

I. Bones and natural phosphates (20-30 per cent. P 2 6 ). — Use 
1 gram substance, 10-15 grams Ci, 30-40 c.c. Mg mixture, 
350-400 c.c. solution, of which one-quarter is ammonia of specific 
gravity 0.96. 

II. Superphosphates. Soluble P 2 6 , 1-2 grams substance, 
5-10 grams Ci, 20-30 c.c. Mg mixture, 350 c.c. solution. 

Reverted P,0 6 , 1-2 grams substance, 11 J or 23 grams Ci, 40 
c.c. Mg mixture, and more ammonia than usual. 

Insoluble P a 6 . 2 grams substance, Ci, etc., same as soluble. 

Comparisons between the Citric and Molybdic methods. 
By Messrs. Wells, Jenkins and Armsby. 
The results in ( ) are by difference, or in case of total, by addition. 



Station 

No. 




By 

Molybdic method. 


By 

Citric method. 


Ci 

used. 


Subst. 
takeu. 


345 


Sol. l' a O», 

Insol. P,Or„ 
Total P a 6 . 


7.63 7.77 p. c. 
.92 .94 
9.56 9.57 


7.65 7.70 p. c. 
1.00 .96 
9.61 9.60 


5 gr. 

5 
8 


1 gr. 
2 
.5 


348 


Rev. P ■■<'... 
Insol. PaOs. 
Total P a O„. 


i i.:;:t 

11.52 
25.91 


14.13 14.46 
11.18 1 1 .60 
25.80 25.96 


23 

? 

■) 


2 


351 


Sol. P,0 b , 

Insol. P 3 C% 


4.01 
6.31 


3.86 ::.93 
5.20 




.8 

1.6 


363 


Sol. P,O r „ 

Rev. P.0„ 
[nsol. i' 0., 
Total P.j0 6 , 


1.76 4.89 

(.51) 
.43 .46 

5.91 5,67 


4.76 4. 62 

.55 .56 

(.51) 

6.16 5.78 


5 
23 

7 


.8 
2 

1 



EXPERIMENT STATION. 



113 



Station 
No. 
364 

365 

392 

373 
366 
374 

376 
377 
378 
379 

380 

381 

384 
382 



Total P 2 6 , 

Sol. P 2 6 , 
Rev. P,0 6 , 
Insol. Pa0 6 , 
Total P 2 O t „ 

Total P 2 5 , 

Sol. P 2 6 , 
Rev. P 2 6 , 
Insol. P 2 6 , 
Total Po0 6 , 

Total P 2 6 , 

Sol. P a 6> 
Rev. P s O B , 
Insol. P 2 6 , 
Total P 2 6 , 



Sol. P 2 0„, 
Rev. P 2 6 , 
Insol. P 2 6 , 



Sol. P 2 5 , 
Rev. P 2 6 , 
Insol. P 2 5 , 



By 

Molybdic method. 
21.12 21.13 

5.51 5.47 
(2.13) 

4.39 4.30 
11.91 12.02 

7.23 

1.38 1.47 

(3.07) 

.95 .79 

5.38 5.38 

17.60 17.56 

1.26 1.20 
(7.60) 

5.40 5.75 
14.40 14.40 
* Rev. and Insol. 
f Rev. and Insol. 

10.40 



8.79 



Sol. PoO 
Rev. P 
Insol. P 






Sol. P 2 6 , 
Rev. P 2 6 , 
Insol. P 2 6 , 



Sol. P a 6 , 

Rev. P 2 5 , 
Insol. P 2 6 . 



Sol. P 2 O s , 
Rev. P 2 O s , 
Insol. P 2 6l 



Sol. P 2 5 , 
Rev. P 2 5 , 
Insol. P 2 5 



Total P 2 5 



12.38 



11.86 



13.33 



11.17 



13.96 



12.97 13.03 



By 

Citric method. 
20.99 20.95 

5.42 5.43 
2.02 1.98 
(4.52) 
11.96 11.94 

7.27 7.28 

1.28 1.31 
2.78 2.74 

(1.11 1.13)* 
(5.18) 

17.57 17.59 

1.01 .85 

6.49 6.97f 

(6.46 6.02) 

(13.90) 

=3.89 3.87. 

= 12.95 12.99. 

3.18 
5.45 
1.35 

9.98 

2.31 
5.19 
1.13 

8.63 

4.76 
5.04 
2.12 

11.92 

4.08 
6.12 
1.24 

11.44 

4.06 
2.02 
7.30 

13.38 

6.84 
1.75 
2.44 

11.03 

6.05 
1.65 
6.26 

13.96 

13.03 13.05 



Oi 

used. 
10 

5 
23 

10 

5 

5 
23 
10 

12 

5 
23 
10 



10 
23 
10 



10 
23 
10 



10 
23 
10 



10 
23 
10 



10 
23 
10 



10 
23 
10 



Subst. 
taken. 

1 



gr. 



10 
23 
10 



15 



114 



THE CONNECTICUT AGRICULTURAL 



Station 
No. 




By 

Molybdic. 




By 

Citric. 


Ci Snbst. 
used used. 


383 


Total P,0 6 , 


27.18 


27.20 


27.42 


27.31 


15 1 


386 


Sol. P 2 B , 
Rev. P 2 O s , 
Insol. P 2 s , 
Total P 2 C% 


I 14.21 


2.33 

7.25 
4.48 
(14 


2.40 
7.43 
4.20 
.05) 


2 

2 

. 2 

2 


388 


Total P 3 5 , 


25.21 


25.02 


25.04 


25.03 


15 1 


390 


Total P 2 6 , 


1.79 


1.79 


1.77 


1.77 


7 1 


393 


Total P 3 6 , 


7.16 


7.19 


7.20 
Molybdic. 


7'20 


7 1 
Citric. 


■427 




Total, 




26.22 




26.26 — 26.31 


440 




Total, 




24.43 




24.40-24.36 


422 




Total, 




22.04 




22.16 — 22.18 


443 




Total, 




21.64 




21.94-21.96 


442 




Total, 




19.96 




20.04 — 20.00 


434 




Total, 




19.34 




19.57-19.55 


430 




Sol., 

Rev., 

Total, 




13.11 




5.57-- 5.56 

1.57- 1.46 

13.18-13.15 


424 




Sol., 

Rev., 

Total, 




11.28 




6.03— 5.94 

1.03- 1.16 

11.25-11.30 


437 




Sol., 
Rev., 

Total, 




10.77 




6.92- 6.93 

1.11- 1.17 

10.81 — 10.77 


433 








7.28 




7.27- 7.28 


421 




Sol., 

Rev., 

Total, 




7.22 




5.54— 5.63 
0.45— 0.49 

7.16- 7.18 


423 




Sol., 

Rev., 

Total, 




6.88 




5.71- 5.76 

.48- .55 

6.78- 6.85 


439 








6.46 




6.40- 6.42 


435 




Sol., 
Rev., 

Total, 




6.33 




5.76- 5.67 

.31— .44 

6.31— 6.27 


417 




Sol., 

Rev., 

Total, 




5.87 




4.67- ... 

.49- .56 

5.87- -5.84 


416 




Sol., 

Rev., 

Total, 




5.23 




2.55- 2.56 
2.01— 2.14 
5.54- 5.71 


426 




Sol., 

Rev., 

Total, 




6.06 




3.39- 3.40 
1.59- 1.53 
5.94- 5.94 


425 

ilH 




Sol., 
Rev., 

Total. 




4.27 
1.61 




2.92- 2.81 
1.59- 1.53 
4.26- 4.28 

1.35- 1.32 



EXPERIMENT STATION. 115 

The above comparisons are not a selection, hut include all the 
results obtained up to July. 1880. They were made rapidly and 
in some cases on material that did not admit of entirely liomo- 
geneous sampling. The correspondence of soluble and total l'jO^, 
when alike directly determined by the two methods, is in nearly 
every case satisfactory. 

Reverted and insoluble P a O B do not agree so well, as might be 
expected, because the extraction by ammonium citrate is not 
without its uncertainties. 

Magnesia Mixture. — The mixtnre used by Mr. Wells was made as follows: 110 
grams crystallized MgCUliHoO. 140 grams NH.|C1, 700 c.c. solution of ammonia 
sp. gr. 0.96, and water to make one liter. Instead of MgCl 2 6H ; 0, 27 grams of 
recently calcined magnesia may be dissolved in the equivalent quantity of IICl, 
the solution boiled with a little calcined magnesia in excess and filtered. 



116 THE CONNECTICUT AGRICULTURAL 



LAW CONCERNING SALE OF FERTILIZE US. 

General Statutes of Connecticut. 
Revision of 1875. 
Title 16, Chapter 15. 

Sec. 15. Every package of fifty pounds or more of commercial 
manure sold, or kept for sale, at over one cent a pound, unless 
prepared essentially from fish and sold as such, shall he marked 
with its weight and the name and place of business of the manu- 
facturer, or seller, and with a true analysis of the chemical elements 
and their several amounts contained therein. 

Sec 1G. The Secretary of the State Board of Agriculture may 
procure the analysis of any fertilizer offered for sale, and prose- 
cute any persons who violate the provisions of the preceding 
section. 
Title 20, Chapter 12. 

Sec 5. Any manufacturer, or trader, who shall sell, or offer for 
sale, any package containing fifty pounds or more of commercial 
manure, not marked as required by law, or who shall affix thei'eto 
a stamp, impress, or card, claiming that it contains five per cent, 
more of any fertilizing ingredient than it does in fact, shall forfeit 
ten dollars for each hundred pounds thereof so offered for sale. 



"AN ACT ESTABLISHING THE CONNECTICUT AGRI- 
CULTURAL EXPERIMENT STATION. 

"Be it enacted by the Senate and House of Representatives in 

General Assembly convened: 

"Section 1. That for the purpose of promoting agriculture by 
scientific investigation and experiments, an institution is hereby 
established, to be called and known as The Connecticut Agri- 
cultural Experiment Station. 

" Sec 2. The management of tliis institution shall be committed 
to a Board of Control, # to consist of eight members, one member 
to be selected by the State Board of Agriculture, one member by 
the State Agricultural Society, one member by the Governing 
Board of the Sheffield Scientific School at Now Haven, and one 
member by the Board of Trustees of the Weslcyan University at 
Middletown, and two members to he appointed by the Governor 
of this State, with the advice and consent of the Senate. The 



KXi-KKIMKNT STATION. 1 17 

Governor of the State, and the person appointed as hereinafter 
provided to be the Director of the Station, shall also be ex officio 
members of the Board of Control. 

"Sec. 3. After the appointment of the members of the Board 
of Control as aforesaid, said members shall meet and organize by 
the choice from among their number of a President, a Secretary, 
and a Treasurer, who shall be elected annually, and shall hold 
their respective offices one year, and until the choice of their 
successors. Five members of said Board shall constitute a quo- 
rum thereof for the transaction of business. 

"Sec. 4. Said Board shall meet annually after the first meeting 
thereof, on the third Tuesday in January in each year, at such 
place in the city of Hartford as may be designated by the Presi- 
dent of said Board, and at such other times and places, upon the 
call of the President, as may be deemed necessary, and may fill 
vacancies which may occur in the officers of said Board. 

" Sec. 5. Said Board of Control shall locate and have the gen- 
eral management of the institution hereby established, and shall 
appoint a Director, who shall have the general management and 
oversight of the experiments and investigations which shall be 
necessary to accomplish the objects of said institution, and shall 
employ competent and suitable chemists and other persons neces- 
sary to the carrying on of the work of the Station. It shall have 
power to own such real and personal estate as may be necessary 
for carrying on its work, and to receive title to the same by deed, 
devise, or bequest. . It shall expend all moneys appropriated by 
the State in the prosecution of the work for which said institution 
is established, and shall use for the same purpose the income from 
all funds and endowments which it may hereafter receive from 
other sources, and may sue and be sued, plead and be impleaded, 
in all courts, by the name of The Connecticut Agricultural Exper- 
iment Station. It shall make an annual report to the Legislature 
which shall not exceed two hundred printed pages, of which not 
exceeding three thousand copies shall be printed. 

"Sec. 6. The sum of five thousand dollars annually is hereby 
appropriated to said Connecticut Agricultural Experiment Sta- 
tion, which shall be paid in equal quarterly installments to the 
Treasurer of said Board of Control, upon the order of the Comp- 
troller, who is hereby directed to draw his order for the same ; 
and the Treasurer of said Board of Control shall be required, 
before entering upon the duties of his office, to give bond with 



118 CONNECTICUT AGRICULTURAL EXPERIMENT STATION. 

surety to the Treasurer of the State of Connecticut in the sum of 
ten thousand dollars, for the faithful discharge of his duties as 
such Treasurer. 

" Sec. 7. Upon the death or resignation of any of the members 
of the Board of Control, the authority or institution by which 
such deceased member was originally appointed shall fill the 
vacancy so occasioned. 

" Sec. 8. Professor Samuel W. Johnson, of New Haven, is 
hereby empowered to appoint and call the first meeting of said 
Board of Control as soon as may be practicable after the appoint- 
ment of the members thereof, and he shall notify all said members 
of the time and place of said meeting. Two of said members 
shall hold office for one year, two of them for two years, and two 
of them for three years ; and at said first meeting they shall 
determine by lot which of said members shall hold office for one 
year, which for two years, and which for three years. All 
members of said Board thereafter chosen or appointed, except 
such as are appointed or chosen to fill vacancies in said Board, 
shall continue in office for the term of three years from the first 
day of July next succeeding such appointment. 

" Sec. 9. This act shall take effect from its passage. 

Approved March 21, 1877." 



AN ACT RELATING TO THE PRINTING OF THE 
REPORT OF THE STATE BOARD OF AGRICULTURE 
AND OF THE CONNECTICUT AGRICULTURAL EX- 
PERIMENT STATION. 

Be it enacted by the Senate and House of Representatives in 

General Assembly convened : 

Sec. 1. The Comptroller shall annually cause to be printed, at 
the expense of the State, five thousand copies each of the report 
of the State Board of Agriculture and of the Connecticut Agri- 
cultural Experiment Station. 

Sec. 2. All acts and parts of acts inconsistent herewith are 
hereby repealed. 

Approved, March 19, 1879. 



INDEX. 



Page 

Act Establishing Connecticut Experiment Station, - - - 116 

Act relating to printing Report, - - - - - 118 

Agricultural value of Fertilizers, ..... 20 

Ammonia, value and cost of, - - - - - - 17,49 

Analyses made during 1880, - - - - - - 21 

Apple Pomace, analysis, ...... 67 

Ashes, --------- 39 

Atwood Bros., Bone, ------- 32-33 

Azotin, --------- 35 

Baker & Bro., Bone, ------- 32-33 

Barrenness caused by excess of urine, etc., - 69 

Barrenness caused by poison iron-salts, .... 55 

Blood, Dried, -------- 34 

Bone Manures, analyses, ...... 30 

Bone Manures, valuation, - - - - - - 28, 31 

Bowker's Bone Meal for Cattle, ..... 32-33 

Bowker's Kitchen Garden Fertilizer, ..... 46-47 

Bradley, Superphosphate, - - . - - - - 24-25 

Brewer's Grains, Kiln Dried, analysis and remarks, ... 88 

Bridgeport Ground Bone (dissolved), ----- 24-25 

Bulletins, ........ 10 

Castor Pomace, Collins Co., H. J. Baker & Bro., ... 3(5 

C. B. 15 per cent., Superphosphate. ----- 24-25 

Coe's, E. Frank, Superphosphate, ----- 24-25 

Coe's, Russell, Superphosphate, ..... 24-25 

Complete Manure, Mapes', ...... 24-25 

Corn, - - - - - - - - • - 79 

Corn, analyses of, - - - - - - 81 

Corn, choice of varieties of, - ... . . . 83 

Corn, Comparative value of Corn Meal and Shelled Corn, - - 82 

Corn, Water Content of Market Corn, ----- 79 

Cotton Seed Meal, C. H. Carrington, ----- 36, 84 

Cotton Seed Meal, Smith, Northam & Robinson, - - - 36, 84 

Dried Blood, --.-.... 34 

Evaporation of Rain Fall, - - - - - - 91 

Fertilizers, Cost of Active Ingredients of during 1880, - 49 

Fertilizers, Explanations of analyses and valuation, - - - 17 

Fertilizers, Trade Values for 1879-80, ..... 19 

Fertilizers, Trade Values for 1881, ----- 21 



120 THE CONNECTICUT AGRICULTURAL 

Page 

Fish and Potash, .-.--.- 24-25 

Fish Scrap Guano, ....... 35 

Flour, analyses, etc., ------- 85 

Fodders and Feeding Stuffs, ..-.-- 74 

Fodders and Feeding Stuffs, Explanations of analyses, etc., - - 75 

Fodders and Feeding Stuffs, Nutritive Ratio of, - - - 76 

Fodders and Feeding Stuffs, Table of Average Composition, etc., of, - 78 

Form for Description of Fertilizers, - - - - - 16 

Forrester Cabbage Manure, ...... 46-47 

Forrester Corn Manure, ....... 46-47 

Forrester Fruit Tree Manure, ...... 46-47 

Forrester Grass Manure, ------ 46-47 

Forrester Lawn Dressing, ------ 46-47 

Forrester Oat Manure, ------- 46-47 

Forrester Onion Manure, ...... 46-47 

Forrester Potato Manure, ------ 46-47 

Forrester Rye Manure, ------- 46-47 

Forrester Strawberry Manure, - - - - - - 46-47 

Forrester Tobacco Manure, ...... 46-47 

Forrester Turnip Manure, ...... 46-47 

Forrester Wheat Manure, ...... 46—47 

Guano, Analyses, etc., - - - - - - - 22, 25 

Hay, Analyses of, ------ - 83 

Holyoke Mf'g Co., Bone Saw Dust, ----- 32-33 

Horn Shavings, ....... 36 

Instructions for Sampling Fertilizers, ----- 14 

Instructions for Sampling Seeds, - - - - - 100 

Ivory Saw dust, ....... 32-33 

Law Concerning Sale of Fertilizers, - - - - - 115 

Leached Ashes, ....... 39 

Leather Chips, Value of, ----- - 65 

Lime, Influence on the Effect of Fertilizers, .... 60 

Limestone, Magnesian, analysis, - - - - - 73 

London Purple, -------- 89 

Lysimeter, - - - - - - - - 92 

Lister Bros., Bone, ------- 32-33 

Lister Bros., Superphosphate, ------ 24-25 

Lombard A Matthewson, Superphosphate, .... 24-25 

Lombard and Matthewson. Bone, ----- 32-33 

Maize, --------- 79 

Manhattan Blood Guano, ...... 24-25 

Manual of Cattle Feeding, Dr. A rmsby, .... 74 

Matfield Corn Fertilizers, ------ 46-47 

Miles Co., Ammonintod Bone Superphosphate, - - - - 24-25 

Mapes' Hone Meal, ...---- 32-33 

Mapes' Complete Manure, ...... 24-25 

Mapes' Corn Manure, -' - - - - - 46-47 

Mapes' Grass and Grain Manure, ..... 46-47 



EXPERIMENT STATION. 121 

Mapes' Potato Manure, - . . . . 40-47 

Merwin & Co., Dried Blood. - 34 

Muck, --------- 52 

Muck, analyses of, - - - ... 54 

Nitrate of Soda, Sisson & Butler, - 38 

Nitric Acid or Nitrates, value and cost of, - - - - 17. 49 

Nitrogen as Ammonia Salts and Nitrates, ... - 49 

Nitrogen, Organic, value and cost of, - - - - - 17,49 

Nutritive Ratio of Fodders and Feeding Stuffs, ... 76 

Oxalic Acid, symptoms of cattle poisoned by, - 89 

Paris Green on Cornstalks. ...... 90 

Peat, --------- 52 

Peat, Experiments on the Effect of Alkalies in Developing the Fer- 
tilizing Power of. ------ - 58 

Peck Bros., Bone, ------- 32-33 

Peter Cooper's (! round Bone, ------ 32-33 

Percolation of Rain Fall, - - - - - - 91 

Phosphoric Acid, determination of, - - - - - 103 

Phosphoric Acid, value and cost of, - - - - - 18,52 

Phosphoric Acid, Relative Fertilizing Value of Soluble and Reverted. 60 

Pine Island Guano, ------- 24-25 

Plaster, --------- 41 

Poisons, --------- 89 

Pollard Privy Guano, - - - - - - 26 

Potash, value and cost of, - - - - - - 1 8, 52 

Potash Salts, Analyses, ...... 39 

Potash, Muriate, H. J. Baker & Bro., ----- 38 

Potash, Muriate, Mapes Formula and Peruvian Guano Co., - 38 

Potash, Sulphate, H. J. Baker & Bro., ----- 38 

Potash, Sulphate. Mapes Formula and Peruvian Guano Co., - - 38 

Privy Guano, Pollard's. ...... 26 

Quinnipiac Fertilizer Co., Superphosphate, - 24-25 

Quinnipiac Fertilizer Co., Fish Guano. ----- 35 

Quinnipiac Fertilizer Co., Fish and Potash, ... - 24-25 

Rain Fall, What becomes of it ? .... 91 

Salt Waste, Onondaga Salt Association. .... 42 

Seed Tests, results of, etc., ------ 96 

Seeds, Form for Description of, - - - - - 101 

Seeds. Instructions for Sampling, - - - - 100 

Smith. Edward, Bone, - ... 32-33 

Soils, .----..-. 67 

Soils, analyses of, - - 70-71 

Soluble Pacific Guano, ------- 24-25 

Special Fertilizers. - ... 45-49 

Special Fertilizers, analyses, etc., .... 46-47 

Special Fertilizers, Comparison according to brand and crop, - 50 

Special Fertilizers, Comparison of Guarantee and Composition. - 48 

Sperry & Barnes. Dried Blood, ------ 34 

9 



122 CONNECTICUT AGRICULTURAL EXPERIMENT STATION. 

l'age 

Stable Manure, -------- 43 

Station. Act Establishing, - - . - - - - 116 

Station, Present Resources of, Wants of, - - - - 10 

Stockbridge Corn Manure, ------ 46-47 

Stockbridge Onion Manure, -.-•-. 46-47 

Stockbridge Root Manure, ...... 46-47 

Stockbridge Tobacco Manure, - - - ... . 46—47 

Strong. Barnes, Hart & Co., Dried Blood, - 34 

Sulphate of Ammonia, ------- 37 

Superphosphates, analyses, etc., - - - - - 22, 26 

Superphosphates, comparison of different samples of the same brand, - 26 

Swamp Muck, -------- 52 

Terms for analyses of Fertilizers, - - - - - 13 

Trade Values for 1880 and 1881. - - - - - 19, 21 

Valuation of Fertilizers, - - - - - - 18, 28 

Vegetable Ivory, Dust of, analyses, etc., - - - - 44, 86 

West Avon Poison Case, ...... 89 

Wheat Flour, analyses, etc., ------ 85 



REPORT 



OP 



Hon. JOHN D. PAEK, 

CHIEF JUSTICE, 



AS 



Committee on Claim of J. M. Hathaway, 



LATE Q. M. GENERAL, 



VS. TSE STJLTJE. 



Printed by Otfdef of % I^gij&ittufe. 



HARTFORD, CONN.: 

Press of The Case, Lockwood & Brainard Compant. 

1881. 



REPORT. 



To the Hon. General Assembly of the State of Connecticut : — 

The undersigned having been appointed committee by the 
General Assembly of this State, at the January Session of 
the same, A. D. 1880, to hear and report to the present ses- 
sion of your Honorable Body respecting the claims against 
the State of Col. J. M. Hathaway, late Quartermaster-Gen- 
eral of this State, begs leave to report ; that he met the said 
Hathaway with his witnesses and counsel, and the counsel for 
the State, at the office of T. M. Maltbie, Esq., in the City of 
Hartford, and at the Capitol of the State, on the 24th day of 
December, 1880, and on the 31st day of January, the 1st, 
7th, 8th, 9th, 10th, 12th, and 19th days of February, 1881, 
respecting said claims, and after a careful examination of the 
books, vouchers, and various other papers presented by the 
parties, and having duly considered the various claims of the 
counsel in favor of, and against said claims, on divers days 
since the 19th day of said February, he has come to the fol- 
lowing conclusion regarding the same. 

The entire claim of said Hathaway against the State, con- 
sists of three separate and distinct claims. One for the sum 
of $210.o6, said to have been paid by the said Hathaway as 
Quartermaster-General, on the 23d day of September, 1861, 
to the Danbury & Norwalk Railroad Co., for the transporta- 
tion of troops on their way to the scene of war. 

Another of said claims is for the sum of $3,366.60, said to 
have been paid by the said Hathaway, as Quartermaster-Gen- 
eral, to G. & D. Cook & Co., of New Haven, on the 9th day 
of September, A. D. 1861, for one thousand complete sets of 



infantry equipments for the volunteers, who were then pre- 
paring to leave for the war. 

The third and last of said claims is for the sum of $2,705.- 
00, said to have been paid by the said Hathaway as Quarter- 
master-General, to Homer Camp of the town of on the 
12th day of July, A. D. 1861, for ninety-three Mississippi rifles 
with sabre bayonets, and twenty Mississippi rifles without 
such bayonets, to arm in part the Fifth regiment of Connecti- 
cut volunteers. 

These several claims nowhere appear on the books of 
Hathaway as Quartermaster-General, but he insists that the 
receipted bills of these claims, and the duplicates attached to 
them, became mislaid by the clerks in his office, before an 
account was made of them, owing to the great amount of 
business thereon upon them in the early days of the war, 
when he was expending the money of the State, in arms and 
equipments, and other necessaries, at the rate of about one 
hundred thousand dollars per month, and in the rush of busi- 
ness, when he was straining every nerve to supply regiment 
after regiment with arms and equipments as tliey hurried off 
to the war ; the vouchers of these claims not only became 
mislaid, but forgotten till they were brought to light in 1872, 
when the general goverment refunded to the State the expen- 
ditures that had been made in equipping the troops that went 
to the war. Col. Hathaway declares that Governor Jewell, 
then Governor of the State, insisted that he should go to 
Washington, with all his books, papers, and vouchers of his 
expenditures, and in the investigations there made of the 
amount of war material furnished by the State, the vouchers 
of these claims were discovered. 

Col. Hathaway was appointed Quartermaster-General in 
1857, by Governor Holley, then Governor of this State, and 
continued to serve in thai capacity till the 31st day of August, 
18(31, when he resigned his office and retired therefrom. 

Col. Hathaway was a tanner when he was appointed Quar- 
termaster General. He owned a small farm of from three 
to five thousand dollars in value. Op to that time farming 
had been his principal business in life, although he had some 



knowledge of military affairs, having served as lieutenant in 
the army during the Mexican war. 

From the year 1857 up to the commencement of the War 
of the Rebellion on the 12th of April, 1861, Col. Hathaway 
had but little difficulty in discharging the duties of his office, 
and he discharged them to the acceptance and satisfaction of 
all concerned. His expenditures were small, amounting only 
from three to five thousand dollars per year, and conse- 
quently he was employed but a small part of the time. But 
when the War of the Rebellion broke out (as everyone knows 
as a matter of history), it found all the North almost wholly 
unprepared for the contest. Although during the winter of 
1860 and 1861 preparations for the rebellion were being made 
that were of the most threatening and formidable character, 
still general apathy prevailed at the North. No one supposed 
that the South was in earnest in their acts of secession, and 
consequently no counter-preparations were being made all 
through the North. Every one remembers the profound 
astonishment that everywhere prevailed as the telegraph 
spread the news that Fort Sumter was being attacked. 
Then all the North rose up as one man to put down the 
rebellion. Consequently there was remarkable activity every- 
where. The President called for seventy-five thousand men. 
Twice or thrice that number volunteered in a day. At this 
time there was no more manufacturers of war material than 
there had been in peaceful times, consequently there were 
vastly more soldiers than arms and equipments. Col. Hatha- 
way found himself overwhelmed with business thus suddenly 
thrust upon him. He was a man fitted for peaceful times, 
but was not exactly the man for such an emergency. He 
employed two clerks to take charge of his books and papers 
and assist him in the office. He procured arms and equip- 
ments wherever they could be found. He contracted with 
those to furnish them who were not in the business, and suc- 
ceeded at his wits' end in equipping five regiments and par- 
tially equipping two others. But his business was not done 
with the system and regularity of a cool, calculating man 
well versed in the duties of his office. His books were kept 



by his clerks. Every entry was made by one or the other of 
them. They are free from interlineations and erasures, and 
bear intrinsic evidence of their truth. 

Col. Hathaway drew from the State treasury the sum of 
$459,400 during the few months he remained in office after 
the commencement of tbe war, and he has accounted to the 
State for that entire amount, procuring from his friends, as 
he declares, a sum of money equal to the claims here in dis- 
pute. 

The above amount was drawn from the treasury in sums 
from $5,000 to $35,000 at a time. Each time after the first 
the Comptroller required the production of vouchers sufficient 
to show substantially what had become of the money pre- 
viously drawn. Col. Hathaway would take for this purpose 
such vouchers as came to hand, that had not been presented, 
without much regard to the order in which the expenditures 
had been made. Consequently oftentimes vouchers of a sub- 
sequent date would be presented before vouchers of a previous 
date. This state of things continued till nearly the close of 
his administration. 

In regard to the claim of $210.56, said to have been paid 
by Col. Hathaway to the Danbury & Norwalk Railroad Co., 
your committee finds that the debt was paid by Col. Bunce, 
the immediate successor of Col. Hathaway in the office of 
Quartermaster-General. This claim was not pressed by the 
claimant on the hearing. Col. Hathaway frankly admitted 
that he had no recollection in regard to the transaction ; that 
all he knew on the subject was that he found among his 
papers a receipted bill by the Railroad Co., and a duplicate of 
the same, which purported that he paid the amount. Such a 
bill and duplicate were presented on the hearing, and your 
committee has no doubt that the claim was made in good 
faith. 

In regard to the sum of $3,366.00 said to have been paid 
to G. & 1). Cook & Co. of New Haven, for one thousand sets 
of infantry equipments, your committee finds the following 
fact s : 

Col. Bathaway presented on the hearing a voucher for this 
claim, of which the following is a copy : 



"New Haven, Aug. 26, 18G1. 
'John M. Hathaway, Q. M.-Gen'l of State of Connecticut. 

Bought of G. & D. Cook & Co.: 
1,000 cartridge-boxes and picks at $2.10, - $2,100.00 
1,000 cartridge-boxes and belts and plates at 50c, - 500.00 

1,000 waist-belts and plates at 25c, - - - 250.00 

1,000 bayonet-scabbards at 25c, ... - 250.00 

1,000 caps, pouches, and picks at 25c, - - - 250.00 

8 packing-boxes, - 16.60 



$3,366.60 



Eeceived payment, 

GEORGE COOK, 

Per Kimball." 

This voucher was accompanied by a duplicate of the same, 
on which payment was acknowledged in like manner. 

It will be observed that there is no date to the receipt on 
the bill, or on the duplicate, showing at what time the money 
was paid. On the 9th day of September, 1861, G. & D. 
Cook & Co., gave to Col. Hathaway a separate and distinct 
receipt which is as follows. 

This receipt was found among other papers shortly before 
the hearing commenced before your committee, and conse- 
quently it was never presented on the hearings heretofore had 
on this case. There is no doubt in regard to its genuineness. 
It has unmistakeable marks of age. George Cook, the sen- 
ior member of the firm of G. & D. Cook & Co., swore to its 
identity and verity. The finding of this receipt so recently, 
shows how careless Col. Hathaway has been with his most 
valuable papers. Your committee feels fully satisfied that 
Col. Hathaway paid to G. & D. Cook & Co., the amount 
stated in their bill and receipts, on the 9th day of September 
1861, for one thousand sets of infantry equipments, which 
they had previously delivered. Indeed this fact was not 
much controverted in the case, by the counsel for the state, 
but their claim was that on the 26th day of June, 1861, Col. 
Hathaway paid to George Cook, the senior member of the 
firm, the sum of $4,037.10 for one thousand sets of infantry 



equipments, which was in fact a fictitious claim, consequent- 
ly this sum more than halances the September claim, and 
leaves Col. Hathaway indebted to the state. 

This claim is based on the following facts : 

On the 9th day of June 1861, Col. Hathaway paid to Cal- 
houn, Lacy & Co., of Bridgeport, $3,367.10 for one thousand 
sets of infantry equipments which had been delivered by 
them. 

The bill was receipted as follows : 

" Calhoun & Lacy & Co. 

By George Cook." 

On the books of Col. Lacy & Co., Col. Hathaway is given 
credit for the full amount of the claim. 

The phraseology of this bill is strikingly similar to the 
Cook bill of the 26th of June, and the claim was that the 
Cook bill was a mere copy of the Col. Lacy & Co. bill, and 
consequently was not based on a real transaction. 

These two bills appear on the Journal and Ledger of Col. 
Hathaway, entered by one of his clerks under the date of June 
19th and June 26th as paid. Manifestly the entries were 
made on the Journal at the time they severally bear date, for 
they appear among other entries on those days, and especially 
is this true of the Cook entry, for it appears in the middle of 
a full page of transactions. • These vouchers, with others, were 
examined by the comptroller on the day and time of their oc- 
currence and were approved. They were audited by the gov- 
ernor, comptroller, and treasurer not long thereafter and were 
again approved. They were again examined by General 
Tyler and H. J. Morse, and nothing suspicious was discov- 
ered in relation to them. They passed under the scrutiny of 
David Clark and Samuel Dodd, auditors and special auditors 
of the accounts of Col. Hathaway on two separate occasions, 
and were allowed. And still again they were examined by the 
officers of the general government in 1872, and both of them 
were again considered genuine, and the amounts of both were 
refunded to the slate. It is certainly quite remarkable that 
none of these examinations should have discovered that one 
of these vouchers was a copy of the other, if such was the fact. 



9 

The claim of the counsel for the state not only involved Col. 
Hathcway in a gross fraud, but George Cook likewise. There 
is no room for mistake in relation to the matter. The books 
of Col. Hathaway show two separate and distinct payments, 
separated from eacli other by seven days, for different 
amounts, and the last payment was made to Oeorge Cook. 
over his own signature, and acting for himself alone. It 
could not have been received for Col. Lacy & Co., for that 
payment had already been made. There is no escape from 
the conclusion, that either these two bills are honest, or that 
these two men were grossly dishonest. If they were dishon- 
est, it is strange indeed that they should have had the two 
bills so nearly alike in phraseology. And it is further 
strange if Col. Hathaway so desired money that he was will- 
ing to engage in a scheme of this character for gain, that he 
should have forgotton a genuine transaction of nearly the 
same amount, not long thereafter, when he was out of office, 
and not overwhelmed with business as he was during the 
month of June. 

But what seems to your committee to put this question 
beyond reasonable doubt is the further fact that an inventory 
of all the sets of equipments that the State had when Col. 
Hathaway went out of office, necessarily requires the thou- 
sand sets claimed to have been sold by George Cook to Col. 
Hathaway, on the 26th day of June, to make up the number. 
If the June thousand, or the August thousand in controversy, 
paid for in September, be excluded from the computation, then 
the State had eight hundred and ninety-two more sets of equip- 
ments than they ever purchased, or which can be otherwise 
accounted for. The discrepancy between eight hundred and 
ninety-two and one thousand is accounted for by the fact- that 
in the purchase and distribution of a large number of equip- 
ments some are unavoidably lost. The percentage of loss in 
this case was about one-half of one per cent. 

From a careful review of all the evidence and claims which 
have been made on the subject now under consideration, your 
committee is constrained to believe that there is justice in 
this claim of Col. Hathaway. 
2 



10 

In regard to the remaining claim of $2,705.00 said to have 
been paid to Homer Camp for Mississippi rifles, the facts are 
as follows : 

Col. Hathaway presented on the hearing, the following 
voucher, which is the foundation of this claim. 

" State of Connecticut, 
Quartermaster-General's Office, 

Hartford, July 12, 1801. 
Gen. J. M. Hathaway, 

Bought of H. Camp, 
93 Mississippi Rifles, with Sabre bayonets, at $25, $2,325.00 

20 Mississippi Rifles, without bayonets, at $18.75, 375.00 

5 Cases, $1.00, ..... 5.00 



Received payment, 



H. CAMP." 



There was a duplicate of this bill, executed in like manner, 
which was lost in some of the former hearings respecting this 
claim. There is no entry on the book of Col. Hathaway of 
the payment of the money, or the receipt of the rifles de- 
scribed in this voucher. But there is no doubt that Col. 
Hathaway satisfied Homer Camp for the amount of this bill, 
either in money or merchandise, on the day described in the 
voucher, and the only question is, in what did the satifaction 
consist? 

Col. Hathaway declares that the payment was made in 
money ; that he distinctly remembers the transaction ; that 
the rifles were purchased to arm in part the Fifth regiment of 
volunteers who were then preparing to leave for the seat of 
war. 

The counsel for the State insist that the satisfaction for the 
bill consisted in merchandise belonging to the State ; that 
two old six pound cannon, and a large quantity of other old 
arms were given in barter for the rifles. Homer Camp has 
long since been deceased, and it is unfortunate that your com- 
mittee, and all others interested, are deprived of the benefit 
of his testimony. It appears by the certificate of Edward 



11 

Preston, who was Regimental Quartermaster of the Fifth regi- 
ment, that he received of Col. Hathaway, on the 29th day of 
July, 1861, among other arms and equipments, five hundred 
and fifty Mississippi rifles for the Fifth regiment. 

This certificate was given at the time the rifles were deliv- 
ered to him. 

It appears by the bank-book of Homer Camp that he paid 
Col. Hathaway small sums of money from time to time dur- 
ing the year 1860, which in the aggregate amount to the 
sum of one thousand and sixty-five dollars. Nothing appears 
on the books of Col. Hathaway regarding these transactions, 
or what was done with the money thus received. His account 
concerning the matter is that the money was received on the 
sale of old, unservicable arms, and was in part expended in 
the repair of other arms; that the remainder, together with 
the money received on the sale of two six-lb. cannon for the 
sum of about six hundred dollars, was paid into the hands of 
Governor Buckingham; that Governor Buckingham expended 
the money in the purchase of one hundred rifles : that the 
Governor requested that no account be made of the transac- 
tions, because he did not wish it to be known that the State 
was arming ; that no account of them was made accordingly, 
and no statement regarding the same appeared in his report 
to the legislature in the spring of 1861, for the same reason; 
that although at the time the legislature convened the State 
was arming its troops as fast as possible ; still as the fiscal year 
closed the first of April, this report being then prepared, it 
was confined to the fiscal year ; but in his report to the legis- 
lature the following year, a statement was made of the sale 
of the cannon, and that the proceeds were expended in the 
purchase of arms. The bank-book of Homer Camp shows no 
deposit of any such sum of money as Col. Hathaway claims 
to have paid him on the 12th of July, 1861. The largest 
amount deposited soon after that time is the sum of #160. 
What he did with the money, if he received it, docs not 
appear. 

These are the facts regarding this claim, and your com- 
mittee is inclined to believe, though with a good deal of hesi- 



12 

tation, that Col. Hathaway is in the right regarding this 
claim. 

The voucher is in the handwriting of Homer Camp himself. 
He was an intelligent, moneyed, business man. The voucher 
purports to have been paid in money ; and it seems strange, 
indeed, if merchandise had been received in lieu of money 
for the claim, or if the transaction had been one of barter, 
that the voucher should not have so stated. 

There is no doubt that the rifles were received by Col. 
Hathaway. The signature of Homer Camp attests the fact. 
It is not pretended that any one else paid for them but Col. 
Hathaway. And your committee is inclined to think that the 
weight of the evidence is in favor of the claim. 

All which is respectfully submitted. 

Dated at Norwich this the seventh day of March, 1881. 

JOHN D. PARK, 

Committee. 

A. P. Hyde and C. R. Chapman appeared as counsel for 
State. 

T. M. Waller and Geo. C. Ripley appeared as counsel for 
claimant. 



13 

PROPOSED RESOLUTION. 

House Joint Resolution No. 188. 

Transmitted by the Secretary of State to the General 
Assembly. 

Resolution paying J. M. Hathaway amount due him on 
report of John D. Park, Chief Justice. 

General Assembly, 

January Session, A.D. 1881. 

Resolution paying John M. Hathaway the amount of claim found 
due from the State by Hon. John D. Park, a committee appointed 
by the General Assembly. 

Resolved ly this Assembly : That the Comptroller be directed to 
draw his order on the Treasurer in favor of John M. Hathaway, 
late Quartermaster-Geueral, for the sum of nine thousand three 
hundred and fifty dollars, being amount due to him upon the find- 
ing and report of Hon. John D. Park, Committee, with interest 
thereon from the first day of March, 1872. 



Statement oe Vote 



NOVEMBER ELECTION, 



1880 



Tabulated from Returns in the Office of the 
Secretary of State. 



§g ^Uitljoritu of % Central Itsstmblg. 



HARTFORD, CONN.: 
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Sixty-Fifth Annual Report 



OF THE 



DIRECTORS AND OFFICERS 



OK THE 



AMERICAN ASYLUM 

AT HARTFORD, 

FOR THE 

EDUCATION AND INSTRUCTION 

OF THE 

DEAF AND DUMB. 



Presented to the Asylum, April 23, 1881. 



HARTFORD, CONN.: 

Press of The Case, Lock-wood & Brainard Company. 

1881. 



BOARD OF DIRECTORS. 



PRESIDENT. 

Hon. CALVIN DAY. 

VICE-PRESIDENTS. 
ROLAND MATHER, PINCKNEY W. ELLSWORTH, 

NATHANIEL SHIPMAN. JONATHAN B. BUNCE, 

GEO. M. BARTHOLOMEW, ROWLAND SWIFT, 

JOHN C. PARSONS, FRANCIS B. COOLEY. 

DIRECTORS. 
(By Election.) 
JOHN C. DAY, SAMUEL N. KELLOGG, 

WILLIAM M. HUDSON, WILLIAM J. WOOD. 

FRANK W. CHENEY, DANIEL R. HOWE, 

EDWARD B. WATKINSON, LUCIUS A. BARBOUR, 

GEORGE M. WELCH, ATWOOD COLLINS 

EX OFFICIO. 

His Excellency, HARRIS M. PLAISTED, Governor of Maine. 

Hon. JOSEPH O. SMITH, Secretary of State. 
His Excellency. NATT HEAD, Governor of New Hampshire. 

Hon. A. B. THOMPSON, Secretary of State. 
His Excellency, ROSWELL FARNHAM, Governor of Vermont. 

Hon. GEO. W. NICHOLS, Secretary of State. 
His Excellency, JOHN D. LONG. Governor of Massachusetts. 

Hon. HENRY B. PE1RCE, Secretary of State. 
His Excellency, ALFRED II. LITTLEFIELD, Gov'r of Rhode Island 

Hon. JOSHUA M. ADDEMAN, Secretary of State. 
Hts Excellency, HOBART B. BIGELOW, Governor of Connecticul 

Hon. CHARLES E. SEARLS, Secretary of Stat.'. 

SECRETARY. 

ATWOOD COLLINS. 

TREASURER. 

ROLAND MATHER. 

DIRECTING COMMITTEE. 

GEORGE M. WELCH, Chairman. 

FRANCIS B. COOLEY JOHN C. PARSONS 



OFFICERS AND TEACHERS. 



PRINCIPAL. 

JOB WILLIAMS, M.A. 

INSTRUCTORS. 

RICHARD S. STORKS, M.A., MARY A. MANN, 

GILBERT 0. FAY, Ph.D., CAROLINE C. SWEET, 

ABEL S. CLARK, M.A., KATE C. CAMP, 

GEORGE F. STONE, IDA V. HAMMOND. 

WILLIAM II. WEEKS, JANE B. KELLOGG, 

JOHN E. CRANE, B.A., LUCY S. WILLIAMS. 

NELLIE W. STONE. 

TEACHERS OF ARTICULATION. 

ADA R. KING, 
ABBY E. READ. 

TEACHER OF DRAWING. 

GEORGE F. STONE. 

ATTENDING PHYSICIAN. 

GEORGE W. AVERY, M.D. 

STEWARD. 

HENRY KENNEDY. 

ASSISTANT STEWARD. 

SALMON CROSSETT. 

boys' supervisor. 
ALBERT A. SMALL. 

MATRON. 

Miss MARGARET GREENLAW. 

ASSISTANT MATRONS. 

Mas. REBECCA A. CADY, 
Miss ELIZA GREEN. 

NOAH A. SMITH, Master of the Cabinet Shop. 

WILLIAM B. FLAGG. Master of the Shoe Shop. 

Miss SARAH A. BEACH, Mistress of the Tailors' Shop. 



DIRECTORS 1 REPORT. 



To the Patrons and Friends of the American Asylum: 

The year which has just closed has been one of general 
health and prosperity at the Asylum. Reference to the ac- 
companying reports of the Principal and other officers will 
show the details and result of the management, and they re- 
quire no comment from us. 

Mr. John Beach, the last survivor of the sixty-three origi- 
nal corporators of the Asylum, in the charter of May 1816, 
died at his home in this city on the 21st of August, 1880. 
It seems a fit occasion to republish here the names of these 
founders of our institution, and to acknowledge anew our 
obligations to their energy and benevolence. In order to 
appreciate their efforts, we must remember that at the time 
no systematic and intelligent education of the Deaf and Dumb 
was known in this country. This attempt was an experiment, 
and in common with most novel enterprises, it met with 
many obstacles and discouragements. There was small pros- 
pect of, and no reliance upon the Governmental and State 
aid which has since been liberally bestowed in the foundation 
of similar establishments. All the original expenses of this 
undertaking were furnished by individual liberality ; and this 
at a period when the poverty of the country, the meagerness 
of incomes, and the scarcity of money, were such as can be 
realized with difficulty by the generation of to day. 

The corporators were : John Caldwell, Nathaniel Terry, 
Daniel Wadsworth, Mehitable Wadsworth, Susan Tracy, 
Ward Woodbridge, Henry Hudson, Daniel Buck, Mason F. 
Cogswell, Joseph Battel 1, William H. lmlay, Charles Sigour- 
ney, David Porter, David McKinney, Isaac Bull, Thomas S. 



10 

Williams, John Morgan, Samuel Tudor, Jr., John Bailer, 
George Goodwin, John Beach, James Ward, Roswell Barthol- 
omew, George Smith, Joseph Rogers, Moses Tryon, Jr., 
Nathan Strong, Jr., Charles Seymour, Jas. H. Wells, Jona- 
than W. Edwards, William W. Ellsworth, William Watson, 
Russell Bunce, Eliphalet Terry, Seth Terry, Lynde Olmsted, 
Thomas Lloyd, James B. Ilosmcr, Joseph Trumbull, Samuel 
Tinker, Horace Burr, Russell Talcott, Christopher Colt, Eliph- 
alet Averill, Nathaniel ratten, Joseph Welles, William Ely, 
Spencer Whiting, Barzillai Hudson, Jr., Jonathan Law, George 
Goodwin, Jr., Daniel Crowell, Charles Goodwin, Michael Shep- 
herd, Caleb Goodwin, Dudley Buck, Aaron Cliapin, Jared 
Scarborough, Barzillai Hudson, Jacob Sargeant, Peter Thacher, 
Talcott Wolcott, and Nathaniel Spencer. 

Of these gentlemen, two became Governors of the State, 
and one its Chief Justice ; while many of the others, who 
held no official position, arc remembered as the most noted 
among the former citizens of this State for public spirit, in- 
tegrity, and force of character. 

With these were joined in the corporation, all subscribers 
to the fund — the payment of five dollars a year, or fifty dol- 
lars at once, constituting a member, one hundred dollars a 
Life Director, and two hundred dollars a Vice-President for 
life. There were in 1820, twelve Vice-Presidents and thirty- 
eight Directors for life by subscription, — and none of these 
survive. 

Of the forty-nine corporators whose age we have been able 
to ascertain, seven were, in May 1816, under thirty, nineteen 
others were under forty, fifteen between forty and fifty, and 
eight over fifty years of ago ; and the average age of the 
forty-nine was 41.24 years. 

It would hardly be possible in New England to-day to find 
among the active and responsible promoters of a new and 
most important corporation, one-seventh of the number under 
thirty years of age, and only seventeen per cent, above fifty 
years old, with a considerable numerical majority of the 
whole under forty. Whether this contrast indicates that 
men under thirty-five were comparatively of mote esteem in 



11 

the community sixty-five years ago than they now are ; or 
whether public opinion is more exacting now than then in 
demanding greater age and experience for positions of trust 
and responsibility, or whatever other deductions can be 
drawn from the circumstances, we consider the fact itself 
worthy of note. 

Since the death of Mr. Hosmer nearly two years before, 
Mr. Beach had been the sole survivor of his original asso- 
ciates. He was elected a Director in 1830, and thus had 
been for over fifty years continuously, a member of this 
Board. He was punctual in his attendance until within the 
last few years, when his deafness, the only apparent infirmity of 
his old age, lessened his comfort in all social meetings. But to 
the last he manifested a constant interest in the Asylum, and 
attended a regular meeting of the Board about three months 
before his death. 

A special meeting of the Directors was held July 13, 1880, 
immediately upon the death of Rev. John C. Bull, who had 
died the previous day, after a painful illness of several weeks' 
duration. Mr. Bull had been an instructor at the Asylum 
for nearly twenty-eight years, and had won the highest esteem 
of his pupils and associates by his pure life and faithful labors. 
Notices of him by those who best knew his worth, will be 
found on subsequent pages. 

The death in May, 1880, of Mrs. Eliza Clcrc, widow of our 
first instructor, Laurent Clcrc, severs the last official tie be- 
tween the Asylum and this accomplished family, who have 
been connected uninterruptedly with this institution from its 
beginning. 

Mr. Henry Kennedy, who has filled most successfully the 
responsible position of Steward of the Asylum since April, 
1865, fulfilling his duties with marked promptitude and effi- 
ciency, has resigned his office, and leaves us at the close of the 
school year. Mr. Win. P. Williams of Bellows Falls, for- 
merly of Hartford, has been appointed his successor. 

The Secretary of the Corporation also retires after twenty- 
one years of service, and hopes that as pleasant and as long 



12 

a term may be the fortune of his successor, whose name will 
appear in the new roll of officers accompanying the printed 
report. 

For the Board of Directors, 

J. C. PARSONS, Clerk. 

Hartford, April 23, 1881. 

At the annual meeting of the Corporation, May 14, 1881, 
accepted, and ordered published. 

J. C. PARSONS, Secretary. 



REPORT OF THE PRINCIPAL. 



To the Board op Directors : 

Gentlemen, — The whole number of pupils under instruc- 
tion during the year has been 225. The number of pupils pres- 
ent May 1, 1880, was 190; 46 have been discharged ; 32 new- 
pupils have been admitted, and 3 former pupils readmitted, 
leaving 179 as the present attendance. Of this number 30 
are from Maine ; 17 from New Hampshire ; 16 from Vermont ; 
61 from Massachusetts ; 6 from Rhode Island ; and 49 from 
Connecticut. 

Of the ten boys who graduated from the first class last 
June, eight have secured steady employment with good wages, 
and two have entered the National Deaf-Mute College at Wash- 
ington. At a little gathering of mutes in Boston, a few weeks 
ago, I met about twenty young men, who had left the Asylum 
within a few years, every one of whom was earning a com- 
fortable support with every prospect of permanent employ- 
ment. 

Our graduates are to be found in all parts of New England, 
and, indeed, scattered all over the United States. With few 
exceptions they are honest, industrious, and respected citizens, 
earning a comfortable support for themselves and their fam- 
ilies. They are engaged in a great variety of occupations, 
and in all of them take good rank as workmen. 

The following letters relating to former pupils of this insti- 
tution will show the estimation in which they are held by 
their cmployei'S : 

Thomaston, Conn., April 2, 1881. 
Job Williams, Principal American Asylum for the Deaf ami Dinah, 
Hartford, Conn. : 
Dear Sir, — Your inquiry of March 31st, in reference to deaf- 



11 

mutes in our employ, came to hand this day. In reply, I have to 
say, we have in our employ six— two as cabinet-makers, two turn- 
ers, and two fitting clock parts. They are all fully up to the 
average of our employees; are as easily instructed as others; are 
generally very quick to apprehend any sign in reference to form 
or finish of work, and are attentive to business. Most of them 
have been in our employ for several years, which is sufficient 
guarantee that they have given us good satisfaction. They are 
frugal; have families to a considerable extent; lay up or save their 
earnings, and are esteemed as citizens. 
Yours respectfully, 

SETH THOMAS CLOCK CO. 

Office of Bardwkll, Anderson & Co., 

Manufacturers of Tables and Desks, 

Boston, April 5, 1881. 
Mr. Job Williams, Hartford, Conn.: 

Sir, — Your communication containing inquiry regarding the 
deaf-mutes who are in our employ is at hand. In reply I would 
say, that there are four of them. They are industrious, quick to 
learn, and capable workmen. We consider them among the most 
capable men that we employ. 

Yours very truly, 

BARD WELL, ANDERSON & CO. 

Office of S. N. & C. Russell, 
Woolen Manufacturers, 
Pittsfield, Mass., April 8, 1881. 
Job Williams, Esq., American Asylum for Deaf and Dumb, Hart- 
ford, Conn. : 

Dear Sir. — In answer to your inquiry respecting the value as 
workmen of deaf-mutes, we would say, we have three in our 
employ — two young men, weavers, and one girl in our finishing 
department. The weavers fall a trifle short in quantity, but are 
fully up in quality of work to the average of the room. The girl 
is up to the average in every respect. We have no trouble in 
communicating with them, and they appear to communicate freely 
with their speaking associates. The Supt. and overseers say they 
would not hesitate to employ more. The weaver thinks there 
would be no objection to a large proportion — say one third — 



15 

mures in his department. One of your old pupils. Mr. B , in 

the employ of the Boston & Albany Railroad here, is a very likely 
fellow, and I presume gives entire satisfaction. He delivers coal 
to the locomotives and keeps an account of it, working, 1 think 
alone, about half of each night. 

Yours truly, 

S. N. & C. RUSSELL. 

Similar reports come to us from all parts of New England. 
These evidences of the thrift of our former pupils, largely 
due to the training received in our shops and the habits of 
industry there formed, are very gratifying. 

The general health of the pupils throughout the year has 
been exceptionally good. There has been but one case of 
serious illness — a case of pneumonia — and in that the recov- 
ery was speedy and complete. 

On the reassembling of the school after the summer vaca- 
tion the pupils were saddened by the intelligence of the death 
of their little sunny-faced schoolmate, Philip Roach, who had 
been drowned on Sunday, August 22d, while bathing in the 
Thames river near his home in Norwich, Conn. 

Once more we are called upon to record the loss of a valued 
instructor, thus making within a period of eight months the 
third break in the ranks of those who had served the Asylum 
as teachers for at least a quarter of a century. On the 12th 
of July last, after a painful illness of six weeks, Rev. John 
C. Bull, who for twenty-eight years had been a faithful and 
loved teacher in this Institution, was called to his reward. 
His patience and faithfulness and the loving sympathy of 
which he possessed a rare degree, were qualities eminently 
fitting him to win success in his chosen profession. In the 
prime of life and possessed of a strong constitution, we had 
looked forward to many years of ' service for him, rendered 
doubly valuable by his ripe experience, but the Master called 
him to other service. The influence of his pure character and 
consistent Christian life, will long live in many hearts. A 
more extended notice of Mr. Bull, as a teacher, will be found 
in another part of this report. 



16 

During the vacation of 1880, Dr. Avery, the regular physi- 
cian of the Asylum, and Dr. Chamberlain, the Secretary of the 
State Board of Health, together made a very thorough examina- 
tion of every part of our buildings and grounds, and recom- 
mended such changes and improvements in the sewerage and 
ventilation as the conditions for health seemed to them to re- 
quire. Every recommendation thus made was carefully carried 
out. The change in the method of ventilating the chapel has 
been very apparent and has afforded great relief to all whose 
duty requires a daily attendance there. The effects of some ot 
the other changes though less evident are no less beneficial. 

To fill the vacancy in our corps of teachers caused by the 
death of Mr. Bull, the Institution was so fortunate as to secure 
the services of Dr. G. 0. Fay, who had been connected with 
the Institution for the Deaf and Dumb at Columbus, 0., for 
the last eighteen years, and for the last fourteen years had 
been its superintendent. By his energy, and under his skill- 
fid management that school had grown from one hundred and 
fifty to four hundred pupils, and its superintendent ranked 
second to none among tlie heads of similar institutions in (his 
country. This Institution is to be congratulated on this val- 
uable acquisition. 

About the first of October Mr. Chas. L. Bartlett resigned his 
position as teacher, to accept a very flattering offer to engage 
in business. He had been with us less than a year, but 
had thrown himself so enthusiastically into his work that he 
gave promise of rare success. Our good wishes go with him 
into his new field of labor. 

At the opening of the school year in September, a class of six 
pupils was selected for farther experiment with the audiphone, 
care being taken to include only those who seemed to hear 
with it. After five months of daily practice with the instru- 
ment, we arc convinced that it gives a little assistance in 
acquiring vowel sounds, but beyond that we arc able to dis- 
cover no advantage from it to our pupils. 

Tin- Fourth National Convention of Principals of Institu- 
tions for the Deaf and Dumb, met at the Clarke Institution at 
Northampton, May 25th-28th, 1880. The different metb- 



17 

ods of instruction, l>y signs, by articulation, and by the com- 
bined method, occupied much time in their discussion. The 
classes of the Clarke Institution went on regularly during tin 4 
time that the convention was in session, and every opportu- 
nity was afforded to members of the convention to see the 
regular work of the school, and to ascertain for themselves 
the results which had been reached. If the working of the 
system of teaching by articulation, as practiced at the Clarke 
Institution, was not understood, it certainly was not the fault 
of the authorities there. The Institution is furnished with a 
large corps of experienced, enthusiastic, and accomplished 
teachers, and with every facility for securing the best results to 
be attained by their system. In the discussions of the conven- 
tion, the articulation system and the combined system, as used 
by this and most of the similar institutions of this country, 
were each warmly advocated, the latter being strongly favor- 
ed by a very large majority of the convention. 

From the 6th to the 11th of September last, an International 
Convention of Teachers of Deaf-Mutes was held at Milan, 
Italy. As a majority of the members of the convention were 
Italians, and the schools for deaf-mutes in Italy are conducted 
on the articulation system, the subject of articulation natur- 
ally occupied a large share of the time and attention of the 
convention. 

The prominence given to this subject in these two conven- 
tions, and the claims made for this method of instruction in 
the new phase which it has assumed, make it expedient for 
us to review, once more, the ground so often gone over in the 
past, and to examine the claims now put forward. 

In the discussion we shall use the term, " Pure Oral System,*' 
being that adopted by the Milan convention to designate the 
articulation system, and the term American System, to desig- 
nate that comprehensive system in general use in this coun- 
try, where signs, the manual alphabet and writing are used as 
the means of instruction, and articulation and lip-reading aic 
taught as accomplishments. That a certain portion of the 
deaf may be taught articulation, and through it receive an 
education is conceded by all. This pqrtion includes the scmi- 
2 



18 

s and the semi-deaf, and exceptionally bright cas< 
total congenital deafness. These can be taught in this way, 
as they may soon acquire, if they do not already possess it on 
entering school, sufficient articulation and lip-reading to en- 
able tlicm to communicate with their instructors. There is 
another class, comprising a large proportion of deaf-mutes 
who never would attain facility in articulation and lip-reading. 
This class nearly all teachers of the deaf, including a large 
part of the most pronounced articulationists, admit can he 
hotter taught through the sign system. Concerning the most 
profitable way of instructing those occupying the middle 
ground between these two classes there is earnest dispute. 
It is conceded by most advocates of articulation, that the gen- 
eral education of this medium class can he carried on much 
G rapidly, and a broader development given, in the time 
allotted them at school, through the American system, than 
through the "pure oral" system, hut they strenuously claim 
that the benefits of the articulation and lip-reading, which 
they acquire, more than compensate for the loss in general 
development. On the other hand, the advocates of the 
American system maintain that this medium class may carry 
on their general instruction by the sign system, and at the 
same time, under special teachers, acquire nearly as much of 
articulation and lip reading, as they would if taught by the 
'• pure oral" system. This is the theory and practice of this 
Institution. 

Again, the advocates of the " pure oral" system almost in- 
variably claim that the use of signs in the instruction of the 
deaf hinders their progress in the acquisition of language. 
They olaim that the imperfections in the language of the 
pupils of the sign schools are caused by the habil of thinking 
in signs. But we find the same imperfections in the language 
of pupils who have been taught exclusively by articulation, 
and who, their teachers claim, have no knowledge of signs. 
Precisely the same kind of mistakes are made, also, hy for- 
eigners who attempt to write the English language before 
they have thoroughly mastered it. The following quotations 
will illustrate this point. 



19 

No. 1 is an extract from an imaginary story suggested by 
a picture which lay before the pupil while it was written. 
The writer lost hearing at the age of two and one-half years,, 
and had been at school only where the use of signs was pro- 
hibited. 

No. 2 is an extract from a letter written by a little Indian 
boy, at school at Carlisle Barracks, Penn. 

No. 3 is an extract from a letter of a Japanese gentleman 
to a friend living in this city. 

No. 4 is a letter written by a young Mexican, who is now 
attending a private school in this state. 

No. 1. 
A woman sat in the street, and some people want eat apples and 
we gave money to her about it. Two boys asked how much cost 
a apple. She said five cents. He don't pay it, and we walked all 
around in the street, and woman stay is too longtime, because 
she is very tired, and two boys saw her sleeped, and he walked no 
noise thief and ran off. He are very bad boy because we thief 
apples to poor woman. 

No. 2. 
This is a very beautiful morning, because my heart is very 
cheerful now about something just a little talk to you again this 
time. * * * 1 want you answer back to me very well. 1 think to 
try. I want to please me every day. What you said them, I 
want hear them all you truth because good man every day. 1 
very hard try read this time. * * * 1 was very excuse all the 
time at this Carlisle Children's School. 

No. 3. 
You will like not with a slightest doubt this kind walk should 

you be chanced to be in E during that time. But 1 must 

confess that I like better to enjoy with our little 'circle under 
the trees overhanging upon your house where we played many a 
time croquet, or anywhere we used to spend many but summer 
eves to joyously on green grass, which rather difficult to get in 

E , on account the stiffness of society in E . or which is 

found should we go to the public places, parks, but very much 
unpleasant through mixing yourself with the commons who are 
rough and ignorant beyond expression.. 



20 

No. 4. 

N , Conn., April 13th. 1881. 

Deaii Sir: — Last vacation I had very pleasant time. 1 went 
to Hartford and spend day and a half. The time seemed to me 
very short indeed. I saw many thing that T never have Been 
them before. I came very happy from my trip. Next week I 
went to New York to see my friend, but I did not met him. I 
saw the Obelisk from far distance, because the policeman did not 
let us go near it. In the afternoon I started to Buffalo. Bei 
I went to Buffalo, I went to Niagara Falls. 

Yours truly, J. M . 

How can these mistakes be accounted for ? They surely 
cannot, he attributed to signs. No ; in all these cases the 
trouble comes simply and only from an imperfect knowledge 
of the English language. The remedy for these imperfections 
must be found in an increased familiarity with the language, 
and this familiarity mivst come through practice in the use of 
language. The pure oralists claim that their pupils get more 
practice in language than the pupils of the sign schools; but 
observation of the working of their system leads us to believe 
that this claim is unfounded. The method of communication 
is so much slower, and must be so much more individual in 
its working, that the pupils taught by t lie American system 
actually get much more practice in the use of the English 
language than the pupils taught by the " pure oral" system. 

Signs arc used by teachers only as a means of instruction — 
never as an end. The mastery of the English language is a 
chief end of the whole course. Written language and the 
manual alphabet, by which sentences are spelled out letter by 
letter in the same way as in writing, are used incessantly. 
Ideas must be acquired from the printed page, and acquired 
ideas must be expressed in written language. These two 
processes we crowd to the utmost of our ability. 

Another evidence thai the use of signs is no hindrance to 
the acquisition of written language is the fact thai almost in- 
variably the best language pupils arc to be found among the 
best and clearest, sign-makers. Before a thought can be 
clearly expressed, it must, be clearly comprehended by 
the mind, and in no way can an idea be so quickly 



21 

and so clearly conveyed to the mind of an imperfectly 
educated mute as through signs. Again and again have 
we seen pupils, taught exclusively hy articulation, where 
signs were forbidden, yet whose language was full of 
imperfections, rapidly improve in the correct use of written 
language when brought under instruction by signs. 

But, say the pure oralists, suppose the progress is slow at 
first, the pupils taught by articulation soon attain such ready 
communication that they more than regain the time lost in 
the first steps. This theory is good. Would that facts sus- 
tained the theory ! But with a large majority of the pupils in 
articulation schools ready communication is not reached. It 
is labored and slow and uncertain to the end of the course, 
and they leave school with a little articulation and some abil- 
ity to read on the lips, but with much less general education 
and mental development, and so are far less fitted for the 
practical duties of life than those who have been under in- 
struction for the same length of time by the American sys- 
tem. 

Again, it is claimed that the pure oral method restores 
mutes to society by giving them the same means of communi- 
cation as is in general use by the community about them. 
This theory is also good, but is sustained by facts only in a 
small minority of cases. Some of the pupils taught by the 
pure oral system do acquire the ability to communicate readily 
by articulation and lip-reading. So also do some of those 
taught by the American system acquire the same ability. In 
both cases they arc the exceptions and not the rule. 

Pupils taught by the " pure oral" method neither under- 
stand books better nor use language with more facility, or 
accuracy, than pupils of the same average ability, taught by 
the American system for the same length of time. In fact, 
so far as our observation goes, the former arc quite behind 
the latter in these respects. 

Both classes of schools have pupils who have learned lan- 
guage through the ear. They arc cither partially deaf now, 
or acquired language before losing their hearing. These use 
language readily either in reading or in writing. They form 
an entirely different class of pupils from the toto-con genital 



22 

mutes, and they have nearly as much advantage over the 
latter as pupils possessing all their faculties have over serai- 
mutes. They occupy a medium ground between the two 
other classes. They cannot be measured by the same gauge. 
They start on their school course under very different condi- 
tions. In the acquisition of language the toto-congenital mute 
is heavily weighted in the race with his semi-mute school- 
mate. "Whatever the system of instruction, this wide differ- 
ence cannot be overcome. To judge fairly of the merits of 
productions of pupils this difference of conditions must always 
be taken into consideration. That, which in the one case 
would deserve the highest praise, would merit very little in 
the other. 

Among pupils possessing all their faculties are always to 
be found a certain proportion who never attain to respectable 
scholarship. Among deaf mutes this proportion is greater 
than among hearing children, the minds of some of them 
having been affected by the same disease which deprived 
them of their hearing. Many of these arc never able to sur- 
mount the difficulties in the acquisition of the English lan- 
guage, which stand in their way, and, consequently, in all 
schools for the deaf we find numerous "murders of the King's 
English," and the sin can be attributed to no system of in- 
struction, but is due to unalterable conditions imposed by 
Providence. 

It seems to be taken for granted in some quarters that 
children taught by the sign method have no means of com- 
munication except by signs. Again and again we have heard 
it said that such pupils have no means of communication 
with their friends and cannot enjoy ordinary social inter- 
course. This is an entirely mistaken idea. The only method 
of communication of which they are deprived is that of speech, 
(a groat deprivation it is true) but every other mode of com- 
munication is open to them. The eye speaks; the hand 
speaks: pencil and slate or paper are used with the utmosl 
facility; and of many a social circle an intelligent mute is the 
most attractive member. 

Once more, there is in some quarters an unreasonable skep- 
ticism as to whether pupils understand thoroughly the ideas 



23 

which they translate from signs into written Language. It' an 
incident were related, or a story told, in French to a class of 
hearing children and immediately reproduced in good English, 
would there he any reasonable doubt that the ideas were 
thoroughly comprehended ? There is even less room for 
doubt in regard to a translation from signs. The surest tesl 
of the grasp of thought is the ability to express that thought 
clearly in written language. 

For an illustration of the power of signs to convey thought 
clearly, perfectly independently of written or spoken language, 
I would refer to the translations printed in the appendix to 
this report. Classes of various grades from one year to 
seven years standing were assembled in the chapel ; all wit- 
nessed the same telling of the story in signs by the principal, 
and no other assistance was allowed the pupils. How much 
each understood and the ability of each to express ideas in 
language will appear from an inspection of the various ver- 
sions of the story. 

The method of instruction generally employed in the insti- 
tutions for the deaf and dumb in the United States, (about 
5,600 out of 6,000 pupils being taught by that method), is a 
broad and comprehensive one, wrought out through long years 
of experience by such men as Rev. Thomas H. Gallaudet, Mr. 
Lewis Weld, Rev. W. W. Turner, Drs. H. P. Peet, F. A. P. 
Barnard, A. L. Chapin, and a host of faithful co-laborers, 
men able and candid, ever ready to examine new means and 
methods, and to adopt whatever can be shown to be an improve- 
ment, but having too conscientious a regard for the real 
interest of their pupils to yield their earnest convictions to 
any mistaken ideas of parents or friends, or to the theories of 
philanthropists, well-meaning, indeed, but misled by an im- 
perfect or superficial knowledge of facts. Its advocates do 
not claim that it is a -perfect system, but they do not claim 
that for the instruction of the great mass of deaf mutes, it is 
the best system yet devised. When a better way can be de- 
montrated, they will gladly adopt it. 
Respectfully submitted, 

JOB WILLIAMS, Principal. 

Hartford, April 23, 1881. 



PHYSICIAN'S REPORT. 



To the Directors of the American Asylum : 

Gentlemen, I hereby submit my annual report of such 
cases as have come under nay professional care during the 
past year. It is a matter for devout thankfulness that we 
have been spared from loss by death among the inmates of 
the Asylum. 

The new pupils have been vaccinated, and proper efforts 
made to maintain the vigor and health of the children who 
arc committed to our care. 

Enclosed please find a list of cases which I have treated 
during the past year. 

Cases. Recovered. 

2 Abscesses, ... - 2 

3 Bronchitis, - - - - 3 

1 Disease of the heart, - - 1 

2 Disease of the eye, - - 2 
2 Pneumonia, 2 

1" 10 

Respectfully submitted, 

GEO. W. AVERY, MD. 
Hartford, Conn., April 22, 1881. 



APPENDIX. 



|.Frora the American Aunals for the Denf and Dumb, October, 1880. 

JOHN CATLIN BULL. 

BY. REV WILLIAM B. CLVliKE. SRI3W0LD, CONK. 



***** Graduating from college with honor, Mr. Bull spent a year 
in teaching, after which he entered the Theological Seminary at Yale. 
This was in the fall of 1850. I shall not dwell at length upon the 
seminary course, more especially as the associations were largely those of 
the college continued. This, I am sure, was no matter of regret to him. 
but rightly of congratulation. He was one whom an old influence 
deepened could benefit more than a new one gained. 

At the end of his second year in the Seminary, and very soon after he 
was licensed to preach, the position opened to him of teacher in the 
deaf-mute institution at Hartford. This position he thought it best to 
accept, as it would afford him a steady income, — a matter, as it hap- 
pened, of considerable consequence to him at that time, — and would not 
prevent his finally choosing the ministerial life should he prefer it. 
It has always seemed to me that this event was a true call of God to 
' my dear friend, and the work it opened to him his divinely-appointed 
calling. To him, as to every true soul, the first question was, What best, 
most useful service in this world of men is there for me to do ? and the 
work among the deaf-mutes, as he became familiar with it, justly enlisted 
the love and reverence of his spirit. What walk could be closer in the 
footsteps of the Lord from heaven, or more entirely obedient to his 
commands than this ? Here, literally, were the hungry to feed and the 
naked to clothe, for a principal object of the work was to enable other- 
wise dependent ones to earn their own support; here were souls shut up 
in prison whose prison doors were to be opened. 

There was another respect in which the position in Hartford was well 
suited to Mr. Bull. He was capable, above most, of bestowing a tender 
and gentle sympathy, and it was true of him, also, that beyond most he 
needed sympathy. He was not such an one as the Lord would choose 
to send alone on missionary work to the heathen; he wanted, as he was 
also able to win, the support of loving hearts, and it was in part, I 
believe, because this need of his spirit was to be so well met in Hartford 
that the Lord in his love sent him there. 

It has ever been the honorable custom of our deaf-mute institutions of 



28 

the higher class to seek educated and able as well as Christian men for 
their teachers. The corps of instructors at Hartford might rank at the 
time spoken of with the faculty of one of our New England colleges for 
eminent intellectual and social qualities. This agreed well with the 
warm heart of our friend; it suited his refined taste, and it afforded him 
the needed support in his work. The problem how to impart instruc- 
tion to minds capable only of so partial an illumination is a difficult 
and trying one, but a dignity was imparted to it — it got a certain 
brightness, even — from the fact that cultivated and bright minds were 
giving their best thought and skill to its solution. I can imagine that 
Mr. Bull entered into these circumstances with a genial interest. His 
spirit was not sluggish ; on the contrary, it was one of marked aeti\ ity. 
But because he was pervaded, beyond what is often seen among men, 
with modesty, he was little fitted — I should say he was unfitted— tor any 
sphere of active rivalry; and yet he was one to make himself at home, 
and very much at home, in the more friendly competition, if so it may 
be called (competition where competition there was none), of the Asylum. 
The whole business, so necessary there, of comparing methods, of con- 
triving new expedients, and improving on the expedients of others, — in 
a word, as St. Paul has it, of "considering one another to be provoked 
unto good works," — all this would suit him well. 

The more important question remains. What were the traits of mind 
and character that Mr. Bull brought to the business of deaf-mute instruc- 
tion, and what fitness did they impart for the work? 

Aside from his modesty of which I have spoken, and which in him 
was peculiarly a mental characteristic, lie had four very marked traits. 

The first of these was fidelity. He was thoroughly grounded in 
principle, and it was not in him to be otherwise than faithful to an\ 
trust committed to him, especially one as sacred as that of teacher in a 
deaf-mute institution. 

The second was a certain patience or evenness of mind. I know not 
how exactly to describe it. But it was noticeable, and impressed those 
who became intimately acquainted with him. His pastor, the Rev. Dr. 
N. J. Burton, in the memorial sermon preached the, Sunday morning 
after his death, felicitously speaks of this trait as "a steadfast quietness 
and peaceableness of mind." What this must have been in a school- 
room is. clear of itself. 

The third was purity of motive. Dr. Burton, in the same discourse, 
says of him: Be had "a thorough-going and fastidious purity, — purity 
of thought, purity of intention, purity of feeling. His conversation w;is 
clean. His humor was clean. His allusions were sweet and refined. 
His hooks were clean and strengthening. He had no equivocal com- 
panionships." 

This is all true. His purity did have that breadth and completeness; 
it pervaded him. But its central and remarkable feature was thai which 



29 

I have mentioned: a single-minded man, beyond most of us in this 
world; one whose motive, in whatever he did, was the motive proper to 
that act, without seltisli mixture or false mixture of any sort. For my 
own part, if I were to have the making of an atmosphere for young 

minds to live in, I should put in this element as first of all important. 

The fourth was sympathy. This also he had in a very unusual degree. 
His heart was alive with it, ready to bestow on all who stood in near 
relation to him. I should think no pupil could have failed to find this 
out. Since I have been writing these words of my friend, there has 
come to my door a poor man from a neighboring town, who has three 
deaf and dumb children that have been educated at Hartford. "1 hear." 
he said to me, "that one of the chief teachers at Hartford has died." 
" Yes," I responded. " My children tell me," added the old man, "that he 
cared For the scholars more than most teachers do." How many are the 
testimonies like this that have followed him into the upper presence! 

These, if I have judged my friend correctly, were the marked qualities 
of his character. They are not of the forceful and energetic kind ; they 
do not shine afar, commanding notice; they do not impress themselves, 
in an active way, on the minds of men at large; but they have >{>i<iliti/ 
beyond most qualities — they are fine and strong. These were united in 
him with clearness, honesty, and breadth of mind ; and the whole was 
attempered by a superior education and the long-continued control of 
religious principle. 

This is what I know of the elements of fitness in my friend for the 
position of a teacher. What his success was, it is not for me to judge; 
but I am permitted to give the following estimate of his work by 
Professor H. 8. Storrs, instructor in the American Asylum, who writes 
from the intimacy of twenty-seven years of associated service: 

"Mr. Bull entered upon his work as teacher at the Asylum in the autumn 
of 1852, only one year before myself, and his first year of professional 
life coincided in date with the twenty-third and last year of the prinei- 
palship of Mr. Weld, the immediate successor of Dr. T. H. Gallaudet in 
that office. Mr. Bull always accounted himself fortunate in having 
received Ids earliest instruction and impulse as a teacher from such a 
man as Mr. Weld, whose conscientious devotion to his work, and ener- 
getic supervision of its details, are yet a wholesome tradition in the 
Asylum. Though Mr. Weld was at this time greatly enfeebled by the 
disease which so soon terminated his life, and was absent a part of the 
year from the Institution, yet the impress of this early contact of Mr. 
Bull's professional life with his was evident in all its subsequent course. 

•'The life of a teacher, and especially a teacher of deaf-mutes, usually 
offers few salient points by which to describe it. It resembles rather 
the steady and beneficent outflow of some living spring, ministering 
continuous health and happiness to those who drink of it, than those 
more intermittent and powerful energies of nature whose sudden sur- 



30 

prises are easily noted and chronicled. Mr. Bull's own nature and 
temperament, too, were not such as to drive him into eccentric orbits of 
independent and erratic action. His life resembled rather the regular 
and restrained revolution of the planet, ever obedient to its own cen- 
tripetal law — conspicuously in his own case, the hue of love. 

" So homogeneous was Mr. Bull's whole life, and so simple and sin 
his nature, that any analysis of his professional as distinguished from 
his general life seems hardly necessary. As in the family and among 
his friends the repose of all hearts in the fineness and fidelity of his love 
was most absolute, so in his class-room lie was singularly kind, patient, 
and sympathetic, embracing every weakest and most wayward pupil in 
his loving solicitude. As in any most cultivated circle the delicacy and 
refinement of his literary taste and the range and accuracy of his culture 
were easily recognizable, so in his class-room he was never content with 
bare routine work, however earnest and exact, but endeavored always to 
infuse into his class something of that wider curiosity and culture which 
marks the true scholar. As in the vicissitudes of a domestic life more 
than usually marked by changes he adapted himself to each with 
surprising readiness and flexibility, so was he in his class-room always 
ingenious and apt in his approaches to the imprisoned minds around 
him. And, finally, as a most modest but sincere Christian sentiment 
pervaded his whole daily life, so w T as the same spirit equally manifest to 
his associates and his pupils, alike in chapel and in class-room, and 
wherever he was seen. In all essential respects, indeed, of bodily, 
mental, and spiritual endowment, Mr. Bull was so evidently and amply 
furnished for his difficult yet delightful work, that wherever, within its 
range of acquaintance, the fine aroma of his mingled modesty and met it 
could be appreciated, there was lie honored and loved, even as in the 
interior circles of his domestic and social life. 

"In January of 1807, Mr. Bull took charge of the Gallaudet Scientific 
School connected with the Asylum — upon Mr. Storrs' retirement from it 
on account of impaired health — and continued in charge of it until its 
final discontinuance in 1877, when he resumed his former relation to the 
Institution as a regular teacher, 'fhe reasons for this discontinuance 
were fully given in the Asylum Report for 1878, and in their light 
Mr. Bull's own cordial advocacy of the step even enhances our respect 

for him as a teacher ami a man. A strong distaste for nun gloss and 
veneer in all educational processes would lie a ncces<ar\ inference from 
the genuineness of Mr. Bull's own character and culture. When, there- 
fore, experience had fullj demonstrated to him, as to his associates, that 
the inevitable tendency of this distinct organization of even the most 
advanced of our comparatively immature pupils under this high-sound- 
ing designation was prematurely to awaken their ambition for equally 
bigh-SOUnding studies, and to discontent them with needed prolonged 

drill upon elementary branches, and that more useful work could be 



31 

done for the Bame pupils under a less ambitious elass designation, liis 
own acceptance and advocacy of the proposed change was therein- 
assured. I may add that the advantage of this seemingly retrograde 

step in its connection with the attendant reorganization and real advance- 
ment of our regular course was a matter of increasing satisfaction to 
Mr. Hull from the date of its occurrence until his death. 

'•I will mention only one other of Mr. Hull's professional character- 
istics, by which, however, the insight and independence of bis judg- 
ment was especially manifested. I refer to his high estimate of the 
teachers privilege and position as compared with any other opportunity 
of service for those to whom his life was devoted. This characteristic 
finds its obvious attestation in the mere fact that he remained a teacher 
— or, as some might superficially put it, only a teacher — until Ins death. 
To Mr. Hull, as to his associate teachers at the oldest among American 
deaf-mute institutions, there came, during his long term of service, 
frequent opportunities for exchanging his position as teacher for that of 
principal. It was to him as if the pastor, charged with the sweetest 
and most sacred of human responsibilities, should voluntarily abandon 
them for the mere 'serving of tables.' That harassing 'superintendence 
of cares' which constitutes the chief duty of the principals of most of 
our larger deal-mute boarding schools, unrelieved by any considerable 
quickening contact with the mental and moral life of the pupils, had 
no attraction for .Mr. Bull, as compared with the inspiring opportunity 
of the earnest and enthusiastic teacher. For him there was no dearer 
and no higher* position within his chosen profession than that of teacher; 
and it is peculiarly fitting that the teacher's chair left vacant by one so 
appreciative of its privilege should now in turn be sought by one of our 
ablest and most successful principals — himself voluntarily turning from 
the charge of mere temporalities to the higher and more unhindered 
service of mind and heart. 

"There is an oriental apologue relating the wonder of the happy dead, 
ranging the Elysian fields, at the peculiar honor with which a modest 
stranger from our earthly sphere was welcomed among them. To their 
eager inquiries what had been the peculiar splendor and renown of his 
earthly service he only replied, 'I was a teacher of little children.' If 
such could be the conception of even pre-christian culture, with how 
much clearer confidence may we anticipate for our departed friend the 
ineffable welcome of Him who took a little child and set him in the 
midst of them, and when lie had taken him in His arms, said unto them, 
'Whosoever shall receive one of such children in my name receiveth 
me.' ''**** 



32 



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STATEMENT 



FUND OF THE AMERICAN ASYLUM. 



Invested in National Bank Stocks in Conn.,- $83,700.00 

Invested in Railroad Bonds, - - - 80,078.75 
Invested in Bonds and Mortgages of Real 

Estate, ...... 48,375.00 

Invested in Railroad Stock, - - - 15,812.50 

Invested in Real Estate in Chicago, - - 27,000.00 

Invested in Real Estate in Hartford, - - 98,000.00 

Furniture in the Institution, ... 5,390.00 

Cash on hand, 2,204.91 

$360,621.16 

Deduct " Blodget Fund," - - - 2,233.00 



Hartford, April 8, 1881. 



#358,388.16 



34 

ABSTRACT OF 
■DR. American Asylum in account with Henry Kkxxkdy, 

To Flour, 81,301.52 

Meal, ----- 14.42 

Cakes and Crackers, - - - 59.79 

Rice and Corn Starch, - - - 34.30 

Yeast, - ' - - - 89.43 

Hay and Straw, ... - 203.49 

Provender and Oats, - - - 324.25 

Tools and Blacksmithing, - - - 82.18 

Butter, - - - 2,114.15 

Eggs, ----- 8.84 

Charcoal, ----- 207.22 

Hard Coal, ----- 2,461.27 

Wood, ----- 581 

Furniture, ----- 841.00 

Groceries, ----- 1,428.71 

Light and Gas, - 930.00 

Meat, Fish, and Fowl, - - - 2,909.56 

Medicine, ----- 86.05 

Miscellaneous, - - - 488.99 

Pupils, 868.43 

Repairs and Improvements, - - 2,435.00 

Schools and Postage, - - - 106.25 

Cabinet Shop, - - - 894.88 

Shoe " . - - - 966.24 

Tailor " ... - 483.77 

Vegetables and Fruit, - - - 671.38 

Wages, ----- 4,235.96 

Washing and Soap, - - - 883.65 

• Water Works, - - - 414.00 

25,550.54 

Balance to credit of new account, - - 1,569.69 

$27,120.23 



35 



CURRENT EXPENSES. 



Steward, for the year ending April 1, 1881. 



CR. 



By Balance fi 


oiu Last Account, . 


_ 


81,710.03 


Casli from Treasurer, 


- 


20,000.00 


cc 


cc 


Pupils for clothing, travelin 


r ex- 








penses, etc., 


- 


629.51 


cc 


CC 


State of Connecticut for ditto, 


- 


191.84 


cc 


cc 


il Maine " 


- 


227.80 


cc 


cc 


" N. Hampshire " 


- 


142.65 


K 


cc 


" Vermont " 


- 


76.79 


c< 


cc 


" Massachusetts " 


- 


581.90 


cc 


cc 


" Rhode Island " 


- 


28.10 


(« 


cc 


Cabinet Shop, 


- 


1,402.69 


(C 


cc 


Shoe Shop, 


- 


801.33 


cc 


cc 


Sale of Livo Stock, 


- 


290.48 


cc 


cc 


Miscellaneous sources, iucludin 
of surplus stores, pasturage, 


g sale 
items 








of rents, etc., 


- 


1,037.11 



$27,120.23 



36 



IV. PAPERS, PERIODICALS, ETC. 

THE FOLLOWING PAPERS HAVE BEEN SENT TO THE PUPILS GK.V1I I I . >1 >1.Y THE 

PAST YEAH. 



Name. 



Win re Published. 



Athol Transcript, Weekly, 

Anamosa Eureka, " 

Boston Transcript, " 

Canaan Reporter, " 

Christian Secretary, " 

Columbian Register, " 

Commercial Ailvertiser, " 

Connecticut Courant, " 

Connecticut Herald and Journal, " 

Deaf Mute Journal, " 

Deaf Mute Index, " 

Deaf Mute Mirror (two copies), " 

Deaf Mute Record (two copies), " 

Gazette, " 

Goodson Gazette, " 

Hartford Courant, Dai 

Hartford Post, " 

Hartford Times, " 

Kansas Star, 

Kennebec Journal, 

Kentucky Deaf Mute (two copies), 

Lantern, 

Modern Times, 

Muted' Chronicle (four copies), 

Mutes' Companion (four copies), 

Mute Journal of Nebraska, 

Nashua Telegraph, 

New Haven Palladium, 

( lur Dumb Animals, 

Religious Herald, 

Republican Standard, 

Rhode Island Country Journal, 

Rhode Island Press, 

Salem Register, 

Silent Observer, 

Texas Mute Ranger, 

Vermont Christian Messenger, 

Vermont Watchman and State Journal, 

Villager, 

West Virginia Tablet, 

Zion's Herald, 



Athol, Mass. 

Anamosa, Iowa. 

Boston, Mass. 

East Canaan, N. II. 

Hartford, Conn. 

N;\v Haven, Conn. 

Now York. 

Hartford, Conn. 

New Haven, Conn. 

New York City. 

In. for D. & D., Colorado Sprii 

[nst. for I). & I) , Flint, Mich. 

Inst, for D. & 1).. Fulton, Mo. 

Lewiston, Me. 

Inst, for D. & I).. Staunton, Va, 

v, Hartford, Conn. 



Weekly, In. for D. & D., Olathe, Kansas. 

'• sta, Me. 
Inst, for D. & D.. Danville, Ky. 

" New York City. 

" Inst, for D. & D., Delavan, Wis. 

" Inst, for D. & D., Columbus, O. 

" Inst, for D. & D., Fairbault, Minn. 

Monthly, Inst, for D. & D., Omaha, Neb. 

Weekly, Nashua, N. H. 

l; New Haven, Conn. 

Monthly, Boston, Mass. 

Weekly, Hartford, Conn. 

" Bridgeport, Conn. 

" Providence, R. I. 

k ii (i 

Semi-weekly, Salem, Mass. 

Weekly, In. for D. & 1)., Knoxville, Tenn. 
[nst. for D. & 1)., Austin, I 

Montpelier, Yt. 



Monthly, 
Weekly, 



Ame-liurv ami Salisbury, Mass. 

Inst, for D. & D., Romuev, W. Va. 

in, Mass. 



V. 

LIST OF PUPILS 

IN THE SCHOOL WITHIN THE YEAR ENDING ON TI1E 1ST OF MAY, 1SS0. 
MALES. 

NAME. RESIDENCE. ADMISSION. 

Abrams, George, Birmingham, Conn., Sept., 1872 

Acheson, Eugene A Boston, Mass., Sept., 1878 

Axt, George J., New Haven, Conn., Sept., 1876 

*Babbitt, Henry E., North Dighton, Mass., Sept., 1877 

Ball, Frank O., Mapleton, Maine, Sept., '75 & '78 

Barton, Amos, Benton, Maine Sept., L874 

Bayless, Thomas B., Bridgeport, Conn., Sept., 1876 

Beaucage, John Baltic, Conn Oct., 1877 

Bishop, George R., South Boston, Mass., Sept., 1880 

Braze!l, Patrick J., Lynn, Mass., Sept., 1876 

*Brown, Frank J., Greene, R. I., Sept.. '7 1 & 78 

*Browq, Hiram F Rock Bottom, Mass., Sept., 1873 

Brown, Isaac A., Rockland, Maine, Sept., 1878 

* Brown, Marcus M Rock Bottom, Mass., Sept., 1873 

Brush, Charles S., Boston. Mass., Sept., 1877 

Bulkley, Robert R Wethersfield, Conn., Sept., 187.") 

Bryne, Michael, Fall River, Mass., Sept., 1879 

Changnon, George F., .. Chicopee Falls, Mass., Sept., 1876 

Changnon, Joseph H., . .Chicopee Falls, Mass., .... Sept., 1876 

Clarkson, Charles II., . . Worcester, Mass , Sept., 1875 

Clifford. John, Fitchburgh, Mass. Oct., 1877 

Plough, Charles T., .... Ashland, X. II., Sept., 1878 

♦Oomstock, John S., . . . Norwich, Conn., Sept., 1ST:: 

Conant, Frank A., New Haven, Conn., Sept., L880 

*Cook. Edwin W., Frovincetown, Mass Sept., 1 873 

Creamer, Pelham S.,...So. Waldoboro, Maine, ... Sept., 1880 



38 



NAME. RESIDENCE. ADMISSION. 



*Cross, Willie, Grafton, N. II., Sept., I 873 

DeLaite, George R., .... Eastern, Maine, ( )ct., 1 s7 7 

fDoherty, John Manchester, N. H., Sept., 1877 

Doying, Charles E., Rcckville, Conn S< L876 

Dresser, Edward L., Turner Village, Maine, . . .Si 1814 

Eaton, Archie B., East Weare, N. H Sept., 1 879 

Edbsrg, Gustav, No. Easton, Mass., Sept., 1879 

Eddy, George W., New Britain, Conn., Sept., 1876 

Eddy, Walter A., Chepachet, R. I., Sept., 1873 

♦Ellis, David E., Keene, N. EL, Oct., 1 s7 I 

Ely, Willie, Haddam, Conn.,.. Sept., 1874 

Falvey, Dennis, Marlboro, Mass Sept., 1 876 

*Farnharn, Charles EL, ..Boothhy, Maine, Sept.. '70 & '79 

Fenaghtie, Patrick, Boston, Mass., Sept., L876 

*Ferris. Frank, Greenwich, Conn Oct., 1880 

Flynn. John F., Bangor, Maine, < let., 1877 

*French, Edwin H. Antrim, N. EL, Sept., L873 

Furrow, Arthur, Agawam, Mass., S. L879 

Goulding, William Lynn, Mass Sept., 1st; 

Griffin, James, Boston. Mass., S l 880 

Greenough, Frederick, . .St. Albans, Vt., Sept.. 1876 

Gunnison, Fred. A., Topsfield, Mass Se ] 8 7 8 

Guyott. Edward W., .... Holyoke, Mass Si 1880 

Hagerty, Joseph D., . . . .Hartford, Conn Sept., '7.1 ..v '79 

Halpin, William New Haven. Conn Sept., I 873 

Harney, John, Middletown, Conn., Si 1 s 7 « i 

Hawes, George B Embden, Maine, & 1 880 

Hill, Elmer E Starksboro, Vt., Sept., 1876 

Holland, Fred. H., Waterbury, Conn Si 1874 

Horgan. Timothy East Cambridge, Mass.. . . Sept., 187!) 

son, ArthurS., lewett City, Conn., S< L872 

Eearns, Jeremiah, Manchester, N. H., Sept., 1877 

Kelly, Willie F Ansonia, Conn., Sept., L878 

Kennedy, Eddie Middletown, Conn Sept , 1876, 

Lamothe, Nazaire Southbridge, Mass Oct., 1877 

Lamothe, Pierre Southbridge, Mass., Oct., 1877 

Lane, William II. , Fall River, Mass Si 1877 

•Lannon, James, Wesl Roxbury, Mass... . ..Si 1876 



39 



NAME. RESIDENCE. ADMISSION. 

Laverdiere, Louis P., Southbridge. Mass Sept., 1880 

*Lewis, Edward 0.,. .'...W. Mills, Industry. Me.,. Sept., 1st:: 

Long, Thomas, Boston, Mass Sept., 1876 

Lounsbury, Theodore I., .Stamford, Conn., Sept . 1874 

Maher, Frederick J., New Haven, Conn., Sept., 1880 

Malone, Charles Fall River, Mass Sept., 1876 

Marshall, Gilbert F Bridgeport, Conn Sept., is?!) 

*Ma.\am, Willard C. Swanzey Village, Mass., . Sept., 1879 

McCrate, Daniel, Whitinsville, Mass., Sept., 1878 

McCue. Patrick F Hartford, Conn., Oct., 1878 

M.( : inn, James E. ; Providence, R. I., Sept., 1874 

Mclntyre, Ernest Warren, Maine, Sept., 1880 

*Metrash, Robert L. G.,..Norwalk, Conn., Sept., 1872 

*Millard, Francis W Palmer, Mass., Sept.. 1874 

is, Willie O., Milo, Maine Sept.. 1877 

f Morgan. Arthur, Gorham, N. II., Feb., 1877 

Mullen, Martin P., Boston, Mass., Sept., 187.5 

Mullen, Patrick J., Boston, Mass., Sept.. 1875 

O'Brien, James ( .).. Fall River, Mass Sept., 1 879 

♦O'Connell, Thomas, New Britain, Conn Sept., 1878 

O'Connor, Thomas, South Newmarket, N. H. .Sept . 1ST 7 

*Orcutt, Alvah W Dedham, Mass Sept., 1878 

Page, Joseph W Burlington, Maine May, 1874 

Page, Edmund, Burlington, Maine, Sept, 1880 

Parker, Frank S Farmington, N. II., Sept., 1874 

Paro, Clefos, Lebanon, N. H., Sept., 1880 

Penny, Franklin E Knox, Maine Sept . 1878 

Perry, Edgar W Pittsburg, N. H., Sept., 1880 

Porter, Amai, Spencer Depot, Mass., . . . Sept.. 1876 

♦Randall, Edwin, North Harpswell, Maine, . Dec. 1873 

Rathbun, Ira S., New Bedford, Mass., Ian., 1879 

Richards, Hermon L., ... . Westport, ( !onn., Sept., 1879 

Richmond, George, Voluntown, Conn., Sept. 1876 

Riggs, Charles A North Leeds. Maine, .... Sept., 1878 

f Roach, Philip, Norwich Town, Conn., . . Sept., 1875 

Roberts, John, Boston, Mass. Sept., 1 *7 7 

Roberts, Frederick Boston, Mass Oct., 1880 

Robinson, George H., .... Concord, N. II., Si 1878 



40 



NAME. RESIDKXCE. ADMISSION". 

Rock, Arthur Salem, Vt Sept., 1 880 

Rutter, Elwyn S., Washington, Vt,, Sept., 1876 

Saleski, Anton, Meriden, Conn., Sept., 1878 

Sanborn, Warren, East Jackson. Maine, .... Sept., 1880 

*Schortmann, Richard, . .Broad Brook, Conn., . . . .Sept., 1873 

Shea, Daniel, Rockland, Mass , Sept , 1877 

Shea, John, Rockland, Mass., Sept., 1878 

Shiatte, Frederick, Manchester, N. H., Sept., 1878 

Simonds, Adelbert J., South Strafford, Vt., Sept., 1 880 

Skillin, Fred. G Boston, Mass., Sept., 1878 

•Small, Edwin W., H'rtl'nd Four Corners, Vt.Sept., 1873 

*Small, Simeon B., H'rtl'nd FourCorners, Vt.Sept., 1873 

Snyder, Lawrence M., . . . New Haven, Conn., Sept., 1878 

Spear, Charles F., Belfast, Maine, Sept., '78 & '80 

St. John, Arthur, Fall River, Mass., Sept., 1 8*0 

Stover, Frederick, West Appleton, Maine, . . Sept., 1874 

Sullivan, Roger, Manchester, N. H., Oct., 1877 

Sullivan, James C, Weston, Mass., Sept., 1880 

Taylor, Dana B., Wells, Maine., Sept., 1878 

Thayer, Henry E., H'rtl'nd Four Corners, Vt.Sept., L879 

Tiernen, John, New Haven, Conn., Sept., 1 879 

Trainer, John, Providence, R.I. Sept., 1876 

* Tripp, George E., Boston, Mass., Nov., 1880 

Varney, Fred. L., Farmington, N. H., Sept., 1875 

•Verry, Alvin F. M., ... Fall River, .Mass., Sept., 1874 

Walker, Chas. R., Holyoke, Mass., Sept., 1879 

Walsh, Michael F., Woleott, Conn., Sept., 1879 

Ward, Willie, Holyoke, Mass., , Sept., 1878 

Wells, George, Bridgeport, Conn., Sept., 1874 

•White, Pitt O., Lime Rock, Conn., March, 1 880 

While, William II., Pittsfield, Mass., Jan., 1877 

*Williams, Frank I)., Haverhill, Mass Sept., 1 873 

Williams, George C, ....West Haven. Conn., . . . . Sept., 1880 

Wise, James H., Cambridgeport, Mass., . .Sept., I s 7 7 

Worcester, Ira E. Amherst, X. 11 Sept.. 1879 



41 



FEMALES. 



NAME. RESIDENCE. ADMISSION. 

Acheson, Pauline M., .... Huston, Mass Sept., 1878 

Atkinson, Mary B New Britain, Conn Sept., 1 ST.") 

Baldwin, Harriet, New Haven, Conn., Sept., 1 875 

Bassett, Ida, Pittsford, Vt., Nov., 1875 

Bates. Beula E Guilford, Vt., Sept , 1876 

*Benson, Margaret J., . . .Boston, Mass Feb., 1879 

Bigelow, Flora B., Webster. Mass., Sept., 1875 

Bronson, Isabelle E., Plainville, Conn., Sept.. 1880 

Buck, Lucy E., :Voluntown. Conn Sept., 1875 

Burue, Lena, New Haven, Conn., Sept., 1 879 

Burniston, Margaret B.,. .Greeneville, Conn., Sept., 1875 

*Case, Lillic A., Avon, Conn. Sept., '67 & '75 

*Changnon, Mary Chicopee Falls, Mass., . .Sept., 1878 

Charlesworth, Mary A.,. . Holyoke, Mass Oct., 1876 

Cottle, Henrietta V., West" Athens., Maine, . . .Oct., 1879 

Culver, Annie J., East Dorset. Vt., Sept , 1878 

Daniel, Sylvia E., Green River, Vt., Sept., 1874 

Downey, Mary T., South Boston, Mass., . . .Oct., 1876 

Driscoll, Julia Abington, Mass., Sept., 1 878 

Emilev, Alice C Marlboro, Mass., Sept , 1876 

Emery, Emma R., Medford Center, Maine, . Sept., 1877 

Fifield, Maliala C West leer Isle, Maine, . Sept., 1875 

Frueh, Louisa J., Hamden, Conn Sept., 1880 

Gilson, Julia E., Hartland, Vt., Sept., 1st.", 

Gray, Clara M Hodgdon, Maine. Sept., 1876 

Griffin, Mary E Fall River, Mass., Sept , 1878 

Hale, Ilattie R., Portland, Conn Oct., 1876 

Harding, Adella Rockland, Maine, Dec., 1876 

Harding, Mabel, E.lgecomb, Maine, Sept., 1879 

*Harniman, Amy, New Haven, Conn., Sept.. 1876 

*Ha\vley, Mary J., Leverett, Mass.. Sept.. 1870 



42 



NAME. 



KESIDE.NCE. 



ADMISMnN. 



Holland, Honora, Fall River, Mass., 

Hopkins. Anna E., Augusta, Maine, 

Hull, Lovina, Plainville, Conn 

Hunter, Lottie M., Clinton, Maine 

Jencks, Carrie L., East Hartford, Conn. . . . 

*Kelly, Johanna Fall River, Mass., 

Kendall, Florence M., . . .Strafford, Vt., 

Kinniartin, Sarah J., . . . . Charlestown, Mass 

Larkin, Winnie, Fitchburgh, Mass., 

Lawson, Alice L., Lowell, Mass., 

*Leavitt, Annie R Charlestown. Mass., 

Leonard, Alic8 West Bridgewater, Mass., 

Lockhart. Dora M Holliston, Mass., 

*Loomis, Georgie A., .... Bridgeport, Conn., 

Lynch, Mary E Greenville, R. I., 

Magoon, Alice A., Craftsbury, Vt., 

Marnock, Anna M South Albany, Vt., 

Marshall, Edith H., Bridgeport, Conn., 

McKay, Ellen E Bristol, R. I., 

*McQueeny, Fanny, New Haven, Conn., 

Merrill, Emma M Exeter, N. H., 

*Millard, Adeline E., . . . .Palmer, Mass., 

Nelligan, Annie, North Cambridge, Mass.. 

Newton, Alice E., Hartford, Vt., 

Nolan, Margaret, Concord, N. H 

*Norcross, Florence N., . .Jacksonville, Vt., 

Noyes, Flora, Franklin Falls, N. H., . . . 

Noyes, Nora Franklin Falls, N. II... 

O'Connell, Katie, Holliston, Mass., 

0'Neil, Ellen, Stafford, Conn., 

Packard, Adella M Wales. Mass., 

Perry, Minnie B., Lake < 'onnecticut, Vt., . . 

*Quinn, Margaret, Fall River, Mass., 

Ratchford, Mary Worcester, Mass 

Richardson, Lillie M Square Pond, Conn, ... 

Rock, Cordelia, Staffordville, Conn., ... . 

Rockwell, Cora, E Ely, N't 

Russell, Kate E., Lovell Center, Maine,, . . 



Nov. 
Jan., 
Sept. 

Sept. 

Sept. 

Sept. 

Sept. 
Sept. 

Sept. 

Sept. 

Dec, 

Sept. 

Sept. 
Sept. 

Sept. 

Sept, 

Sept. 

Nov. 

< let., 

Sept. 

Sept. 

Sept 

Sepl 

Sept. 

Oct., 

Sept. 

Sept. 

Sept. 

Sept. 
Sept. 
Sept 

Sept. 

Sept. 
Sept. 
Sept. 
Sept. 

Sept 



1877 
1878 
1873 
1875 
1877 
1874 
1877 
1879 
1876 
1874 
L876 
1S77 
1878 
1873 
1880 
1878 
1879 
1879 
1878 
1875 
1880 
1874 
1879 
1874 
1ST 7 
1872 
1876 
1876 
1880 
1877 
1878 
1879 
1876 
1880 
1876 
1879 
1877 
75 & '80 



43 



NAME. 



RESIDENCE. 



ADMISSION. 



Sage. Rosa E., 

*Schortman, Pauline, . , 

Schmahl, Emilie, 

•Seeley, Minnie B., . . . 
Shirley, Bertha S., 

Sillick, Anna E 

Simmons, Cynthia M., . 

*Skiff, Alice M 

Smart, Carrie, 

Sullivan, Honora, 
Taylor, Florence A, . . 

*Tilton, Eva B 

Tuller, Fannie A., .... 

Upton, Abbie D., 

Ward, Mary J., 

Weis, Elise, 

•Westgate, Mary A.,.. 
Whitehouse, Daisy, . . . 
*Woodworth, Sarah E. 
Wright, Emma E. P.,. 



. Middletown, Conn Sept. 

Broad Brook. Conn Sept. 

. New Haven, Conn., .... Sept. 

. Houlton, Me., Sept. 

. Norwich. ( 'dun Oct., 

. Norwalk, Conn., I >ct., 

Scituate, R. 1., Sept. 

. North Tislmry. Mass., . . .Sept. 
.Wesl Athens, Maine, ... Sept | 
. Cambridgeport, Mass.,. .Sept., 
.East Orleans, Mass., .... Sept. 

. Cheshire, Mass., Oct , 

. West Suffield, Conn ,... .Sept.. 

.Bethel, Maine Sept.. 

Hartford. ( \mn., Sept.. 

.New Haven. Conn., Sept.. 

.Fall River. Mass Sept., 

.Liberty. Maine Sept., 

.Brooklyn, X. Y Sept., 

. Fast Weymouth, Mass.,. Nov., 



1875 
1873 
1877 
1873 
1879 
1880 
1879 
1873 
1880 
L879 
1877 
1874 
1876 
1875 
1872 
1880 
1872 
1880 
1878 
1880 



SUMMARY. 



SUPPORTED BY 



MALES. 



FEMALES. 



TOTAL. 



Maine 

New Hampshire, , 

Vermont, 

Massachusetts, . . . 
Rhode Island, . . 
Connecticut, . . . . , 
Friends 



Total, 



21 


13 


34 


17 


5 


22 


8 


10 


18 


51 


30 


81 


4 


3 


7 


;;i 


2G 


60 


l 


2 


3 



136 



89 



Whole number in attendance within the year 225 

Greatest number at any one time, 190 

Average attendance during the year 1st 



♦Not prcseut May 1, 18S0. 



tDead. 



COMPOSITIONS. 



[The following compositions are given as specimens of nn interesting exercise in trans- 
lating from signs. Classes of various grades, from one year to seven years Standing, were 
assembled in the chapel, and the story, given below, was told and repea by the 

principal, and, without any other assistance, the pupils were required immediately to 
reproduce the story in writton language. The specimens given are absolutely without cor- 
rection, and -how how much ability each had to understand idea- from signs and to express 
the idea- in his own language. It is desired to call attention to the variety ot phraseology 
in expressing the same idea, and especially to the difference between the language of semi- 
mutes and that of those eongenitally deaf.] 

Many years ago Gregory stayed in the dungeon. He was willful and 
disobedient. The jailor reproved Gregory often and often whipped 
Greg in the cell. He locked the door. The prisoners displeased with 
Gregory. Greg had no any friend. The jailor called him Uglj Greg. 
Some good people carried the flowers into the dungeon. They put the 
flowers in the bracket. They fastened the bracket on the wall. They 
thought perhaps ugly Greg did not like the (lowers. One night ugly 
Greg disliked to work. Ugly Greg went into the dungeon. He saw a 
rose in the vase. He looked the rose and studied the rose, put the rose 
in the bracket. The next morning Greg poured the water into the vase. 
Every day he kept the rose. By and by he became sick. A nurse car- 
ried Greg to the hospital. The nurse laid Greg on a bed. He carried 
Greg's rose and put it on the stool near the bed. Greg lay in the b( d 
and looked at the rose. He saw a new'bud. He was very sick-. The 
nurse pul the rose near Greg. In a few hours the rose opened. The 
nurse came to Greg's bed. He saw the open rose. He called Greg. 
Greg did not speak to the nurse. He held his hand on Greg. Greg 
was cold. The nurse thought Greg was dead. Greg held his one arm 
on his head. He held his another hand around the rose. Greg was 
dead. The rose taught Greg became better. D. 15. T. 

(14 years old. Congenital. At school two years.) 



Some people lived in Detroit. The] were willful, A prisoner stayed 
in a cell. The prisoner was bad. A nurse put a vase on a bracket. A 
rose was in the vase. The nurse often reproved the prisoner. The pris- 
oner often disobeyed, lie looked at the rose. He became pleasant. 
His heart was soil. He snielled the rose. His name was Greg. Sud- 
denly Greg was sick. The nurse lifted Greg and carried him to a bed. 
Greg became ven sick. The nurse took the vase and carried it on a 



table. Greg looked at the rose. The rose began to grow. Greg was 
happy. The nurse took the vase and put it on the pillow. The nurse 
went out of the room. By and by the nurse came to the room. The 
nurse saw that the rose grew. He called Greg. Greg <li'l not tell the 
nurse a word. The nurse put his hand on Greg's hand. Greg's hand 
was cold. Greg's hand put on his grey hair, and the other hand held 
the vase. The nurse saw Greg was dead. P. M. A. 

(12 years old, Born deaf. In school three years.) 



There was a large prison in Detroit. There were many bad people in 
it. One there was a hard-hearted man who was named Gregory. He 
was very willful and disobeyed. Some prison keepers often punished 
him and put him in a dark dungeon, but lie did not become a good 
111:10. Other prisoners hated him, and nobody wfts fond of him. They 
called him Ugly Greg. Some good people meant to put some vases of 
flowers on the brackets in the cells of the prison. They did so and put 
a rose in a vase on one of the brackets which was near Ugly Greg's 
room, but they thought that he would not care for it. In the afternoon 
after work he went in the prison and saw the rose, and was very much 
surprised. lie then took the vase and looked at the rose and smelled 
it. lie kept it every day. Once he was sullen but he now was pleasant. 
The next morning, before he went away, he poured some water in the 
rose. He often talked with it and they looked loving at each other. 
He often took the vase and carried it into his room and slept near it. 
By and by he was sick. Some of the prison keepers carried Ugly Greg 
to a hospital and carried the vase there. lie put it on a stand near his 
bed. lie often looked at it and saw that a bud was beginning to be a 
rose. A nurse put the stand by Greg's bed and left him. In a few 
hours the bud became a rose. The nurse came and saw the rose. She 
called Greg to look at it but he did not answer her. She put her hand 
on his hand and was surprised because his hand was cold. He died. 
When he died his hand was in his grey hair and his other hand was 
around the vase. The rose made him to be a good man. lie was better 
than the prisoners because he kept his rose. F. N. 

(Born deaf. In school four years. 13 years of age.) 



There was a large state prison in Detroit which the many prisoners 
lived in. They wjre very bad and willful. A few years ago one of 
them who was named Gregory was very bad and wicked in that prison. 
A keeper punished him often and he could not make him a good man. 
He put him in a dungeon and called him Ugly Greg. All the prisoners 
hated and disliked him. They thought that he would not become 
a good man. The good people thought that he would become a 
good man. They got some brackets and carried them into the prison. 



46 

They hung them with some nails on the each cell's wall. One of the 
people put a rose in a vase on the bracket near Greg's place. After he 
had worked, he came to Ids place where he was put in. While he was 
going, he saw a vase with the rose on the bracket. He was very glad 
and took it in his hand. He pleased to smell the flowers. He put them 
on the bracket and went into the cell. He slept there all night and 
rose up. Before he went to work, he took the flowers and smelled them. 
He put it on the bracket again. He worked very hard all day. Every 
day he poured water in the vase to make the flowers grow up. At last 
he became very sick. The keeper carried him into the Hospital. Greg 
took flowers and carried them into the hospital. The nurse took care 
of him. The sick man slept in the bed near a standing-table on which 
was the flowers, in the vase. He looked at them and pleased, lie was 
very fond of them, because they made him a good man. At last the 
nurse put them near him on the bed. He was gone. "While Greg was 
looking at the flowers, then lie died. The man came into his room and 
called Greg, but he did not awaken. He came near and felt Greg's cold 
hand. He saw one of his hands on his head and he taking the flowers 
in the other. The flowers made him a very good man. W. E. 

(Born deaf. In school six years. 16 years old.) 



There is a large prison in Detroit, in Michigan. Many had men 
were arrested and put into the prison. 'Home years ago, a very had man 
was arrested and put into it. I lis name was Gregory. Gregory often 
disobeyed the master of the prison, and the master put him into a dun- 
geon. He could not become a good man. lie was a very willful man. 
The prisoners did not like him, and Gregory had no friends in the 
prison. One day. some good people went into the prison with some 
flowers and brackets. They put a bracket against the wall in ea-h cell, 
and put Borne flowers on the bracket. They also put the bi 
against the wall in Gregory's cell, and put some good and beautiful 
flowers on the bracket. They thought that perhaps Gregory did not 
like the flowers and he threw them away. When Gregory had done 
working, lie went into his cell and saw the flowers on the bracket. 
lie look hold of the flowers in his hand and smelled them. Then he 
put them in a cup and poured some water into the cup. The next 

morning he poured some fresh water into the cup. He took 

of the flowers. Soon after, he happened to be sick, and he was taken 
to a hospital. A nurse took care of him in the hospital. He put the 
flowers on the stand which was near a bed of Gregory. While Gregory 

was lying in the bed, he liked to look at the (lowers. lie happened to 

see a lit He blossom among the flowers. The nurse placed the flowers 

near Gregory's head and went away. In several hours, the little 
blossom grew large. The nurse came and saw the large blossom. 
Then he said to him that the blossom grew large, but he saw him lying 



still in the bod. Then ho put his hand on Gregory's hand, and he felt 
cold. lie understood that Gregory was dead. While Gregory was 
dyin« in the bed. he put one hand on his head and he took hold of 
the (lowers in another hand. The beautiful flowers helped him to 
become a good man. It was a very good lesson for him. While 
try was in the prison, he obeyed the master faithfully. He was a 
best prisoner in the prison because he often obeyed the master 
perfectly. 

(Born deaf. In school seven years. 18 years old.) 



S. B. S. 



In a city of Detroit there is a prison. Thousands of people are 
caught and put in the prison. Many years ago a very bad man was 
caught and put in the prison. His name was Gregory. He was often 
disobedient and willful. The jailor did not like him and often scolded 
him and punished him, by putting him into, a dark dungeon. The 
jailor called him Ugly Greg because he was cross. Ugly Greg had no 
friends, and nobody liked him. There were many good people living 
in the city. They made brackets and got some flowers and went to 
the prison, and then they hung the brackets on the walls in each cell, 
and put the flowers on them. They put a bracket and some roses in 
Gregory's cell. After Gregory had finished working he went into his 
cell, and he saw the flowers and wondered how they came to be there. 
He went toward the roses and sinclled of them, and gave them some 
water. - One night he took the flowers off the bracket and placed them 
near his bed. Before he went to work in the morning he always was 
sure to water his roses, and he took good care of them. It happened 
one day that Gregory became sick, and was taken to the hospital, lie 
took his flowers with him and placed them on a stand near his bed. 
Gregory often looked at the roses and fell asleep. The buds were 
growing, and in a few hours the roses were in full bloom. The nurse 
saw the roses, and spoke Gregory's name, but he did not answer. At 
last the nurse felt of his hand. It was cold, and Gregory was dead. 
One of his arms was on his head, and the other was around the roses. 
The roses had softened his hard heart, and that is how he became a 
good man. M. E. A. 

(Deaf at five years. In school five years. I: 1 , years old. 



There was a large jail in Detroit. There were many prisoners in it. 
Some years ago there was a bad and willful prisoner named Gregory. 
The jail-keeper called him Ugly Greg, lie was often reproved and 
punished, by being put into a dungeon. All the other prisoners hated 
him. Once some good people who lived in Detroit thought they would 
put some tlowers in the jail. So they went to the jail and fastened a 
bracket to the wall in each cell. They put a rose on the bracket in 



48 

Greg's cell. They thought Greg would not like it, but when his work 
was over in the evening, and when he returned to his cell, lie was sur- 
prised to see the rose. He smelt of it. and in the next morning he 
watered it. He kept it for along time. By-and-by Greg happened to 
get ill, and he was carried to the hospital. The nurse brought in the 
rose and placed it on a stool near his bed, and then left him. Greg 
watched the rose, and by-and-by he saw it begin to blossom. By-and-by 
the nurse came in and called Greg, but he did not answer, lie touched 
him, and when he felt his cold hand, he knew he was (had. One of 
his hands w T as placed on his white and black hair, and his other hold- 
ing the rose. Greg was the best man among the prisoners, but the rose 
softened his heart. T. I. L. 

(Deaf at seven years. At school six years. 15 years old.) 



In Detroit, Michigan, there was a large prison in which all those who 
did wicked things were sent. A few years ago there was a very wicked 
man named Gregory who was sentenced there. lie was very willful, 
and hard-hearted, and gave the keeper a great deal of trouble. They 
punished him by putting him in a dark dungeon, but this made him 
worse. All the prisoners were against him, and he had not a single 
friend for a companion. So he was hated and despised by all who 
came near him. lb; was so ugly and cross that the keepers of the 
prison called him " Ugly Greg." By-and-by the Christians of Detroit 
thought they would give each prisoner a plant in a flower-pot, and 
place it upon a bracket nailed to the wall, near each of the prisoner's 
cell-doors. They did as they intended, and when they came to Greg's 
door they placed a rose-bush on the bracket for him. They thought 
that when he saw it, )ie would throw it away, or perhaps would not 
care for it. But they were mistaken, for when Greg returned from work 
he looked not a little surprised. He was much pleased and took it up 
Carefully. After looking at it for some time, he put it to his nose to 
smell it. He watered it before going to bed, and the next morning he 

did the same. The flower gave him much pleasure, and he loved to 

watch it, and it is said that he even talked to it as if it was a live 
creature. This little flower had much influence over him. for it made 
the strong man's heart grow softer to those around him, so that lie 
soon gained their hearts. His Ugliness was soon succeeded by smiles. 
Be became the verj !>cst prisoner. He cared more for his plant than 
for anything else. In the evening when he returned from his work 
before going into his cell for the night, he always took the plant with 

him, ami when he got up in the morning he would place it hack in its 
place on the liracke! before going to work. He never forgot to water it. 
Well, one day he was taken ill, and the keeper had him taken to the 
hospital. When asked what he wanted lie said, " My flow er.'' It was 
brought and placed on a stand near his bed. He took much pleasure 



49 

in watching it, and lie often kept his eyes on it for hours. One day he 
was much brightened to see a bud peeping out from among the leaves. 
But it was noticed that he could not get better, for the disease grew 
worse and worse every day. One day before Greg's nurse went out she 
placed the flower-pot in Greg's favorite place on the stand near the bed 
where he could look at it. The bud was half-blossonied when she left 
the room. In a few hours she returned, and found the bud in full bloom ; 
she went up to the bed to call Greg, but received no answer. She spoke 
louder this time, saying, "Greg, Greg," but still no answer. When 
she touched his hand, she was frightened to find him dead, it was so 
cold. Thus died the once hearddiearted Greg, with his left hand on 
his head which was still full of gray lrairs, and his right hand around 
his favorite tlower-pot. This story shows that even little flowers can 
influence haicbhearted men to become good and kind. F. McQ. 

(Deaf at five years. At school five years. 13 years old.) 



TERMS OF ADMISSION. 



I. The Asylum will provide for each pupil board, lodging, and wash- 
ing, the continual superintendence of health, conduct, manners, and 
morals, fuel, lights, stationery, «nd other incidental expenses of the 
school room, for which including Tuition, there will be an annual 
charge of one hundred and seventy-five dollars. 

II. In case of sickness the necessary extra charge will be made. 

III. No deduction from the above charge will be made on account 
oi vacation or absence — except in case of sickness. 

IV. Payments arc always to be made six months in advance, for the 
punctual fulfillment of which a satisfactory bond will be required. 

V. Each person applying for admission must be between the ages of 
EIGHT and TWENTY-FIVE years; must be of good natural intellect, 
capable of forming and joining letters with a pen legibly and correctly, 
free from any immoralities of conduct and from any contagious disease. 



Application for the benefit of the legislative appropriations in the 
States of Maine and New Hampshire should be made to the Secretaries 
of those States respectively — in Massachusetts to the Secretary of the 
Board of Education — in each case stating the name and age of the 
proposed beneficiary, and the circumstances of his parents or guardian. 
Applications as above in Vermont, Rhode Island, and Connecticut 
respectively, should be made to his Excellency, the Governor of the State. 
In all cases a certificate from two or more of the selectmen, magistrates, 
or other respectable inhabitants of the township or place to which the 
applicant belongs should accompany the application. 

Those applying for the admission of paying pupils may address their 
letters to the Principal of the Asylum, and on all the letters from him 
respecting the pupils postage will be charged. 

The time for admitting pupils is the second Wednesday of September, 
and at no other time in the year. Punctuality in this respect is very 
important, as it cannot be expected that the progress of a whole class 
should lie let allied on account of a pupil who joins it after its forma- 
tion. Such a pupil musl suffer the inconvenience and the loss. 

It is earnestly recommended to the friends of the deaf and dumb to 
have t In in taught to write a lair and legible hand before they come to 



51 

the Asylum. This can easily he done, and it. prepares them to make 
more rapid improvement. 

When a pupil is sent, to the Asylum, unless accompanied by a parent 
or some friend who can give the necessary information concerning him, 
he should bring a written statement embracing specifically the following 
particulars: 

1. The name in full. 

2. Post-office address and correspondent. 

3. Day, month, and year of birth. 

4. Cause of deafness. 

5. Names of the parents. 

G. Names of the children in the order of their age. 

7. Were the parents related before marriage? If so, how? 

8. Has the pupil deaf-mute relatives? If so, what? 

The pupil should be well clothed — that is, he should have both sum- 
mer and winter clothing enough to last one year, and should be furnished 
with a list of the various articles, each of which should be marked. A 
small sum of money — not less than five dollars — should also be deposited 
with the Steward of the Asylum for the personal expense of the pupil 
not otherwise provided for. 

Packages of clothing or boxes sent by express will reach the pupils 
safely. EST* The express charges, should in all cases be pi^aid.^j^ 

Careful attention to these suggestions is quite important. 

There is but one vacation in the year. It begins in the last Wednesday 
of June and closes on the second Wednesday of September. It is 
expected that the pupils will spend the vacation at home. This arrange- 
ment is as desirable for the benefit of the pupils, who need the recreation 
and change of scene, as for the convenience of the Institution, thus 
affording opportunity for the necessary painting, cleansing, etc. The 
present facilities for travel enable most of the pupils to reach home on 
the evening of the day they leave Hartford. Every pupil is expected 
to return punctually at the opening of the school on the second Wednes- 
day of September. 

On the day of the commencement of the vacation an officer of the 
Asylum will accompany such pupils as are to travel on the railroads be- 
tween Hartford and Boston, taking care of them and their baggage, on 
condition that their friends will make timely provision for their expenses 
on the way, and engage to meet them immediately on the. arrival of the 
early train at various points on the route previously agreed on and at, 
the station of the Boston & Albany Railroad in Boston. A similar 
arrangement is made on the Connecticut River Railroad as far as 
White River Junction. No person will be sent from the Asylum to 
accdmpany the pupils on their return, but in their fare is paid and their 
trunks arc checked to Hartford, it will be safe to send them in charge 
of the conductor. 



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H&afysof A , «07/!rf(Hulo:-.]i<'flH.>c.iii,HHlliRooiLiB-WeJer Closet.) 



THE 



FIFTY-SEVENTH ANNUAL REPORT 



OK THE 



OFFICERS 



OF THE 



Retreat for the Insane, 



HARTFORD, CONN., 



April, 1881. 



HARTFORD, CONN.: 

PRESS OF THE CASE, LOCKWOOD & BRAINARD COMPANY. 

1881. 



OFFIOEES 

OF THE 

RETREAT FOR THE INSANE, 

FOR THE YEAR 1881. 



WILLIAM It. CONE, President. 
CALVIN DAY, Vice-President. 
THOMAS SISSON, Treasurer. 
WM. F. TUTTLE, Auditor. 
JONATHAN B. B UNCE, Secretary. 

DIRECTORS CHOSEN AT TnE ANNUAL MEETING. 

CALVIN DAY, F. B. COOLEY, 

HORATIO E. DAY, CHARLES M. BEACH, 

GURDON W. RUSSELL, GEORGE W. MOORE, 

E. K. HUNT, NATHANIEL SI1IPMAN, 

JAMES L. HOWARD, THOMAS SISSON, 

THOMAS SMITH, J. C. JACKSON, 

GEORGE P. BISSELL, JOS. R. HAWLEY, 

MARK HOWARD, WM. F. TUTTLE, 

J. B. BUNCE, RODNEY DENNIS, 

G. M. BARTHOLOMEW, THOMAS O. ENDERS. 

MANAGERS. 

WILLIAM R. CONE, iEtna Bank. 
CALVIN DAY, 73 Asylum Street. 
GURDON W. RUSSELL, 490 Main Street. 



HENRY P. STEARNS, M.D., Physician and Superintendent. 

CHARLES W. PAGE, M.D., Assistant Physician. 

H. S. NOBLE, M.D., Junior Assistant Physician. 

Rev. WM. THOMPSON, D.D., Chaplain. 

Rev. GEO. E. SANBORNE, Steward. 

Mrs. GEO. E. SANBORNE, Matron. 

Miss HARRIET E. BACON, Supervisor. 

J. M. EVANS, Clerk: 



VISITING COMMITTEE. 



DIRECTORS. 

1879. June, Messrs. SHIPMAN, BUNCE, HAWLEY, BEACH. 

July, " H. E. DAY, SISSON, J. L. HOWARD, JACKSON. 

Aug., " SMITH, BISSELL, M. HOWARD, MOORE. 

Sept., " COOLEY, ENDERS, BARTHOLOMEW, DENNIS. 

Oct., " SHIPMAN, BUNCE, HAWLEY, BEACH. 

Nov, " H. E. DAY, SISSON, J. L. HOWARD, TUTTLE. 

Dec, " SMITH, BISSELL, M. HOWARD, MOORE. 

1880. Jan., " JACKSON, ENDERS, BARTHOLOMEW, DENNIS. 
Feb., " SHIPMAN, BUNCE, HAWLEY, REACH. 

March, " II. E. DAY, SISSON, J. L. HOWARD, COOLEY. 
April, " SMITH, BISSELL, M. HOWARD, MOORE, TUTTLE. 
May, " JACKSON, ENDERS, BARTHOLOMEW, DENNIS. 

MEDICAL VISITORS. 

E. K. HUNT, M.D., LEWIS WILLIAMS, M.D , 

GURDON W. RUSSELL, M.D., FRANCIS BACON, M.D., 
P. M. HASTINGS, M.D., GEORGE L. PORTER, M.D. 

VISITING COMMITTEE OF LADIES. 

Mrs. WM. R. CONE, Mrs. THOMAS SMITH, 

Mrs. CALVIN DAY, Mrs. P. M. HASTINGS, 

Mrs. F. B. COOLEY, Mrs. THOMAS SISSON, 

Mrs. J. II. SPRAGUE. 



THE FIFTY-SEVENTH REPORT 



OF THE 



BOARD OF MANAGERS 



TO THE 



BOARD OF DIRECTORS OF THE RETREAT FOR THE INSANE. 
APRIL, 1881. 



The year now closed presents no features of unusual importance 
to be reported. The Asphalt walk along the eastern driveway 
mentioned in our last report has been completed. The only other- 
work upon the Retreat grounds has been the erection and fur- 
nishing of the new cottage by I. Luther Spencer, Esq., of Suf- 
field, Connecticut, for the occupancy of his daughter. It has 
been completed and furnished in accordance with instructions 
received from the Board of Directors, and has for some months 
been occupied by the young lady for whose accommodation and 
comfort it was built. The cottage consists of six rooms, with a 
piano for her use and amusement, and otherwise appropriately 
furnished, all at the expense of the father, in which his afflicted 
and invalid daughter finds a home, architecturally beautiful, with 
delightful surroundings and a pleasant outlook across our exten- 
sive lawn, to which it is an attractive addition. It is hoped that 
this effort and expenditure, so liberally made, may contribute to 
the comfort and restoration of this patient for whom it wag 
specially provided. 

Heretofore the Retreat has been dependent for its ice supply 



6 

upon ice procured at various places, where we have been able 
to obtain it. At times it has been very difficult to obtain a suffi- 
cient supply of a satisfactory quality. In view of this, the 
Board of Managers have caused Tan ice pond to be constructed, 
supplied with an abundance of pure water from the copious 
spring upon the farm where the pond is located, and which 
has this winter and will at all times hereafter supply the institu- 
tion with an abundance of the purest ice. 

During the year, a legacy to the Retreat, under the will of Mrs. 
Anne E. P. Sever of Boston, of $5,000, has been received, 
which to that extent has increased the charitable resources of the 
institution. Mrs. Sever well knew the wants of the institution, 
its charitable work, having among her own friends seen and ex- 
perienced its benefits, and she has thus, in her gratitude and sym- 
pathy, of her substance, provided for the destitute insane sufferer. 
An imitation of her kind and timely gift by others, who of their 
abundance might aid in this excellent charity, would furnish the 
means of restoring many an insane patient to reason and useful- 
ness, and aid the Retreat in the accomplishment of its mission of 
good. "We ask this aid in behalf of our suffering and destitute 
fellow-men. In this connection we can not omit to refer again to 
the persistent effort there is on the part of persons and parties to 
create the impression that the managers of the Retreat are paid 
for their services, and we again reiterate what has so often been 
stated in our reports, that since its organization in 1823 the man- 
agement of the Retreat has been wholly and absolutely gratuitous. 

Again an effort has been made to impose upon this charity the 
burthen of taxation and to the extent of that burthen to diminish 
our ability to provide for the care and restoration of such insane 
patients as have no other means of securing the benefits of the 
institution. But we are happy to report its failure, and after the 
long, patient, protracted and full hearing, which we have had be- 
fore the Board of Relief upon this subject, we can not but hope 
thai all the parties will cordially and cheerfully acquiesce in the 
results, and that to the utmost extent of our resources no patient 



unable to pay will have to be refused, by reason of our own ina- 
bility to aid in his restoration in consequence of taxation. 

The management of the institution has met our full approval, 
and all its employers are entitled to our commendation. 

During the year, Mrs. Page, the wife of Dr. Charles W. Page, 
our assistant physician, who, in 1874, became an inmate of 
the Retreat family, and for several years has labored under a 
pulmonary affection, has died. Though Mrs. Page was in no wise 
actively engaged in the management of the affairs of the institu- 
tion, yet we knew her worth and bear this testimony to her 
devotion to her family, to her cheerful, pleasant and happy associa- 
tion with the patients, her patient endurance during her years of 
suffering, to her Christian character and her abiding hope, as her 
end approached. 

Her death occurred at the Retreat, from which her funeral was 
attended, the services being conducted by the chaplain, assisted by 
the Rev. E. P. Parker, the pastor of the South Church, which she 
attended. It is worthy of record that no other like event has ever 
taken place at the Retreat buildings since its first organization. 
By order of the Board, 

WILLIAM R. CONE, Chairman. 



EEPOET OF THE MEDICAL VISITORS. 



To the Directors of the Retreat for the Insane : 

The Medical Visitors would respectfully report : 

That they have, as heretofore, made monthly visits to the Re- 
treat; and, as our examinations have generally been made at 
irregular, unexpected periods, we believe that in this way we 
have become practically acquainted with the every-day work of 
the institution. 

Few instances of the use of restraining appliances have been 
noted, and these, upon investigation, have been amply justified 
on the part of the officers. "We are, by personal observation, 
assured that harsh or unkind treatment of patients by attendants 
is exceedingly rare, and never countenanced by the officials of the 
Retreat. 

In examining the halls, dining and private rooms, we are 
pleased to notice that "neatness and good order are always con- 
spicuous. 

We have also noticed a special desire on the part of officers 
and attendants to provide for the needs of patients, physically as 
well as mentally. Even more attention than in previous years 
has been bestowed upon the occupation and amusement of the 
inmates, and has been productive of great benefit. 

Our quarterly visits, more especially, have been principally 
occupied in hearing fancied grievances on the part of pa- 
tients. Full liberty has always been given for such complaints, 
and the visitors have patiently listened. Every facility has been 
afforded by the officers of the institution to enable us to make 
thorough investigation in all such cases, and we have thus formed 



10 

independent opinions. We have always given our results to the 
superintendent, and in some instances, where it seemed proper, to 
the patient. Our conclusions have been received kindly, and we 
have reason to believe have benefited both officers and patients. 

E. K. HUNT, M.D.. 
GURDON W. RUSSELL, M.D., 
P. M. HASTINGS, M.D., 
LEWIS WILLIAMS, M.D., 
FRANCIS BACON, M.D.. 
GEORGE S. PORTER, M.D. 



REPORT OF THE SUPERINTENDENT. 



To the Board of Directors of the Retreat for the Insane : 

Gentlemen — I have the honor herewith to submit the 
fifty-seventh annual report of the Retreat. 

On the 31st of March, 1880, the whole number in the Number of 

patients. 

Retreat was, of males, sixty-eight ; of females, seventy- 
five ; total, one hundred and forty-three. 

The admissions during the year have been, of males, Admissions, 
sixty ; of females, fifty-four ; total, one hundred and 
fourteen. 

The discharges have been, of males, sixty-two ; of Discharges, 
females, fifty-three; total, one hundred and fifteen. 

The deaths during the same period have been, of males, Deaths, 
sixteen; of females, seven; total, twenty- three. 

The whole number under treatment during the year Whole number 
has been, of males, one hundred and twenty-eight ; of 
females, one hundred and twenty-nine ; total, two hun- 
dred and fifty-seven. 

The number in the Retreat on the 31st of March, 1S81, m ^"r 
is, of males, sixty-six ; of females, seventy-six ; total, one 
hundred and forty-two. 

Dunns; the Retreat-year of 1879 and '80, the admis character of 

° J Admissions. 

sions were nearly one-fourth larger than during the year 
next preceding, which was due chiefly to our increased 
accommodations. This year, it will be observed, they 
have been still more numerous, being more than during 
any year since my connection with the Retreat. If the 
accommodations had been still larger, we should have 
been able to receive and care for many whom we have 



12 

been obliged to refuse, as in past years. This, however, 
will be changed during this year, as the increased accom- 
modations at Middletown will doubtless be sufficient for 
all who may be entitled to treatment there, while we shall 
probably have room to spare. 

In seventy-eight, or more than sixty-eight per cent, of 
the one hundred and fourteen admissions, the history, as 
presented by friends, indicated that there had been no 
previous attack; in sixteen, there had been one; in four, 
two; in one, eight; while in thirteen cases it was not 
positively known how many previous attacks there had 
been, but certainly a very considerable number, during 
which these persons had been treated in other institutions. 

Thirty-seven of the number were past fifty years of age, 
while only three were under twenty, and seventeen were 
over sixty. Of those whose disease was due to the exces- 
sive use of alcohol, one and possibly two may indulge 
some expectation of a recovery. 

In an unusually large number, during the last year, the 
form of disease has been one of excitement. During the 
years of '78 and "79, the numbers of the depressed and 
melancholic were greater than of the excited, while this 
year the latter class has doubled the former in num. 
bers. The form of excitement has also been extremely 
acute and persistent, in an unusually large number; and 
the disease had passed far towards the stage of exhaus- 
tion before the cases were received. This has necessi- 
tated an unusually large number of attendants, in order 
to secure efficient care and nursing, and also an unusual 
amount of highly-concreted and nourishing food and 
stimulants. Contrary to the usual experience of the Re- 
treat, the number of admissions from males has been 
greater than from females. I believe this has been the 
case in five years only, during the last twenty-six. 

Among those admitted there have been twenty persons 



13 



who had previously been in the Retreat one or more 
times. Of this number, fourteen— eight males and six 
females— had been discharged as recovered, and six- 
four males and two females-had been discharged as not 
recovered. All the admissions refer to persons, and not 
to cases merely, no one having been admitted more than 
once during the year. The daily average has been eleven 
more than last year. 

I herewith subjoin the usual table exhibiting the form 
of disease, as far as could be ascertained from the con- 
ditions existing and from the history presented by friends, 
in those admitted: 



Males. 



Congenital Insanity 

Puerperal 

Climacteric 

Syphilitic 

Epileptic 

Senile " 

Traumatic 

Ovarian 

Idiopathic ' 

Insanity of Alcoholism 

■• Adolescence 

" from Brain Disease. . . 

'• " Opium 

" •■ Sunstroke 

Unknown 

Folie Circitlaire ... 

Insanity of General Paralysis. 



6 
4 

4 

i 

20 
2 



Females. Total. 



1 
1 

10 
1 
1 
1 
1 
1 

10 
1 
1 



22 
1 
1 



60 



54 



2 
1 

16 
2 
2 
6 
2 
1 

IS 
7 
5 
4 
1 
1 

42 
3 
1 



114 



There have been of recoveries during the year thirty -six, Recoveries 
eighteen of each sex. Of this number thirty, fourteen 
males and sixteen females, had no previous recovery- 
record, while of the remainder, one female had had four, 
one male and female, each, had had three; and three 
males had each been twice discharged as recovered. The 
two females, one with three and the other with four 
recoveries, are of that class referred to in former reports, 
who are likely to be residents off and on for years in 
some asylum, being alternately in a comparatively 



14 

healthy, or excited condition. The case of this class 
referred to in my Report last year as having contributed 
thirteen to our record of recoveries during the last twenty- 
five years has, so far, remained in a very good degree of 
health at her own home. 

The recoveries, as will be observed, have been rather more 
than thirty per cent, of all admissions, and something less 
than fifty per cent, of the number of first admissions. This 
coincides pretty nearly with our history in this respect 
during the last few years. Of course the ratio of recoveries 
as well as that of deaths will depend largely upon the char- 
acter of the diseases and the ages of the persons received; 
also upon the length of time the disease had existed, and 
upon the degree with which it has affected the system. 
These conditions will necessarily vary somewhat from year 
to year, and thus affect more or less the history of our 
operations in this respect. Persons in whom the disease 
has existed for several years, or who have experienced 
several attacks, or persons beyond sixty years of age, or 
again those affected with organic disease of the nervous 
system, rarely recover, and consequently when any of these 
characters of disease largely prevail the percentage of re- 
coveries becomes less. That, in an increasing number of 
cases, the insanity is dependent upon organic change in 
the cells, connective fibres, blood-vessels of the brain and 
spinal cord, I think there can be no doubt. This would 
indicate changed conditions and habits of society, and a 
neglect to either understand or practice such hygienic 
regulations as are necessary for mental health to a much 
larger extent than prevailed twenty years ago. When 
these conditions and laws shall be more fully understood 
by the great body of the common people, when they are 
made a part of the public education, as presented in 
periodicals, newspapers and school-books, so thai all who 
run may read and comprehend them, we may look for a 



15 

diminution of the numbers and an amelioration in the 
character of the disease of those who now resort to 
asylums for treatment. 

There have been discharged as improved, seventeen, improved 
How many of these will ultimately recover it is impos- 
sible to say, but fair to presume that some of them will. 
Thirty have been discharged as stationary. Some of them 
have been removed to their homes by friends under 
the impression that they will never recover, and therefore 
treatment in an asylum is useless, while others have been 
removed to State asylums with the view of economy. 

The percentage of deaths has been a little higher than Deaths, 
it was last year (8.94), and is as high as in any year of 
the last seven. Of the twenty-three persons who have 
died, more than one-third were past sixty years of age; 
and more than half died from organic changes in the 
nervous system; while five of the others died within ten 
days after their admission. One of these was the case of 
an unfortunate woman, who was brought to the Retreat 
bound hands and feet, with cords about the wrists and 
ankles, which had been so firmly applied and left in posi- 
tion for so long a time that they had actually worn into 
the flesh, and so far impeded the circulation that mortifi- 
tion had begun. Yet this patient was entirely quiet, and 
when the cords had been removed, a bath given, and she 
was placed in a comfortable bed, expressed as well as she 
was able in her exhausted condition her thanks for what 
had been so kindly done for her. All efforts to rally the 
sinking strength failed, and she died after a few days of 
comfortable quiet, expressing to the last her gratitude for 
the kindness shown to her. 

This year much less has been expended in the way of improvemeuts. 
permanent improvements than last year. The concrete 
walk, a portion of which was built last year, has been 
completed, and extends around the whole lawn, a distance 



!6 

of three-fourths of a mile. A walk of similar character 
has also been built, extending from this, in two directions, 
to the new cottage, and the grounds have been graded in 
the vicinity. 

During past years we have been obliged to cut and 
bring our ice from a pond located on Cedar Hill, a dis- 
tance of something like two miles. , Last autumn we 
constructed an embankment some eight feet in height on 
the lower portion of our pasture at the farm, by means of 
which we have a pond covering something like three- 
fourths of an acre. It is supplied with water from two or 
three springs, which are located on the slope above, and, 
during the past winter, our ice-house has been filled with 
ice cut from it. We have to bring it only about 
one-third the distance we formerly did, and it costs us 
nothing. 

About one-half mile length of fence, which had become 
useless at the farm, has been replaced with new, during 
the year. I would call your special attention to the dilap- 
idated condition of the old barns and piggery at the farm, 
and suggest the importance of new buildings located 
further from the street, a plan for which is herewith sub- 
mitted . 

A large amount of steam-pipe has been necessary in 
supplying the place of that worn out on both wings of the 
building, and a new line of return-pipe has been intro- 
duced, by means of which we expect to be able to dis- 
pense with the use of one boiler during the summer 
months. Eight new bath-tubs have been supplied, during 
the year, in place of old ones worn out; and a considera- 
ble sum has been expended in painting and repairs, so 
that the general condition of the Retreat is as good in all 
respects as at any time in the past. 



17 

In former years I have taken it for granted that some- Caueea of 

Ineiinitj. 
thing pertaining either directly or indirectly to the sub- 
ject of insanity, other than the usual dry details which 
cover the operations of the Retreat during the year, would 
be considered by your honorable Board, as coming with- 
in the province of such a Report as this. Following the 
plan hitherto adopted, I propose to present some consid- 
erations of a somewhat general character in reference to 
some of the causes of insanity and its management. 
As this report is likely to be read by a considerable num- 
ber of those who have only the most indefinite views con- 
cerning those causes which operate so potently in this 
direction, perhaps I can not do better than to present the 
details of two or three cases which have come under 
observation during the past year as preliminary to more 
general remarks. 

Mrs. M., aged forty-four years, the mother of eight chil- 
dren, was admitted to the Retreat in the month of January, 
affected with acute mania. The husband, when asked if 
he could suggest any cause or causes of her illness, ex- 
claimed with much animation that he could not conceive 
of any reason why she had become ill: "Her is a most 
domestic woman; is always doing something for her chil- 
dren; her is always at work for us all; never goes out of 
the house, even to the church on Sunday; her never goes 
gadding about at the neighbors' houses, or talking from 
one to another; her always had the boots blacked in the 
morning; her has been one of the best of wives and 
mothers, and was always at home." 

This appreciative husband could hardly have furnished 
a more graphic delineation of the causes of his poor wife's 
illness if he had understood them never so thoroughly. 
I allude to the case as a type of many, and to the hus- 
band's statement as evincing how thoroughly ignorant 
many people, who are thrifty in worldly matters, may 
2 



18 

be as to the primary conditions of mental health. This 
woman's utter disregard of the simplest laws of health 
had rendered her in her husband's eyes chief among 
women ; had raised her so high on the pedestal of house- 
wifery that he could not conceive how it was possible 
for such a model of excellence ever to become insane. 
If, however, she had committed a few of the sins which 
were so heinous in her husband's sight; if she had gos- 
siped more, if she had broken away from the spell of 
husband and children, forced herself from that ceaseless 
round of household care and duty; if she had taken her- 
self out of doors, and into the pure air and sunshine of 
heaven, even at the expense of much tattle and large 
gossip, and, if need be, at the expense of less cleanly 
floors and boots, and an occasional tear in her husband's 
shirt, or children's frocks, the probabilities are largely 
indicative that she would never have come to the Retreat. 
insane. 

This case, so homely in its presentation, is one repre- 
sentative of many, especially of those who live in the 
countiy portions of New England, a little more pro- 
nounced in character perhaps, and a little more exaggera- 
ted in detail, but nevertheless it exhibits how insensibly 
and slowly operate many of the influences which ulti- 
mately land victims in institutions for the insane. The 
current of thought and care have gone on day after day, 
and month after month, from early morning until late at 
night in one ceaseless round; wakeful and anxious often 
for children sick, for children to be clothed and fed and 
schooled, anxious in reference to the thousand and one 
household cares that never lift from the brain of such 
a mother; with no intellectual or social world outside 
the dark walls, and many times illy-ventilated rooms oJ 
own house; with no range of thought on outside ma1 
with no one to interpose or even to understand the danger, 



19 

no books to read, or if she had no time to read them, 
in short, no vision for time or eternity beyond one un- 
ending contest with cooking and scrubbing and mending, 
what wonder that the poor brain succumbs ! The wonder, 
rather, is that it continues in working order so long as it 
does, without becoming utterly wrecked. More fresh air, 
more change, more holidays; more reading, more gos- 
siping, more of almost anything to break the spell which 
so holds these poor women, and lead their minds in pas- 
tures more green, and by rivers of less stagnant and bit- 
ter waters. 

But this class of causes does not operate alone in the 
case of housewives, or with those who do physical labor. 
They produce their effects no less surely in the case of 
men engaged in intellectual pursuits. 

The Rev. D. S. S. was admitted during the last year to 
the Retreat, and his case presents a good illustration. 
Born of healthy parents, and inheriting a strong, vigorous 
body and mind, he should have lived in health until three- 
score and ten; instead, he is now a mental wreck, and in 
all probability will always remain so. He graduated after 
close application in college, with a high stand in scholar- 
ship, studied theology with much zeal under instructors 
eminent in attainments, and entered the ministry with a 
high ambition. Loving books, and writing most carefully 
his sermons, he felt the need of nothing outside his daily 
and weekly duties, which he followed for years with little 
or no change. If his brain had been constructed of 
tougher material, if his imagination had been less bril- 
liant, he might have gone on for years without danger, 
but, as the case stood with him, the very fineness of his 
brain organization only hastened the time when it should 
become worthless. By his ignorance and consequent dis- 
regard of the simplest laws of mental health, which abso- 
lutely demand change and variety more urgently than any 



20 

other portion of the system, he followed in the long line 
of hosts of other men who have had a similar organization. 

Another clergyman, the causes of whose illness were 
of a similar nature, has left the Retreat recovered within 
the last year. I might refer to the case of a lawyer, a 
man somewhat eminent in his profession, and for many 
years a judge, who, when his brain began to flag, and 
loiter amid the somewhat intricate mazes of his studies 
and practice, thought to goad it on to still further and 
greater effort by the use of stimulants, rather than by 
change and rest. The issue of such a course could but be 
plain, and certain, and not far off. 

And these are educated men! If such things are done 
in the green tree, what shall be done in the dry ? 

These cases are sad enough, and when we remember 
how many there are every year, which arise in the midst 
of the ceaseless whirl and throb of the hurrying and con- 
testing forces of our modern mode of life; when we 
remember how many young men and women are, every 
year, thrust out into combat with these conditions, with 
no preparation save such a smattering of books as they 
may be able to get, while under the parental care, at the 
common school; when we remember how many come 
into the world inheriting a nervous system weak and 
depressed from experiences and habits of parents, it 
should not surprise us that diseases of the nervous system 
are on the increase. In my opinion they will continue to 
increase until society learns more definitely and fully the 
laws which govern mental health. That the prospect of 
this, however, is not very immediate, I think may be 
inferred from the two following extracts, which are taken 
from articles which have recently appeared in leading 
periodicals. 

'■Asylums, constructed and furnished at an expense 
unparalleled in the world, and consigned to the almost 



21 

absolute control of asylum doctors and trustees, have 
utterly failed to check the disease. * * * Tear by year. 
since their completion, insanity has more frequently 
blighted our children, more broadly stricken middle life, 
more irresistibly tended to become chronic, more rapidly 
and certainly carried its victims to the grave."* 

" Once it was thought that lunatic hospitals would do a 
great deal to check insanity, but in this the public has 
been disappointed. While many recoveries and deaths 
are reported every year, still this unfortunate class in- 
creases more and more. The census of 1870 afforded 
positive proof that the insane. in Massachusetts increased 
there faster than the population; there is no doubt but 
the census of 1880 will show a still greater increase. It 
is very evident, if the disease is to be checked, resort 
must be had to other agencies than lunatic hospitals to 

doit."f 

That any intelligent and highly-educated person should 
for one moment suppose that any number of hospitals, 
erected for the care and treatment of the insane, would 
"check" the progress of the disease, unless insanity is 
contagious, is certainly remarkable enough; but that a 
physician, and one who has long held the position of 
a writer on this and other subjects pertaining to disease 
should so far forget the first principles of his profession 
as to write such a paragraph as the above is indeed aston- 
ishing. That some persons, in the early days of hospitals 
for the insane, whose knowledge of the subject was lim- 
ited to the few cases which had, perhaps, been confined in 
some out-houses in the neighborhood, or left to wander 
about the country, the objects of jests and ridicule, should 
have supposed that, if they were sent to hospitals for care 

* Dcrman B. Eaton, North American Review, March, 1S81. 
t Nathan Allen, M.D., LL.D. The Sanitarian. 



22 

or cure, there would somehow follow such beneficent re- 
sults as to prevent others from becoming insane, is quite 
possible; but that the fact that this has not been the re- 
sult should be considered of sufficient importance, by the 
Commissioner of Public Education and an ex-Commis- 
sioner in lunacy for a great State, to be advanced as a 
kind of accusation against or semi-condemnation of the 
whole system — hospitals, physicians, and trustees — is, per- 
haps, curious enough to warrant attention. 

It is not, however, easy to understand what any number 
of hospitals could effect towards diminishing the causes of 
insanity, or those of any other disease, and, to us, it would 
seem no more unreasonable to suppose that the erection of 
costly hospitals for the cancerous, or the phthisical, or for 
persons affected with rheumatism, would check these dis- 
eases. If every insane person who shall be sent to hospitals 
during the next year should recover, there would be an 
equal number to take their places, and more than an equal 
number; and, besides, it is a general rule, with few excep- 
tions, that persons who have once passed through the 
experience of a severe illness never are in quite as perfect 
a state of health afterwards, and, in reference to insanity, 
this is especially true. Every one who has once been af- 
fected is more likely to be so again; so that the very fact 
that from thirty to fifty per cent, of the insane recover 
once renders the probability of larger numbers hereafter 
probable. 

The only way, therefore, in which hospitals for the in- 
sane, or for those with any form of disease, not contagi- 
ous, could "check" the number of cases which occur and 
call for treatment, would be by having the deaths equal 
the admissions. In this way there would be no re- 
admissions. This method would be efficient, without 
doubt, hut the probabilities are that such results were not 



23 



those anticipated by the persons who sought to care for 
this unfortunate class of the community, by the erection 
of hospitals. 

The truth is, that insanity, and every other form of 
disease, exists as a consequence of the violations of the 
laws of health, either directly or indirectly (or from other 
influences over which persons can have little or no con- 
trol), and so long as people press on regardless of these 
laws, or in ignorance of them, so long will they suffer the 
penalties therefor. 

There is, however, this difference between the causes of 
insanity and those of many other forms of disease, that 
they are more slow in their progress and more insidious 
in their operation; they more often reach back of the in- 
dividual himself to the conduct and experiences of long 
lines of ancestors, so that a very large per cent, of those 
affected with it come into the world with the taint in- 
grained in the texture of the brain at the start. 

Nevertheless, to others than physicians, it might seem 
that those who have for years made insanity a study 
should have some definite measures of prevention to be 
imparted to those eagerly waiting for them. The sub- 
ject, however, is a many-sided one, and grave, if not in- 
surmountable, difficulties surround it. 

Yet it would not be the part of wisdom to sit with folded 
arms, or consume our energies in attempts to realize these 
difficulties; nor must we be content, as heretofore, to too 
large an extent, with efforts to care for the presence of 
the disease, but rather press forward in the line of effort to 
discover, if possible, the principles of mental hygiene, and 
aid in their introduction to practice in society. 

I take it for granted that the articles from which the 
above extracts are taken, unsatisfactory as they are in 
many respects, as also other writings which have recently 
appeared in medical and literary journals, are indications 
that the importance of this subject, in the preventive as- 



24 

pects of it, is beginning to impress itself upon the public 
as well as upon the professional mind. There can be no 
doubt that heretofore there has been too little interest on 
the part of both; a too great readiness to keep at a dis- 
tance and leave the whole matter in the hands of the few ; 
there has too long existed an apathy in reference to as- 
certaining those conditions of the nervous system which 
underlie the prevalence of the disease, and systematic 
efforts to avoid them. While recognizing the claims 
which those who are so unfortunate as to lose their rea- 
son have upon the public; while a most generous readi- 
ness to respond in the way of lavish expenditure of money 
in providing for their care has been manifest, yet, we 
must recognize the fact that there has in this country 
been done very little towards aiding society to understand 
and avoid such errors of conduct, in reference to educa- 
tion in its broadest sense, and such abuses growing out of 
the common customs and habits of life as render the 
nervous system more liable to disease. While so gener- 
ously acting in the former line of procedure, it would 
have been large economy not to have neglected the latter. 
Prevention is the watchword which is being signaled all 
along the line of the medical profession to-day concerning 
the management of diseases. State boards of health have 
been appointed in many of the larger States, which yearly 
issue volumes, containing more or less full accounts as to 
the results of observations made in reference to the prev- 
alence of diseases and the public health. 
Bo Ik of A national board has also been appointed for similar 

purposes. I would suggest the importance of appointing 
on such boards one or more physicians, who are qualified 
for such a position, whose special duty it shall be to as- 
certain the prevalence of such conditions as conduce to 
the production of mental disease, and that the public have 
the benefit of such observations and conclusions as they 



heaiih. 



25 



may be able to make. That such persons, so appointed, 
and operating in conjunction with the superintendents of 
public institutions, would be able to accomplish a most 
interesting and highly valuable work, in reference to the 
conduct of education, in our public schools, and in educa- 
ting the public mind in inference to those habits of Life 
which are at variance with mental health, I have no 
doubt; and I have as little doubt that a generous expendi- 
ture of money for such a purpose would, in the end, provo 
to be the wisest economy. That there exists the necessity 
for some such action on the part of the public, if we are 
to do anything efficient for staying the progress of mental 
disease, there can be no doubt. 

It is not necessary in this place to discuss the much 
mooted question as to whether the increase of insanity 
is real or only apparent; the fact is patent enough that 
with all our endeavors, and lavish expenditures, we fail 
to provide suitable accommodations for the large num- 
bers who require them; the fact is patent enough that 
those conditions of society which tend to the production 
of nervous disease are more and more increasing year 
by year, while it is equally true that little has been 
done towards understanding and preventing these con- 
ditions. That they pertain more especially to the methods 
and conduct of modern civilization is proved by the fact 
that they are limited to no one locality or country. 

From the last Report of the Board of Commissioners in 
Lunacy for England, we learn that there has been a con- 
siderably uniform increase in the numbers of the pauper 
insane in England during the last twelve or fifteen years, 
and this, notwithstanding the fact that the number of this 
class of persons has diminished nearly one-half within 
that time, and also the fact that in no country in the 
world has there existed a broader charity in the methods 
of providing and caring for those who have become insane. 



26 

I think it is apparent, therefore, that if we are to do 
much of actual service in the cause of the insane beyond 
what is now being done, we must enter on some other 
and more radical measures than have been heretofore 
adopted. It will not suffice to abuse or ridicule present in- 
stitutions and appliances, or try to bring them into public 
contempt, at least until we have something better to sub- 
stitute in their place. Tt will not avail to endeavor to 
create public distrust, and thereby encourage the rendi- 
tion of large numbers of the poor insane to the miserable 
keeping of alms-houses and county poor-houses. It is not 
readily perceived how very much in the way of advance 
in this cause is to be made by intimations that those who 
have the care of institutions and of the insane are in- 
competent, at least while institutions are months without 
superintendents, nor tuntil it is apparent that others more 
competent are ready to assume such positions; nor do I 
perceive how it will avail much towards lessening the 
numbers of the insane to appoint boards of visitors com- 
posed of persons who know practically or theoretically 
little or nothing concerning the subject of insanity, whose 
duty it shall be to visit institutions, converse with patients, 
and report upon their management. 

I believe it will be necessary to go deeper, and lay 
broader foundations; let there be added to the State 
boards, as a beginning in this direction, persons who have 
made highest attainments in the study of nerve-degener- 
ation and its causes, those who have had largest success 
in the study and management of mental diseases; let 
there be compensation sufficient to secure such talent, and 
we may hope for results which will return a large per 
cent, of interest in the way of prevention. Such persons 
only, can speak with authority, can have influence with 
school-teachers and school-boards and public officers. 
They, more perfectly and surely than any others, can point 



27 

out the dangers which lie in methods of present manage- 
ment in educating and preparing the young for the duties 
and responsibilities of life. Such persons only, can wisely 
direct in laying the broadest and most secure foundations 
on which to rear the fabric of strong and vigorous mental 
health. 

One of the most important events which has occurred The Cottage. 
during the year has been the erection of a beautiful cot- 
tage on the southern portion of our lawn by the Hon. I. 
Luther Spencer of Suffield, Conn. It contains six rooms, 
a bath- room, kitchen and closets, and has a cellar of 
seven feet depth, extending under the entire building; 
also a piazza on three sides, to which one can pass from 
the three rooms of the first floor. From this piazza, the 
view in all directions is as delightful, I think, as that of 
any private residence in New England. The architect 
and builder, Mr. J. C. Mead, has certainly presented an 
admirable plan for such a building, and has done the work 
in a very faithful manner. The walls of the rooms have 
been painted, the cellar has been cemented, and water, gas, 
and steam-pipes have been introduced through the build- 
ing. Mr. Spencer has furnished the rooms throughout 
with appropriate furniture, and the cottage, in all respects, 
presents the appearance of a private residence. There 
are generally present in institutions of this kind a few 
patients who, during some period of their disease, at least, 
can be cared for with a larger degree of comfort and sat- 
isfaction to themselves, in such a residence as the above, 
than when associated in large halls with a considerable 
number of others. For such persons this beautiful and 
generous gift of Mr. Spencer will, I trust, proye a source 
of much comfort and satisfaction in the future. 

An under-ground passage-way from the Retreat to the 
cottage has been constructed in which are laid the steam, 
water and gas-pipes, and through which a small car passes 



28 



Periodicals. 



Religious ser- 
vices. 



to and fro, by means of which all food and dishes can be 
sent in either direction within a few seconds. A speaking- 
tube is also laid between the two buildings, so that com- 
munication is had as readily as if under one roof. 

It has given me much pleasure to be able in years past 
to acknowledge the reception of books, magazines, and 
newspapers, for the use and enjoyment of many of the 
patients, from a "Friend," whose modesty equals his 
generosity. This year he has presented books, the cost 
of which has been about one hundred and fifty dollars. 
He has contributed seventy dollars for music and musical 
appliances for an orchestra, and thirty dollars for our 
Fourth of July entertainment. He has distributed regu- 
larly, eight numbers of the Harpers', four of the Atlantic, 
three of the Scribner, two of Frank Leslie's Popular 
Monthly, and one each of Arthur's, Appleton, and Peter- 
son's; also six daily newspapers, and four weekly, besides 
in various other ways testifying his deep interest in and 
appreciation of charity-work done yearly by the Retreat. 

Thanks are also due two of our Directors, Mr. Mark How- 
ard, for fi fty dollars contributed for the purchase of pic- 
tures for the walls of the ladies' billiard -hall, which have 
added much to its attractiveness as a place of resort and 
enjoyment for those who are in a condition to go there; 
and to Mr. Geo. P. Bissell for five dollars for the same 
object; also to Mr. S. R. McNary for a large and conven- 
ient stepping-stone for use at our west-side entrance. 

Religious services have been conducted as usual during 
the year by our chaplain, the Rev. William Thompson, 
D.D., and have been attended by about the usual propor- 
tion of our patients. The Rev. W. F. Nichols of Christ 
Church, and the Rev. A. D. Miller of St. John's Church, 
both of this city, have officiated, conducting the exorcises 
with tht! Episcopal form of worship, several times. 

I desire to express my thanks to the Board of Medical 



29 

Visitors who have for many years so faithfully and effi- 
ciently discharged their duties in visiting every month, 
and inspecting the Retreat. Some of these gentlemen 
have come long distances, and, a part of the season, in 
inclement weather, and at no inconsiderable sacrifice of 
their private interests. They have thoroughly examined 
every portion of the institution in reference to hygienic 
conditions and all the appliances in use for the physical 
well-being and •comfort of the patients. They have also 
taken the requisite time, and frequently with much annoy- 
ance and inconvenience, to fully inform themselves as to 
the mental condition of those persons who have imagined 
they are wrongfully detained at the Retreat, and there- 
fore should be set at liberty. The general outcome of 
these examinations has, without exception, so far as I 
know, been favorable. When patients have had a full 
and free opportunity to converse with several physicians, 
not officially connected with the daily administration, and 
receive from them courteous and respectful attention, the 
effect has generally been good. If they have any con- 
siderable degree of reasoning power they can at least ap- 
preciate the disinterestedness of conclusions the nature of 
which is communicated by some member of the Board. 
I think that this has been the favorable result in an un- 
usual number of cases during the past year, and desire in 
this place to express my full appreciation of the value of 
their labors, as well as of the interest so generously mani- 
fested by the inconvenience necessarily incurred in their 
discharge. 

We have had our usual experience in reference to the Entertainments 
subject of entertainments, so far as they relate to the en- 
joyment and minister towards the recovery of patients. 
A good orchestra has been organized, from persons con- 
nected, in some capacity or other, with the institution, 
which, during the summer evenings, has provided musical 



30 

entertainments on the lawn, at which a large proportion 
of the patients could be present. They have also been 
able to contribute very essentially towards the pleasure of 
the assemblages in the Amusement Hall during the win- 
ter evenings. Dr. Page has had charge of the calisthenic 
exercises as during the year 1880. Having referred to 
the value and importance of this kind of exercise for pa- 
tients, in my last year's report. I need not do so this year 
further than to indicate that my appreciation of its good 
effects has in no degree changed. 

"We are under special obligations to the following- 
named persons, who have contributed in various ways 
towards providing entertainments for the patients dui'ing 
the past year. 

Mr. and Mrs. A. B. Bull, with Trinity College students, 
a burlesque, "Field of the Cloth of Gold;" Messrs. A. T. 
Mason and L. Washburn; Messrs. De Witt P. Preston, 
Edward J. Pearson, and Howard Fairbrother, and the 
Middletown General Hospital Company, for dramatic 
representations; Mr. E. N. Emmons, Mr. and Mrs. A H. 
Lyman, for assistance in music; Mr. Charles Rustemeyer, 
for use of carriages at various times; Mr. C. W. Hunting- 
ton and North Baptist Church Choir; Mr. Edmund Sev 
erns and his class of young pupils, for concerts; the 
Rev. W. L. Gage, D.D., for a lecture, and Mrs. Edna 
Chaffee Noble for readings at different times; the Hon. 
W. "W. Eaton and Mrs. J. H. Sprague for reading matter 
and books; the editors of The Connecticut Courant, The 
Connecticut Register, The Columbian Reqister, and The 
Philadelphia Telegraph, for copies of papers. 
Changes. Our history during the year in reference to changes 

among officers and employees has been similar to thai of 
last year. Our Second Assistant, Dr. George K. Welch, 
resigned his position, at the end of one year, for the pur- 
pose of entering on the general practice of medicine. He 



31 

has located in New Britain, and has the regards and best 
wishes of us all for his success in his new field of profes 
sional labor. Dr. H. S. Noble, who has had several years 
of extensive experience in the practice of medicine, now 
occupies the position of Second Assistant, and has shown 
much tact and skill in the discharge of his duties. Of 
attendants, two have been discharged for misdemeanors, 
and information has been sent to other asylums in New 
England. 

Gentlemen, 1 am reminded that more than seven years Thanks 
have passed since my appointment as Superintendent of 
the Retreat. With much doubt as to the wisdom of your 
selection, I hesitatingly accepted the position. That they 
have been seven years of much labor, anxiety, and care, I 
know; that they have been seven years of prosperity to 
the Retreat I think may be inferred from the condition 
which it presents to-day; that they have proved to be 
years of ministry in comfort and healing to many stricken 
brains and sorrowful hearts I hope has been apparent to 
all who have been familiar with the daily routine of our 
work. I desire to express my appreciation of the confi- 
dence manifested in me by the Board of Directors during 
these years, and the readiness with which such sugges- 
tions as I have had to propose have been acted upon. 

To my assistants, Drs. Page and Noble; to the steward, 
matron, supervisors, and attendants, who have exhibited 
much interest in the successful conduct of the Retreat, 
and to whose efforts in this direction during the past year 
I am much indebted, I tender my thanks and assurances 
of appreciation. 

H. P. STEARNS. 

Hartford, Ooxx., March 31, 1881. 



CHAPLAIN'S REPORT. 



To the Directors of the Retreat for the Insane. 

Gentlemen: At the close of another year your Chaplain recalls 
but few variations from the line of service indicated in previous 
reports; indeed, nothing that claims special notice. 

Opportunities for conversation with the patients have been 
courteously afforded by the physicians in charge, and have 
proved, it is thought, not entirely futile. 

The daily devotional service in Elizabeth Chapel continues to 
be attended by about the same proportion of patients as in pre- 
vious years. The same may be said in regard to public worship, 
Sabbath afternoon. Both the daily and weekly gatherings have 
been enlivened, in recent months, by a fuller service of song than 
has sometimes been available. 

It would be gratifying to your Chaplain were he able to report 
more satisfactory results of his labor than have been apparent ; 
but he trusts that some bitter sorrows have been soothed, and hope 
kindled here and there, by a message from Him who gives beauty 
for ashes, the oil of joy for mourning, and the garment of praise 
for the spirit of heaviness. 

Very respectfully yours, 

WILLIAM THOMPSON. 
April 13, 1881. 



APPENDIX 



TABLE I. 

MOVEMENT OF THE POPULATION. 





Males. 


Females. 


Total. 


Number at the beginning of the year, - 


68 


75 


143 


Admitted in the year, - 


48 


46 


94 


He-admitted in the year, ... 


12 


8 


20 


Total admitted in the year, - 


70 


54 


114 


Total present in the year, 


128 


129 


257 


Daily average for the year, 


68 


76 


144 


Discharged — Recovered, 


18 


18 


36 


Much improved, 


1 


1 


2 


Improved, - 


5 


10 


15 


Stationery, 


22 


17 


39 


Died, .... 


16 


7 


23 


Total discharged in the year, 


62 


53 


115 


Remaining at the end of the year, - 


66 


76 


142 



TABLE II. 

NUMBER OF ATTACKS IN THOSE ADMITTED. 





Wjthin the Year. 


Since April 1, 


1845. 




Male. 


Fem 


ale. Total. 


Male. 


Female. 


Total. 


First, - 


42 




56 78 


1,332 


1,602 


2,934 


Second, - 


6 


: 


.0 16 


302 


449 


751 


Third, - 


2 




2 4 


109 


148 


257 


Fourth, - 








44 


82 


126 


Fifth, - 


1 




1 2 


24 


52 


76 


Sixth, - 








20 


29 


49 


Seventh, 








10 


19 


29 


Eighth, - 


1 




1 


6 


11 


17 


Ninth, - 








2 


6 


8 


Tenth, - 








2 


2 


4 


Eleventh, 








1 


1 


2 


Twelfth, 








1 


2 


3 


More that twelve, 










7 


7 


Several, - 


8 




5 13 


183 


143 


326 


Unknown, 








123 


165 


288 


Total, - 


60 


i 


54 114 


2,159 


2,668 


4,827 



36 

TABLE III. 

NUMBER AT EACH AGE WHEN ADMITTED. 





In the Year. 


Since April 1, 1844. 




Male. 


Female. 


Total. 


Male. 


Female. 


• 
Total. 


Under 15 years, 
15 to 20 " 
20 to 25 " 
25 to 30 
30 to 35 " 
35 to 40 " 
40 to 45 
45 to 50 '* 
50 to 60 " 
60 to 70 " 
70 to 80 " 
Over 80 " 
L'nknown, 


3 
5 
6 

10 
6 
6 
3 

11 
4 
5 
1 


3 
5 
5 
11 
9 
5 
9 
6 

'i 


3 

8 

11 

15 

17 

15 

8 

20 

10 

5 

2 


15 

144 

289 

258 

276 

247 

235 

183 

301 

166 

81 

10 

12 


10 
137 
837 

373 
353 
337 
307 
237 
366 
187 

45 
9 

17 


25 
281 
626 
631 
629 
584 
542 
420 
667 
353 
126 
19 
29 


Total, - 


60 


54 


114 


2,217 


2,715 


4,932 



TABLE IV. 

DURATION OF INSANITY BEFORE ENTRANCE OF THOSE ADMITTED. 





In the Year. 


Since April 1, 1S44. 




Male. 


Female. 


Total. 


Male. 


Female. 


Total. 


Less than 1 month, 

1 to 3 months, - 
3 to 6 " 

6 to 9 " 

9 to 12 " 
12 to 18 " 
18 to 24 " 

2 to 3 years, 

3 to 5 " 
5 to 10 " 

[0 to 15 " 
15 to 20 " 
20 to 25 " 
25 to 30 " 
Over 30 years, 
Unknown, 
Not Insane, - 


16 

18 

4 

1 

2 
1 
2 
2 

8 
2 

1 
2 

i 


14 

19 

5 
3 
5 
2 

2 
3 

2 
3 

i 

2 


30 
30 
9 
4 
7 
3 
2 

4 
11 
4 
4 
2 

i 

3 


502 

434 

292 

151 

85 

121 

79 

137 

115 

124 

40 

37 

15 

2 

4 

77 

2 


668 

569 

360 

178 

85 

145 

59 

153 

140 

137 

54 

42 

28 

4 

6 

85 

2 


1,170 

1,003 

652 

329 

170 

266 

138 

290 

255 

261 

94 

79 

43 

6 

10 

154 

4 


Total, - 


60 


54 


114 


2,217 


8,715 


4,932 



37 



TABLE V. 

CIVIL CONDITION OK THOSE ADMITTED. 





In the Year. 


Since April 1, 1843. 




Male. 


Female. 


Total. 


Male. 


Female. 


Total. 


Single, - 
Married, 

Widowed, 
Divorced, 
Unknown, 


23 

32 

3 

2 


18 

26 

9 

1 


41 

58 

12 

3 


1,150 

1,074 

125 

6 

3 


1,157 

1,289 

360 

11 

7 


2,307 

2,363 

485 

17 

10 


Total, - - 60 


54 


114 


2,358 


2,824 


5,182 



TABLE VI. 

FORM OF DISEASE IN THOSE ADMITTED. 





In the Year. 


Since April 1 


, 1869. 




Male 


Female. 


Total. 


Male. 


Female. 


Total. 


Mania Acute, 


25 


17 


42 


164 


154 


318 


Chronic, 


9 


11 


20 


99 


147 


246 


Epileptic, - 


2 




2 


15 


7 


22 


Puerperal, - 




i 


1 




39 


39 


" Suicidal, - 










2 


2 


" Homicidal, - 








2 


1 


3 


Periodical, - 




1 


1 


22 


32 


54 


Melancholia Acute, 


11 


13 


24 


109 


109 


218 


" Chronic, 


2 


5 


7 


50 


67 


117 


Attouita, 










4 


4 


General Paresis, - 




i 


i 


24 


4 


28 


Methomania, - 


4 


2 


6 


70 


19 


89 


Dementia Acute, - 








7 


4 


11 


Chronic, 








20 


14 


34 


" Senile, - 


4 


1 


5 


15 


7 


22 


Imbecility, - 


1 




1 


6 




6 


Moral Insanity, 




1 


1 


6 


3 


9 


Folie Circulaire, - 


2 


1 


3 


2 


1 


3 


Not Insane, - 








2 


2 


4 


Unknown, 








2 


1 


3 


Total, - 


60 


54 


114 


615 


617 


1,232 



38 



Apoplexy, 

Abscess, 

Brain Disease, Or- 
gan ie. 

Bright 's Disease, - 

Cancer, - 

General Paresis, - 

Heart Disease, 

Acute Mania Ex- 
haustion, - 

Chronic Mania Ex- 
haustion, - 

Inanition, 

Melancholia and 

Exhaustion, 
Meningitis, 
Paralysis, 
Phthisis, 
Prostatitis, 
Rheumatism, 
Accident, 
Senile Decay, 
Suicide. 

Typhoid Fever, 
Tvpho-Malarial Fe- 
ver, 
Typhomauia, 
Uraemia, 

1'uerpeial Mania, - 
Undetermined, 



TABLE VII. 

DEATHS AND THE CAUSES. 



Within the Year. 



Maks. 



Females. 



Total. 



Males. 



14 
2 



14 

14 
2 

2 

2 
3 
1 
1 
1 
1 
15 
5 
1 

1 
1 
1 



Since Apisil 1, 1S69. 



Females. 



17 

15 
o 

3 

1 
6 
5 



Total. 



12 
1 

16 
3 

1 

28 

2 

31 

29 
4 

5 
2 
9 
G 

1 

1 

1 

21 

8 

1 

1 
3 
1 
G 
2 



Total, 



16 



23 



118 



83 



19G 



39 



TABLE VIII. 

AGES AT DEATH. 







Within the Year. 


Since April 1, 


18C9. 




Male. 


Female. 


Total. 


Male. 


Female. 


Total. 


Under 15 years, - 














1,5 to 20 years, 








i 


i 


2 


20 to 25 ' 


- 


i 






3 


o 

10 


5 


25 to 30 ' 


- 


1 






7 


6 


13 


30 to 35 ' 


. 


5 






9 


6 


15 


35 to 40 ' 


. 


1 






12 


10 


22 


40 to 45 * 






1 




14 


8 


22 


45 to 50 ' 


- 


2 


2 


4 


10 


11 


21 


50 to 60 ' 


- 


2 


1 


3 


22 


1!) 


41 


60 to 70 ' 


- 


1 


2 


3 


14 


10 


24 


70 to 80 ' 


- 


2 


1 


3 


18 


!) 


27 


Over 80 " 


1 




1 


3 


1 


4 


Total, - 


16 


7 


23 


113 


83 


196 



40 



TABLE IX. 

OPERATIONS OF THE HOSPITAL FROM THE BEGINNING IN EACn TEAR. 













DISCHABGED. 












A TITLTTTT 




















Daily 
Average 




Al'.ill 1 lbi/i 
























TEAR. 






Recovered. 


Improv 


ed. 


Stationary. 




Died 




Number. 




M. 


F. 


Tot. 


M. 


F. 


Tot. 


M. 


F. 


Tot. 


M. 


F. 


Tot. 


M. 


F. 


Tot. 


Total. 


1824-5 






44 






10 


















1 




1825-6 






33 






16 


















1 




1826-7 






37 






24 























1827-8 






40 






27 


















4 




1828-9 






42 






26 


















2 




1820-30 






51 






28 























mo-i 






53 






32 


















1 




1831-2 






80 






46 


















6 




1832-3 






68 






37 


















4 




1833-4 






72 






43 


















3 




1834-5 






72 






36 


















6 




1S35-6 






73 






42 


















6 




1836-7 






91 






55 


















6 




1837-8 






67 






42 


















10 




1838-9 






94 






49 


















8 




1839-10 






84 






50 


















2 




1840-1 






67 






38 


















9 




Total. 


















231 






92 










"1841-2 


45 


51 


96 


27 


29 


56 


6 


10 


16 


6 


3 


9 


6 


2 


8 




1842-3 


50 


33 


83 


26 


19 


45 


11 


13 


24 










4 


3 


7 




1843-1 


51 


29 


80 


26 


18 


44 


26 


17 


33 










5 


4 


9 


84 


1844-5 


56 


49 


105 


23 


22 


45 


18 


7 


20 


I 


r 


2 


9 


7 


4 


11 


97 


1845-6 


56 


72 


128 


2=4 


36 


55 


17 


15 


32 


9 


3 


12 


5 


11 


16 


121 


1846-7 


50 


61 


111 


16 


40 


56 


22 


13 


35 


1 


G 


7 


8 


3 


11 


127 


1847-8 


39 


54 


93 


12 


28 


40 


13 


11 


24 


7 


6 


18 


4 


8 


12 


127 


1848-9 


49 


84 


133 


20 


50 


70 


8 


15 


23 


12 


5 


17 


7 


5 


12 


141 


1849-50 


60 


75 


135 


17 


47 


64 


11 


13 


24 


3 


4 


7 


17 


13 


30 


143 


1850-1 


66 


72 


128 


25 


34 


59 


15 


11 


26 


8 


6 


14 


9 


6 


15 


151 


1851-2 


68 


90 


158 


26 


42 


68 


10 


12 


22 


7 


15 


22 


9 


18 


22 


168 


1852-3 


66 


74 


140 


32 


32 


64 


18 


22 


40 


13 


13 


26 


10 


11 


21 


179 


1853-4 


74 


103 


177 


22 


42 


64 


16 


26 


42 


14 


19 


33 


18 


9 


22 


180 


1854-5 


69 


100 


169 


26 


47 


73 


20 


18 


38 


18 


16 


34 


9 


8 


17 


185 


1855-6 


70 


87 


157 


18 


41 


59 


17 


28 


45 


10 


13 


88 


19 


14 


26 


187 


1856-7 


73 


88 


161 


84 


37 


71 


19 


26 


45 


14 


8 


22 


5 


9 


14 


904 


1857-8 


67 


77 


144 


16 


32 


48 


22 


15 


37 


20 


22 


42 


6 


9 


15 


199 


1K58 il 


68 


78 


141 


25 


36 


61 


11 


23 


34 


17 


12 


29 


7 


3 


10 


216 


1859-60 


80 


88 


168 


34 


36 


70 


22 


15 


37 


11 


18 


29 


9 


11 


20 


919 


1860-1 


66 


9.s 


164 


28 


47 


75 


17 


87 


54 


16 


11 


27 


5 


4 


9 


985 


1861-2 


79 


92 


171 


29 


42 


71 


32 


28 


60 


15 


13 


28 


7 


10 


17 


222 


1862-3 


79 


91 


170 


32 


40 


72 


20 


26 


45 


6 


9 


15 


14 


14 


28 


222 


18K3-4 


60 


83 


143 


26 


46 


72 


15 


22 


37 


8 


10 


13 


11 


in 


21 


228 


1864 6 


74 


81 


155 


27 


30 


57 


21 


24 


45 


11 


8 


19 


13 


14 


27 


955 


1865-6 


69 


96 


165 


20 


42 


62 


17 


81 


48 


14 


8 


22 


12 


14 


26 


S88 


1866-7 


67 


115 


182 


29 


61 


90 


21 


26 


47 


10 


11 


21 


15 


14 


99 


238 


1867-8 


72 


101 


173 


30 


42 


72 


23 


41 


64 


7 


7 


14 


6 


11 


17 


241 


1868 '.i 


39 


90 


129 


15 


45 


60 


25 


43 


68 


46 


49 


95 


7 


10 


17 


18S 


1869-70 


62 


61 


128 


18 


23 


41 


21 


26 


47 


9 


2 


11 


14 


11 


25 


137 


1870-1 


63 


80 


143 


16 


30 


46 


22 


17 


39 


9 


5 


14 


9 


19 


21 


151 


1871-2 


58 


57 


115 


30 


26 


56 


24 


20 


44 


5 


5 


10 


9 


15 


24 


147 


1872-3 


61 


53 


114 


24 


21 


45 


11 


19 


80 


10 


9 


19 


8 


2 


10 


143 


1873-4 


54 


29 


83 


18 


13 


31 


22 


19 


41 


14 


13 


27 


6 


6 


11 


132 


1871-5 


31 


47 


78 


22 


9 


31 


8 


4 


12 


9 


6 


14 


8 


4 


12 


124 


1875-6 


42 


61 


103 


19 


23 


42 


4 


15 


19 


4 


19 


23 





9 


9 


188 


1876-7 


45 


47 


92 


16 


17 


38 


12 


11 


23 


10 


17 


27 


9 


2 


11 


137 


1S7T H 


41 


48 


89 


17 


17 


34 


5 


15 


90 


14 


12 


26 


9 


6 


15 


131 


isTN g 


88 


45 


78 


9 


16 


35 


6 


7 


13 


7 


13 


20 


is 


6 


18 


180 


1879 80 


66 


34 


100 


23 


10 


38 


9 


7 


16 


12 


13 


25 


13 


4 


17 


133 


1880-1 


60 


54 


114 


18 


is 


36 


6 


11 


17 


22 


17 


39 


16 


7 


28 


111 



































ADMISSION OF PATIENTS 

INTO THE 

RETREAT FOR THE INSANE AT HARTFORD. 



No patient admitted for a shorter time than three months; and payment 
for that term only is to be made in advance to the Steward or Treasurer. 

Subsequent expenses are to be paid quarterly to the Steward. 

If the patient is removed uncured before the expiration of thirteen 
weeks, and contrary to the advice and consent of the Superintending 
Physician, board is always required for that period; but if the patient 
recovers before the expiration of the period paid for, or leaves with the 
full approbation of the physician, the excess is refunded. 

Letters relating to the quarterly bills and clothing should be addressed 
to Rev. G. E. Sanborne, the Steward. Clothing and packages sent for 
the use of the inmates should be sent to the care of the Steward. 

All letters in relation to the situation and health of the patients, etc., 
will, of course, be addressed to Dr. Henry P. Stearns, the Superin- 
tendent. 

Application for admission should be made to Dr. Stearns, Superintendent , 
previous to the patient's being brought to the Retreat, in all cases. ■ A brief 
statement of the case should accompany the application. 



[Extracts from tlie Law passed at the last (1869) Session of the Legislature } 

" Section 1. Any lunatic or distracted person may be placed in a hos 
pital, asylum, or retreat for the insane, or other suitable place of detention, 
either public or private, by his or her legal guardian, or relatives or friends 
incase of no guardian; but in no case without the certificate of one or 
more reputable physicians, after a personal examination made within 
one week of the date thereof, which certificate shall be duly acknowledged 
before some magistrate or other officer authorized to administer oaths, 
or to take the acknowledgment of deeds in the State where given, who 
shall certify to the genuineness of the signature, and to the respectability 
of the signer." 

Form of Certificate and Request, which the friends and patients are re 
quested to present icith tlie application for admission. 



42 

REQUEST FOR ADMISSION. 

(To be signed by a guardian, near relative, or friend.) 

I request that M , of , may be admitted as a patient 

into the Retreat for the Insane. 

, 188 . 



CERTIFICATE OF PHYSICIAN. 

I hereby certify that I have, within one week of this date, made personal 
examination of M— , of , and believe h— to be insane. 



Subscribed, sworn to, and duly acknowledged by the said 

before the subscribing authority , of , and I do 

hereby certify that the subscriber to the above certificate is a respectable 
physician, and his signature above is genuine. 

, 188 . 



FORM OF BOND. 



Upon the admission of , of , into the Retreat 

fob the Insane, at Hartford, I engage to provide or pay for a sufficiency 

of clothing for use, and to pay to the Treasurer of the said 

Institution dollars per week for board, medicine, and medical 

attendance; and also to pay the expense of a separate attendant, if the 
Superintendent shall deem one necessary; to make compensation for all 
damage done by to the property of the Retreat ; to pay reason- 
able expenses for pursuing in case of elopement; cause the said patient to 
be removed when discharged; and in event of death, to pay the expenses of 

burial. 

— : , Principal. 

For the value received, I hereby engage to be responsible for the fulfill- 
ment of the above stipulations. 

, Surety. 

Hartford, Conn., , 188 . 

Approved by 

FORM OF REQUEST. 

Item. I give and bequeath to the President and Directors of 
the Retreat for the Insane, in the city of Hartford, the sum of 
dollars, to be paid by my executors out of my real and per- 
sonal estate, as soon as the settlement of my affairs will permit, to the 
Treasurer of the said Institution, for the time being, in trust, to be applied 
by the Directors thereof to the humane purposes of said Institution. 



43 

VISITORS. 

The Managers of the Institution, aware of the interest generally fell in 
its prosperity, which is naturally connected with a desire to visit its in- 
mates and inspect its internal arrangements, arc convinced that thewelfan 
of the patients and the duties of its officers require that such visitations 

should he subject to the following regulations: 

I. The Institution will he open for visitors (Sundays excepted) from 
two to four o'clock in the afternoon. 

11 All visitors, except persons having business at the Retreat, will be 
required to provide themselves with tickets for admission from the Man 
agers or the Treasurer, either of whom will grant the same, unless their 
knowledge of circumstances make it, in their judgment, necessary to 
refuse. 

MANAGERS. 

WM. R. CONE, ^Etna Bank. 

CALVIN DAY, 55 Spring street. 

G. W. RUSSELL, 490 Main street. 

TREASURER. 

THOMAS SISSON, 259 Main street. 



FIFTEENTH ANNUAL REPORT 



SHEFFIELD SCIENTIFIC SCHOOL 



YALE COLLEGE, 



1S80-81. 



PRINTED BY ORDER OF THE GENERAL ASSEMBLY. 



NEW HAVEN: 

TUTTLE, MOREHOUSE & TAYLOR. 
1881. 



State liotuo of Visitors. 



CONSTITUTING, WITH THE SECRETARY OF THE SCHOOL, THE BOARD 
FOR THE APPOINTMENT OF STATE STUDENTS. 

GOVERNOR. 

His Excellency CHARLES B. ANDREWS, Litchfield. 

LIEUTENANT-GOVERNOR. 

His Honor DAVID GALLUP. Plainfield. 

STATE SENATORS. 

Hon. LYMAN W. COE, Woleottville. 
Hon. CHARLES R. FAGAN. Middletown. 
Hon. WILLIAM BROWN, Waterbuiy. 

SECRETARY OF STATE BOARD OF EDUCATION. 

Rev. BIRDSEY GRANT NORTHROP, New Haven. 



Councillors. 

APPOINTED BY THE CORPORATION OF YALE COLLEGE. 

Hon. JAMES K. ENGLISH, New Haveu. 
BON. MARSHALL JEWELL, Hartford. 
Hon. JOSEPH R. HAWLEY, Hartford. 
Hon. OLIVER F. WINCHESTER, New Haven. 
JOSEPH K. SIIEFFIKI/D, Esq., New Haven. 
Prof. JAMES D. DANA, LL.D.. New Haven. 
1IKN T RY FARNAM, Esq., New Haven. 
M. DWIGHT COLLIER, M.A., St. Louis. 
Hon. WILLIAM E. DODGE, New York City. 



SECRETARY \M> TREASURER OF THE BCHOOL. 
GKOKCK J. HRI'SII 



JANITOR OF SHEFFIELD HALL. 

ANTON I'KKlFKR, (ft Look atreel 

JANITOR OF NORTH SHEFFIELD HALL. 

GEORGE W. STODDARD, 62 Mansfield street. 



REPORT 



OF THE 



STATE BOARD OF VISITORS. 



To the General Assembly : 

The State Board of Visitors of the Sheffield Scientific 
School have the honor herewith to transmit, for the use of the 
Legislature, the fifteenth Annual Report of the Governing 
Board of that institution. Every member of the Legislature 
will doubtless examine the report sufficiently to learn its 
general import. It will be seen that the scope of the educa- 
tional work which is being carried on by this School is sub- 
stantially the same as for the two or three preceding years. 
We bear cheerful testimony to the zeal and fidelity with 
which the entire corps of teachers have discharged their 
labors. The great value of their work cannot be easily esti- 
mated. Nowhere in the State, if in the whole country, are 
the practical, working sciences, out of which comes the com- 
fort, prosperity and wealth of the New England people, 
better taught than here. 

We call attention to the Plorological and Thermometric 
Bureaus which have been established since the last report. 



4 SHEFFIELD SCIENTIFIC SCHOOL. 

The School is in a high state of prosperity ; the number 
of students is largely increased, and there seems a greater 
desire to obtain the free scholarships. 

Intellectual research is extending more and more into 
those fields where truth can be tested by ordeal. Dogmatism 
is falling into disfavor and the Experimental Sciences are 
becoming more popular. These are results which naturally 
flow from that condition of society in which the largest 
personal freedom unites with the widest liberty of opinion 
and the most intrepid spirit of inquiry. . The Sheffield 
Scientific School is the outgrowth of siich a condition. Its 
very existence proves that ours is a free government. Its 
growing strength and prosperity gives assurance that a free 
government cannot soon fail. We commend it to the favora- 
ble consideration of the General Assembly. 

By order of the Board. 

CHARLES B. ANDREWS, 

Chairman. 



ANNUAL STATEMENT 



GOVERNING BOARD 



In presenting their Fifteenth Annual Report the Governing 
Board of the Sheffield Scientific School have no changes of mo- 
ment to record. The number of students has increased materially 
over that of the last year: but the future alone can decide whether 
this is due to accidental causes, or to the reviving interest in sci- 
entific studies which owes its origin to the reviving prosperity of 
the country. In the internal history of this institution there has 
been but little variation. The courses of instruction can undergo 
but little alteration, so long as their present means only are at the 
disposal of the Governing Board, and improvements, which it is 
desirable to make, must be deferred to a period when the re- 
sources of the School have been increased sufficiently to justify 
their introduction. 

It is with regret that the Governing Board are compelled to 
mention the loss of one of the wannest friends of the School, the 
Honorable Oliver F. Winchester, who died at his residence in this 
city, on Friday the tenth of December, 1880. The attention of 
Mr. Winchester was early directed to the desirability of establish- 
ing this department of Yale College on a secure basis, and as far 
back as 1855 he subscribed five thousand dollars towards the sum 
which those interested in it were then seeking to raise for its en- 
dowment. Nor did his interest so early manifested ever abate, 
and in recognition of this fact he was made one of the Councillors 
of the School upon its reorganization in 1869. More recently his 
regard for science and scientific instruction has been signally 
manifested by the large gift he made of land to the College for 
the purpose of founding the observatory, which has been called 
from his name. Though under special trustees of its own, and 
therefore not directly connected with the Scientific School, its 
2 



6 SHEFFIELD SCIENTIFIC SCHOOL. 

aims are in many respects so alike that its developments and growth 
must necessarily be attended with more especial benefit to this 
department than to most of those allied under the name of Yale 
College. 

Winchester Observatory. 

horological and thermometric bureaus. 

1. The Horological Bureau continues to occupy the room in 
North Sheffield Hall, which it rents for a computing and clock- 
room. This room contains, besides a Bond's Chronograph, three 
standard clocks of the highest grade, mounted on separate piers, 
in closets with non-conducting walls for protection against sudden 
changes of temperature. These clocks, together with another in 
a room near by, and the tower clock of the City Hall (connected 
electrically with a sounder in the clock room), are compared 
daily and tested for rate by observations made in the special 
observatory of the Bureau. From one of these — the standard 
mean time clock by Howard, — the exact time is regularly distrib- 
uted by telegraph to various offices in the city and to the chief 
railroads of the State. The railroads at present thus directly 
served are the New York, New Haven & Hartford, the Boston 
& New York Air Line, the Connecticut Western, the Connecticut 
Valley, and the Naugatuck. Other railroads obtain their time 
from these. 

The standard of time adopted is that of the meridian of the 
New York City Hall, which is slow of Boston 11"' 46 8 .3, and of 
New Haven (Hor. Obs.) 4 m 19 9 .58, and is fast of Washington 
12 m 10 B .5. 

The City Hall Clock, (a fine one by Howard, with Denison 
gravity escapement and a three hundred and fifty pound mer- 
curial two-second pendulum,) is connected, as above stated, with 
the clock room of the Bureau, and proves to be comparable for 
steadiness of rate with standard astronomical clocks of the first 
class. Its error is generally less than one second, and is not 
allowed to exceed two or three seconds at a maximum. Its daily 
variations of rate are very small fractions of a second. Thejirst 
stroke of the bell marks the precise beginning of each hour — an 
allowance of course being made for the velocity of sound, of one 
6econd for every seventy rods that the observer is distant from 
the City Hall. 

One of the three standard clocks mentioned above was pre- 



ANNUAL STATEMENT. 7 

sented to the Bureau early in the year by its maker, Dr. William 
II ill house of New Haven, who also gave many years ago the tine 
transit instrument by Troughton, now used in the Observatory 
of the Bureau. This clock is of the finest workmanship, lias a 
double three-legged Denison escapement, and a mercurial compen- 
sation pendulum of the unusual weight of about sixty-five pounds. 
Its performance is very satisfactory, though it has not yet been 
fully investigated. 

The testing of fine watches, both for manufacturers and indi- 
viduals, under the regulations published in the circular of the 
Bureau, which was given in the last Report, has been successfully 
carried on during the year at the vaults of the New Haven Safe 
Deposit Company, where the time pieces are deposited for safe 
keeping, and where also there is a chronograph electrically con- 
nected with the standard mean time clock for facility in rating, 
as well as the hot and cold closets for testing the effects of tem- 
perature. 

In May and June a systematic series of telegraphic observa- 
tions was undertaken on several nights by Dr. Waldo at the 
Observatory of the Bureau and Prof. Wm. A. Rogers at Harvard 
College Observatory, for the exact determination of the difference 
of longitude between these points, — the observers interchanging 
places on half the evenings to eliminate the effects of personal 
equation. The Observatory is under obligations to the Director 
of the Observatory of Harvard College, Professor Pickering, and 
to the officers of the Western Union Telegraph Company, who have 
afforded every facility for the successful carrying out of the lon- 
gitude determination. 

The reduction of the observations has not yet been completed, 
but is well advanced. 

Two students in practical astronomy have been employed in 
the computations and other work of the Bureau during the year. 

Neither the time service nor the testing of watches, it may be 
proper to say, has thus far proved as remunerative as the large 
cost to the Bureau and the acknowledged benefit of these services 
to great public and private interests would lead us to expect, 
yet there is reason to believe that the importance of both is grad- 
ually becoming more and more appreciated, and that ultimately 
they will not fail of an adequate support. 

The Time Service, especially, is of vital importance to the rail, 
road interests of the State, and through them to the whole com- 



8 SHEFFIELD SCIENTIFIC SCHOOL. 

iniinity, inasmuch as it promotes safety in the running of trains, 
and secures in all places accurate and uniform time. It is hoped, 
therefore, that the Legislature of the State, in view of the great 
public benefit of this service, will see fit to relieve the observa- 
tory of the expense of maintaining it. 

Dr. Leonard Waldo is the Astronomer in Charge of the Horo- 
logical Bureau, and with Mr. William Beebee as assistant, has 
the entire management of its affairs. 

2. The Tiiermometric Bureau, also in charge of Dr. Waldo, 
is another branch of service undertaken recently by the Observa- 
tory. Its organization and purpose are fully explained in the 
following published circular, which is here inserted entire. 

CIRCULAR CONCERNING THE VERIFICATION OF THERMOMETERS. 

This Bureau has been established by the Corporation of Yale College, at the 
recommendation of the Board of Managers of the Winchester Observatory, in 
order to afford desired facilities for the adequate verification of thermometers. 

Thermometers will be received by the observatory for the purpose of compari- 
son with the observatory standards, and certificates of comparison signed by the 
Astronomer in charge will be issued with thermometers so compared. These 
certificates will contain a statement of the corrections to be applied at intervals 
of five or ten degrees of the thermometer scale to cause it to have the same read- 
ing as the observatory standards. In general these corrections will be expressed 
in tenths of one degree. 

Thermometers sent for verification must have a name and number engraved 
upon them ; and thermometers which are not graduated on the glass stem must 
be of sufficiently good workmanship to satisfy the observer in charge that the 
scale will not suddenly change with reference to the glass stem of the thermome- 
ter tube, with ordinarily careful usage. 

The Board of Managers have established the following scale of charges for this 
service, which includes certificate: — 

Standard Meteorological Thermometers with independent 

freezing point determination, $2.00 

Standard Meteorological Thermometers, 1.00 

Ordinary Meteorological Thermometers, 60 

Ordinary Maximum Thermometers, . ^ ■"> 

Ordinary Minimum Thermometers, -- .75 

Clinical Thermometers, 50 

There will be a deduction of one-fifth of the above charges where more than 
eight thermometers of one kind are iiveived at the same time. In the ease of 
clinical thermometers the charge will be four dollars per dozen when not less than 
two dozen are sent at the same time. 

For other thermometers than the above the charges for verification will be 
furnished on application. 

The letter of advice accompanying thermometers sent for verification should 



ANNUAL STATEMENT. 9 

contain the maker's name, the number of each thermometer, and full directions 
for reshipment. 

All proper precautions are taken by the Hoard of Managers to guard against 
loss or injury ; but as it is manifestly inexpedient that a University Corporation 
should be responsible for property in its care for such a purpose, it is to be under- 
stood that all risks are assumed by the person sending the thermometers. 

LEONARD WALDO, 

Astronomer in Charge. 

Approved and ordered to be published by the Board of Managers of the Win- 
chester Observatory. 

C. S. Lyman, President. H. A. Newton, Secretary. 

New Haven, Conn.. June 1, 1880. 



Statistics show that several thousand thermometers of refined construction, and 
graduated on the stem to 0°.2 F. or thereabouts, are annually procured by the 
medical practitioners of our country alone for physiological researches and daily 
practice. The majority of these thermometers are newly made (within six months), 
and their verification depends on inferior (from the scientific standpoint) ther- 
mometers in the hands of individual makers. It is needless to say that the read- 
ings of such thermometers have little value in indicating the true temperature of 
a patient, or affording data in cases which the physician wishes to describe in 
print. 

The makers of thermometers in our country have been in general content to 
use for their standards, thermometers which have not been recently compared at 
a foreign observatory or with some more easily accessible instrument in which 
they place confidence, in the hands of a friendly neighbor. Thus it happens that 
many thousand American clinical thermometers have been sold, which do not 
depend upon a comparision with a recognized standard for their scale readings. 
The result has been that the American instruments have suffered in the estima- 
tion of scientific practitioners. This is not so much the fault of the American 
makers as their misfortune in not having the same facilities offered them by the 
properly equipped observatories this side of the water, which their favored com- 
petitors enjoy abroad. 

The meteorological observers in this country have now no common standard of 
easy access; and it seems eminently proper that the observatory should under- 
take to be useful to the medicdl profession and the meteorologists in this country, 
and afford the means of comparison desired. With this end in view, the observa- 
tory has accepted the aid of the Board of Directors of the Bache Fund of the 
National Academy in obtaining the standards of the foreign observatories, and 
has made provision for the constant determination of the errors of the standards 
themselves. 

In order to encourage the manufacture of thoroughly seasoned thermometers 
for physicians' use, the observatory will receive from the makers thermometer 
tubes which have been numbered but not graduated, and will seal such tubes in 



10 SHEFFIELD SCIENTIFIC SCHOOL. 

boxes in such a manner that they can only be opened by breaking the seals. 
After not less than one year the boxes may be opened by an observatory officer, 
and in the certificates of verification furnished with these thermometers the 
length of time they have been under the observatory seal will be stated. The 
observatory charge for recording and sealing such thermometers will be $1.00 
per hundred, and makers desiring to avail themselves of this privilege will send 
such boxes to the observatory for sealing. 

The observatory will make arrangements with hospitals and other institutions 
using a number of thermometers, for the systematic examination at stated inter- 
vals of all thermometers in their use. Such an arrangement precludes errors 
arising from the use of newly made instruments which have been verified, but 
whose scales have not yet attained an approximately permanent position. 

Ordinary and clinical thermometers are returned within three days from the 
time of their reception, if the observatory charges for verification are remitted with 
the thermometers. 

In case they are not so remitted, they are payable upon notification by the 
observarory that the thermometers are ready to be returned. 

Dealers and manufacturers furnishing satisfactory references to the observatory 
may open an account, to be settled quarterly, beginning with January 1 of each 
year. 

The Thermometric Bureau is under the immediate charge of Dr. Leonard Waldo. 
The observatory also receives the advice of Professor J. Willard Gibbs and Pro- 
fessor Arthur W. Wright in regard to problems connected with thermometry. 



Notice. 

To insure the safe transmission of thermometers by express, they should be 
packed in two boxes, one inside the other, and the space filled with cotton-wool 
or its equivalent. Single clinical thermometers may be packed in wooden boxes 
and sent by mail. New York makers desiring to send thermometers by hand 
may do so by leaving them with Lockwood's private express, care Oelschlaeger 
Bros., 162 William Street. The P. 0. Address of the Observatory is Box 853. 
The Office is at 89 Orange Street, to which all packages may be directed. 



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12 SHEFFIELD SCIENTIFIC SCHOOL. 

The following pieces of apparatus are also in use in the ther- 
raometric work : 

I . A Crouch microscope comparator. 2. A pair of microscopes 
provided with eye-piece micrometers, and objectives of four inch 
equivalent foci by Beck. 3. A small vertical cathetometer by 
Wm, Grunow, graduated to single millimeters, the vertical motion 
being 220""" and the telescope having an eye-piece micrometer by 
Rogers. 4. A superior standard barometer, " Jas. Green, N. V., 
957," with half-inch mercury column and reading to 0.001 inches. 
5. A freezing-point apparatus of two liters capacity, consisting of 
a tinned iron vessel within another, the space between them filled 
with cotton-wool. 6. A boiling-point apparatus constructed of 
brass after the plan of Regnault. 7. An improved boiling-point 
apparatus constructed entirely of glass. 8. An elaborate appara- 
tus of brass for accurately and rapidly comparing clinical ther- 
mometers, in a suitable water bath. 

Six hundred thermometers have already been carefully tested 
in the few months since the work was commenced, and the con- 
stantly increasing demand for this service gives promise that it 
will prove highly beneficial alike to the medical profession and to 
the science of the country. 

Public Lectures. 

The fourteenth annual course of lectures to mechanics and others 
was given during the past year in the lecture room in North 
Sheffield Hall. The lecturers and the subjects are indicated in 
the following program : 

I. Thursday, Feb. 5. — Hybridism. Prof. Daniel C. Eaton. 

II. Tuesday, '' 10. — Christian Iconography; illustrated from 

Amiens Cathedral. Prof. D. Cady Eaton. 

III. Thursday, " 12. — Dogs. Prof. Brewer. 

IV. Tuesday, " 17. — The Heroic Element in Historical Persons 

:iud Eras. Prof. Fisher. 

V.Thursday, " 19.— The Story of a Light House. Prof. DuBois. 

VI. Tuesday, " 24.— Telling the Time. Dr. L. Waldo. 

VII. Thursday, " 2'>. — Adulteration of Foods. Prof. Johnson. 

VIII. Tuesday, Mar. 2.— Nutrition. Mr. R. H Chittenden. 

IX. Thursday, " 4. — The Culture and Preparation of Tea. 

Prof. S. Wells Williams. 
X. Tuesday, " 9. — Fundamental Ideas in Mechanics. Dr. Skinner. 

XI. Thursday, " 11.— The Giant Cephalopods or " Devil-fish " 

of the North Atlantic. Prof. Verrill. 

XII. Tuesday, " 16. — Modern Sanitary Science. Prof. Brewer. 



ANNUAL STATEMENT. 13 

Lectures on Military Science. 

A course of Lectures on Military Science, by officers of the 
U. S. Engineering School, at Willet's Point, was delivered in 
North Sheffield Hall as a part of the instruction in the School 
during the second term of the academic year 1879-80. The 
order and subjects of the Lectures were as follows : 

I. Monday, Fob. 23. — Strategy and Grand Tactics. 

Lieut. G. McC. Derby, U. S. Engineers. 
II. Friday, " 27. — Logistics. Lievit. James L. Lusk, U. S. Engineers. 

III. Monday, Mar. 1. — Small Arms and their influence on Tactics. 

Lieut. W. M. Black, U. S. Engineers. 

IV. Friday, 1; 5. — Artillery. Capt. J. B. Quinn, U. S. Engineers. 
V. Monday, " 8. —Fortification. Capt. A. M. Miller, U. S. Engineers. 

VI. Friday, " 12. — Torpedoes. General H. L. Abbot, U. S. Engineers. 

Additions to the Zoological Collections. 
A. E. VERRiiiL, Curator; J. H. Emerton, Assistant. 

During the past year the most important of the additions to 
the Zoological collections have been due to the cooperation of the 
curator with the U. S. Fish Commission, as in previous years, in 
the exploration of the sea-bottom along our coasts. 

The head-quarters of the Commission were at Newport, R. I., 
this season, and the dredging and trawling was carried on from 
that point over a wide area, both in the shallower waters and south- 
ward to the distant banks, from 70 to 115 miles off shore, and to 
a depth of 500 fathoms, with very great success. 

This year the new steamer " Fish Hawk," of 480 tons, built 
and fitted expressly for the scientific work of the Fish Commis- 
sion, was employed in these explorations. The commander, 
Lieut. Z. L. Tanner, U. S. N., also made another trip, after the 
regular work of the season Avas over, to the deep-water off the 
mouth of Chesapeake Bay, with excellent results. The very ex- 
tensive and valuable series of Invertebrata, obtained during these 
explorations, as well as numerous collections contributed to the 
Fish Commission by the bank fishermen of Gloucester, Mass., have 
all been sent to the Museum to be elaborated and reported upon, 
and eventually to be distributed. 

Mr. A. Agassiz has sent to the curator and Professor S! I. 
Smith, for elaboration, the Cephalopoda, Crustacea and Anthozoa 
obtained by him while exploring the bottom beneath the Gulf 
Stream, along the U. S. Coast, this season, on the Coast Survey 
steamer " Blake." 



14 SHEFFIELD SCIENTIFIC SCHOOL. 

These several collections are not only very large and interest- 
ing, but they contain large numbers of genera and species wholly 
unknown before, as well as very many others that are new to our 
coast. 

In these explorations, this season, the curator was assisted 
especially by Mr. Richard Rathbun, Mr. Sanderson Smith, and 
Mr. J. H. Emerton. Messrs. B. F. Koons and E. A. Andrews of 
this School, also joined our party, and were very useful assistants. 

Professor S. I. Smith has, as usual, taken charge of the Crus- 
tacea, and has very thoroughly revised the Decapoda of northern 
New England. He has prepared for publication in the Pro- 
ceedings of the National Museum accounts of the numerous new 
and strange forms of Crustacea obtained in deep-water, off our 
coast. He has also revised certain groups of the Amphipoda, and 
printed the results in the Transactions of the Connecticut Acad- 
emy, Vol. IV. Mr. Oscar Harger has printed in the report of 
the U. S.' Commissioner of Fish and Fisheries, an extended mon- 
ograph of the Isopoda of New England, upon which he has for 
several years been engaged. Mr. E. B. Wilson has printed, in 
the same report, his monograph of the Pycnogonida of New Eng- 
land. The curator has published, in the Trans. Conn. Acad., Vol. 
V., the first part of a monograph of the New England Cephalo- 
poda, including all the gigantic species hitherto discovered ; the 
second part of this work is now printing. He has also printed more 
or less detailed accounts of the most interesting forms of Mollusca 
and Echinoderms obtained in deep-water off our coast, in the Ameri- 
can Journal of Science, and in the Proceedings of the National 
Museum. These several reports are all based on specimens in the 
Yale Museum, and are profusely illustrated. They represent an 
important part of the scientific work done in the Museum during 
the past and previous years. Mr. J. II. Emerton, in addition 
to his ordinary duties, has made large numbers of excellent 
drawings to illustrate some of the reports referred to above, and 
for others now in progress. 

Mr. Sanderson Smith and Mr. Richard Rathbun have been 
employed in the Museum daring a part of the year, at the expense 
of the U. S. Fish Commission, to aid the curator in working up 
the* large amount of material that has accumulated in our store- 
rooms. 

Miss K. J. Bush has been employed in completing and 
copying the permanent catalogues, in writing labels for those 



ANNUAL STATEMENT. 15 

specimens that are on exhibition, and in other clerical duties. Her 
work has been done very carefully and is, in all respects, highly 
satisfactory. Mr. E. II. Hawley, during the first part of the year, 
continued the mounting of the specimens of shells and other 
invertebrates in the Museum. But this work lias been discontin- 
ued for want of funds. 

Aside from the large collections of the U. S. Fish Commission, 
referred to above, the following have been received : 

Gardiner Morse, Jr., Gammurus fasciatus, Mumford, N. Y. 

Robt. T. Morris, living puffing adder. 

Edw. E. Brewster (S. S. S. 1878), nest and eggs of woodcock, 
Cornwall, Conn., collected April 24, 1879. 

Mrs. M. C. Reid, New Haven, a starfish (Asterias Forbesii), 
with eight arms ( a monstrosity), from Bridgeport. 

Publishers of Evening Register, New Haven, an ermine, col- 
lected by Fred. Hotchkiss, in Woodbridge. 

C. W. Canfield (S. S. S. 1878), eggs of JRana sylvatica, taken 
March 13, at Westerly, R. I. 

Col. G. L. Febiger, rare land shells, from Louisiana. 

Capt. Davis, Stony Creek, 6quilla and young lobster. 

Mrs. E. A. Brown, barnacles from bottom of vessel. 

Geo. W. Potter, E. Haven, living copper-head snake (Ancis- 
trodon contortrix), and two living black snakes, East Haven. 

Adrian Ohule, living puffing adder. 

Wm. G. Daggett (Y. C), living snapping turtle. 

O. W. Atwater, living water-snake {Tropidonotus sipedori). 

B. F. Koons (S. S. S.), eggs of wood turtle (Glyptemys 
insculpta), and spotted turtle {Nanemys guttata), New Haven. 

C. M. Crouse (S. S. S.), living striped snake and two moles 
(Scalops aquaticus), from New Haven ; craw-fish, Central New 
York. 

E. V. Reynolds (S. S. S.), a miscellaneous collection, from New 
Haven, from Nassau, W. I., etc. 

Prof. A. E. Verrill, brown snake (Storeria Dekayi); milk-snake 
( Ophiobolus) ; nest and eggs of vireo ; large fiddler-crabs ( Gelasi- 
mus minax), Annelids, etc., from New Haven. 

E. A. Andrews (S. S. S.), spotted turtles (Nanemys guttata), 
New Haven. 

R. C. Ballard (S. S. S.), collection of fossils. 

James Snedeker, New Haven, a wood turtle ( Glyptemys in- 
sculpta), and nest with eggs of marsh wren. 



16 SHEFFIELD SCIENTIFIC SCHOOL. 

C. D. Hall, orange file-fish, from Madison. 

W. P. Lane, Wallingford, little auk (Mergulus alle), from Guil- 
ford. 

J. H. Emerton, a mole (Scolaps aquaticus), New Haven ; nudi- 
branch molluscafrom Salem, Mass. 

Horace Bowman, New Haven, cluster of oysters on a living 
quahog clam, orange file-fish, rudder-fish, and" other fishes, New 
Haven. 

John G. Brady (Y. C. 1874), sea-pen (Verrillia Blakei), from 

Alaska. 

Samuel W. Williston, a valuable collection of named Diptera 
from Connecticut and California ; rare birds' eggs, from Rocky 
Mountains. 

John Pardee, living alligator from Florida. 

R. S. Griswold, living alligator from Florida. 

Josephus Rice, salamanders {Desmognathu* fucus), from North 
Haven. 

Adam Herman, New Haven, star-nosed mole, mounted, and 
monstrous frog, with double hind legs. 

W. J. Comstock (S. S. S. 1879), toad from Hamilton Inlet, Lab- 
rador. 

Prof. E. S. Dana, snakes from St. Johns River, Florida. 

Prof. J. K. Thacher, larva? of lamprey eel. 

Richard Westbrook, hoary bat {Lasiurus cinerew), from New 
Haven. 

National Museum, Washington, D. C., coach-whip snake and 
king-snake, from Florida. 

Mrs. Chas. Ives, New Haven, several sponges and a rare coral 
(Mcsmilia), from Nassau. 

John Booth, New Haven, monstrous flask-shaped hen's egg. 

Anonymous. Red-throated diver, mounted, from Alabama. 

Small collections of insects have been received from S. 15. Cocks, 
W. Van Name, Forest Shepard, F. S. Smith, Dr. H.'Van Hoosear, 
Geo. B. Lobdell, Jr., and others. 

Anniversary. 

The Exercises of the Graduating Class were held in North 
Sheffield Hall on the evening of Tuesday, June 29, 1880. The 
candidates for degrees with the subjects of their graduation 
theses are given in the following schedule. Those marked with 
an asterisk were read in the evening. 



ANNUAL STATEMENT. 17 

CIVIL ENGINEERS. (2) 

Dwigiit Edward Pierce. Ph.li., South Bethlehem, Pa. Design for an Iron Rail- 
road Bridge. 

Eben Jennings Ward, Ph.B., Marseilles, III. A Review of the Glascow Steel 
Bridge. 

DYNAMIC ENGINEER. (1) 

Augustus James Emery, Ph.B., Bangor, Me. The More Important Principles 
which should Govern the Design and Construction of the Steam Engine. 

BACHELORS OF PHILOSOPHY. (42) 

Daniel Sydney Appleton (Select), New York City. On the United States Life- 
Saving Service. 

Charles Rufus Ayres (Select), Woodmont. On Agricultural Underdrainage. 

Charles Backus Ball (Civil Engineering), New Haven. On the American En- 
gineering Contract System. 

Rogers Clark Ballard (Chemistry), Louisville, Ky. A Method of Analysis for 
the Lead Furnace Slags. 

Harry Banning Bradford (Dynamic Engineering), Wilmington. Bel. On the 
Determination of the Mechanical Equivalent of Heat. 

*Harry Osborn Carrington (Dynamic Engineering), New Haven. On the Steam 
Injector. 

Joseph Arthur Chanute (Chemistry), New York City. On Thomas and Gil- 
christ's Process for Dephosphorizing Iron. 

George Huntington Clapk (Civil Engineering), Norwich. A Review of the 
Magnetic Iron Ore Mines of Morris County, N. J. 

Arthur Baylies Coffin (Biology), Edgartown, Mass. On the Circulatory System 
of the Dog. 

Edward Allen Colby (Chemistry), St. Johnslury, Vt. On the Separation of 
Manganese from Calcium and Magnesium. 

*Frank McAlpine Collin (Select), Penn Yan, N. Y. On the Tenure of Land in 
Ireland. 

Charles Mabie Grouse (Natural History), Syracuse, N. Y. On the Structure of 
Scolopendriuin vulgare. 

Charles Thompson Dodd (Dynamic Engineering), West Meriden. On Fuel and 
its Combustion in relation to Steam Boilers. 

Arthur Dodge (Dynamic Engineering), Stamford. On Superheated Steam. 

Thomas Edward Doolittle (Biology), Onarga, 111. On the Circulatory System 
of the Shad. 

Jacob Edward Emery (Select), Fair Haven. On the Acquisition and Distribu- 
tion of the Public Lands of the United States. 

*George Edward Goodspeed (Select), East Haddam. On the Population of the 
United States. 

John Warren Hardenbergh (Civil Engineering), Jersey City, N. J. A Review 
of the Metropolitan Elevated Railroad. 

Louis Maynard Higginson (Select), Newburgh, N. Y. On the Contributions of 
Professor Cairnes to Political Economy. 

*W alter Hitchcock (Biology), Cheshire. On the Nervous System of Diemictylus 
viridescens. 



18 SHEFFIELD SCIENTIFIC SCHOOL. 

Theodore Lanahan Hooper (Dynamic Engineering), Baltimore, Md. A Dis- 
cussion of Slide Valves by means of Zeuner's Valve Diagrams. 

Colin Macrae Ingersoll (Dynamic Engineering), New Haven. On the Trow- 
bridge-Mather Automatic Boiler. 

Martin Edward Jensen (Chemistry), Cleveland, 0, Analysis of Cymatolite. 

*David Brown Lewis (Civil Engineering), Utica, N. T. On the Belgian System 
of Cable-Towing as used on the Erie Canal. 

Ernest Theophjlus Liefeld (Select), New Haven. On the Treatment of Crimi- 
nals. 

*Willey Solon McCrea (Select), Chicago, III. On the Problem of Transporta- 
tion. 

John Moorhead (Chemistry), Pittsburg, Pa. On the Best Volumetric Methods 
of Determining Iron. 

*Carl Eugene Munger (Biology), Watertown. On the Digestive System of Bas- 
canion constrictor. 

Edward Butler Needham (Biology), Hartford. On the Respiration of the Frog 
(Rana fontinalis). 

George Benjamin Phelps (Biology), Watertown, N. 7. On the Rate of Elimina- 
tion of Arsenic by the Kidneys. 

*Dwight Porter (Civil Engineering), Hartford. On Storage Reservoir, No. 2, at 
Farmington, Conn. 

Edward Freeman Porter (Select), Stowe, Vt. On the Effect of Machinery on 
Wages. 

Edward Vilette Reynolds (Natural History), Chicago, III. On the Appendages 
of the Hermit Crab (Eupagurus pollicaris). 

*Edwin McNeil Rogers (Dynamic Engineering), Central City, Col. Design for 
a Gravity Road. 

George Bliss Rogers (Select), Lexington, Mass. On Rent. 

Edward Rupert Sargent (Select), New Haven. On the Panic of 1873. 

William Bartlett Schofield (Dynamic Engineering), West Point, N. Y. On the 
History of the Locomotive Steam Engine. 

Henry Starkweather (Dynamic Engineering), New Haven. On the Value of 
the Condenser in the Economy of Fuel. 

Adrian Rowe Wadsworth (Civil Engineering), Farmington. On the Hartford 
Sewage System. 

William Candee Warren (Select), Buffalo, N. 7. On the Signal Service of the 
United States. 

Adolpii Frederic Wehner (Dynamic Engineering), New Haven. On the Mag- 
neto-Electric Machine. 

George Goodwin Williams (Select), Glastonbury. On the Suppression of the 
Theater during the Reign of Charles I. 



ANNUAL STATKMKNT. 19 

Prizes. 
The following prizes were awarded during the year : 

CLASS OF 1880. 

Far excellence in German, the prize awarded to Frank McAumnk Collin, with 
honorable mention of George Huntington Clark and ERNEST THEOPHiLtrs 
Liefeld. 

For excellence in French, the prize awarded to Dwight Porter. 

For excellence in Civil Engineering, the prize awarded to Dwight PORTEE. 

CLASS OF 1881. 

For excellence in the Mathematics of Junior Year, the prize awarded to William 
Meeker Wood, with honorable mention of George Frederick Bosworth, 
Jeme Tien Yow, and Willis Be.vton Wright. 

CLASS OF 1882. 

For excellence in all the Studies of Freshman Year, the prize divided between Harry 

Weir Casey and Frank Judson Lambert. 
For excellence in German, the prize divided between Frederick William LaForge 

and Norman Smith Latham, with honorable mention of Kee Yung Chun. 
For excellence in Mathematics, the prize divided between Harry Weir Casey and 

Frank Judson Lambert. 
For excellence in Physics, the prize awarded to Harry Weir Casey. 
For excellence in Chemistry, the prize awarded to Frank Judson Lambert. 
For excellence in Descriptive Geometry, the prize divided between Harry Weir 

Casey and Frank Judson Lambert. 
For excellence in English Composition, tirst prizes awarded to Henry Jonathan 

Biddle, Harry Weir Casey, James John Drummond, Robert Ogden 

Dubois, Frederick William LaForge, and Sheldon Elton Minor; second 

prizes to Nathan Gross Bozeman, Alexander Bryan Johnson, Norman 

Smith Latham, and Lewis Valentine Pirsson. 

CLASS OF 1883. 

For the best Entrance Examination, the prize awarded to John Alpheus Allen, 
New Haven. Prepared at the Hillhouse High School, New Haven. 



PROGRAMME OF STUDIES, 



AND 



CATALOGUE, 



FOR THE COLLEGE YEAR 1880-81. 



CALENDAR 



1880. 






16 Sept. 


Thursday, 


First Term begins. 


23 Dec. 


Thursday, 


First Term ends. 


1881. 




Winter Vacation of three weeks. 


13 Jan. 


Thursday, 


Second Term begins. 


13 April, 


Wednesday, 


Spring Recess begins. 


20 April, 


Wednesday, 


Spring Recess ends. 


28 June, 


Tuesday, 


Meeting of Appointing Board 


28 June, 


Tuesday, 


Anniversary. 


29 June, 


Wednesday, 


Commencement. 


30 June, 


Thursday, ) 
Friday, Sat., J 


Examination for Admission. 


1, 2 July, 








Summer Vacation of eleven weeks. 


13, 14 Sept. 


Tues., Wedn., 


Examination for Admission. 


15 Sept. 


Thursday, 


First Term begins. 


22 Dec. 


Thursday, 


First Term ends. 



ABBREVIATIONS. 

s. h. Sheffield Hall. 

N. S. h. - - - - North Sheffield Hall. 

tr. Treasury Building. 

D. Durfee College. 

f. Faruam College. 

E. East Divinity Hall. 

w. West Divinity Hall. 

p. m. Peabody Museum. 

a. Absent on leave. 



In the buildings belonging to the Sheffield Scientific School, the rooms num- 
bered from 1 to 21 are in Sheffield Hall ; from 26 to 58 in North Sheffield Hall. 



CORPORATION 



PRESIDENT. 

Rev. NOAH PORTER, D.D., LL.D. 

FELLOWS. 

His Excellency CHARLES B. ANDREWS, LL.D., Litchfield. 
His Honor DAVID GALLUP, Plainfield. 
Rev. LEONARD BACON, D.D., LL.D., New Haven. 
Rev. THEODORE D. WOOLSEY, D.D., LL.D., New Haven. 
Rev. HI RAM P. ARMS, D.D., Norwich Town. 
Rev. GKORGE J. TILLOTSON, M.A., Wethersfield. 
Hon. ALPHONSO TAFT, LL.D., Cincinnati, O. 
Rev. AMOS S. CHESEBROUGH, M.A., Durham. 
Rev. MYRON N. MORRIS, M.A., West Hartford. 
Hon. WILLIAM M. EVARTS, LL.D., New York City. 
Hon. WILLIAM B. WASHBURN, LL.D., Greenfield, Mass. 
Rev. SAMUEL G. WILLARD, M.A., Colchester. 
Hon. HENRY B. HARRISON, M.A., New Haven. 
Rev. JOSEPH W. BACKUS, M.A. Rockville. 
Rev. CHARLES RAY PALMER, M.A., Bridgeport. 
Rev. JOSEPH H. TWICHELL, B.A., Hartford. 
Hon. WILLIAM WALTER PHELPS, M.A., New York City. 
MASON YOUNG, M.A., New York City. 



SECRETARY. 

FRANKLIN B. DEXTER, M.A. 

TREASURER. 

HENRY C. KINGSLEY, M.A. (5 tr.) 23 Hillhouse av. 



GOVERNING BOARD. 

APPOINTED BY THE CORPORATION OF YALE COLLEGE. 



President. 

Rev. NOAH PORTER, D.D., LL.D., 



(7 tr.) 31 Hillhouse av. 



Chairman and Executive Officer. 
GEORGE J. BRUSH, (3 S. H.) 14 Trumbull Bt. 

Professors. 

ARRANGED IN THE ORDER OF THEIR GRADUATION. 



WILLIAM A. NORTON, 






Civil Engineering. 


(34 N. S. H.) 


72 Prospect St. 


CHESTER S. LYMAN, 






Physics and Astronomy, TJieoretico.l and Practical. (39 n. S. h.) 


88 Trumbull St. 


WILLIAM D. WHITNEY, 






Linguistics and French. 


(205 d.) 


246 Church st. 


GEORGE J. BRUSH, • 






Mineralogy. 


(3 s. n.) 


14 Trumbull st. 


SAMUEL W. JOHNSON, 






Theoretical and Agricultural Chemistry. 


(12 s. H.) 


54 Trumbull st. 


WILLIAM H. BREWER, 






Agriculture (Norton Professor). 


(4 s. ii.) 


246 Orange st. 


JOHN E. CLARK, 






Mathematics. 




29 Eld st. 


DANIEL C. EATON, 






Botany. 


(41 N. S. II.) 


70 Sachem st. 


THOMAS R. LOUNSBURY, 






English. 




22 Lincoln st. 


FRANCIS A. WALKER, 






Political Economy and History. 




68 Whitney av. 


OSCAR D. ALLEN, 






Analytical Chemistry and Metallurgy. 


(13 S. H.) 


189 Temple st. 


ADDISON E. YERRILL, 






Zoology and Geology. 


(15 P. M.) 


148 College st. 


SIDNEY I. SMITH, 






Comparative Anatomy. 


(14 P. M.) 


148 College st. 


WILLIAM G. MIXTER, 






Chemistry. 


(8 S. H.) 


8 Trumbull st. 


A. JAY DUBOIS, 






Dynamical Engineering (Higgin Professor). 


(45 N. S. H.) 


328 Howard av. 



LECTURERS, INSTRUCTORS AND ASSISTANTS 



ADDITIONAL TO THE GOVERNING BOARD. 



ALBERT S. WHEELER, 
German. 

MARK BAILEY, 

Elocution. 



27 Eld st. 



(105 F.) 200 Temple st. 



JOHN H. NIEMETER, Professor in Yale School of Fine Arts, 

Free Hand Drawing. 8 Art School. 

FREDERICK R. HONEY, 

Descriptive Geometry and Projection Drawing. (53 N. s. H.) 14 Lincoln st. 



JOSEPH J. SKINNER, 
Mathematics and French. 

JOSEPH F. KLEIN, 

Kinematics and Machine Design. 

GEORGE W. HAWES, 

Mineralogy and Lithology. 

JAMES F. COLBY, 
Political Economy. 

ALLEN B. HOWE. 

Analytical Chemistry. 

RUSSELL H. CHITTENDEN, 
Physiological Chemistry. 

WILLIAM J. COMSTOCK, 
Analytical Chemistry. 



176 York st. 

(45 n. s. h.) 14 Whalley av. 

(2 P. M.) 116 High st. 

Room 10, 179 Church st. 

138 College st. 

(13 s. h.) 95 Humphrey st. 

167 Crown st. 



ST I UK NTS. 



27 



GRADUATE STUDENTS. 



Otis Elihu Atwater, b.a. 
Rogers Clark Ballard, ph.b. 
John Pomeroy Bartlett, ph.b. 

Harry Lane Bruner, b.a. ) 
Abingdon College. ) 

Charles Sumner Burt, 
U.S. Military Academy, 
West Point. 

Henry Osborn Carrington, ph.b. 

William James Comstoek, ph.b. 

John Edward Cromwell, ph.b. 

Henry Allen Hazen, m.a. ) 
Dartmouth College. ) 

William Hale Herrick. m.a. ) 
Williams College. ) 

Alfred Edwards Hooker, b.a. 

William Forest Hutchison, b.a. 

Colin Macrae Ingersoll, ph.b. 

Joseph Frederick Klein, D.B. 

Benjamin Franklin Koons, b.a. ) 
Oberlin College. S 

Samuel Waldron Lambert, b.a. 

Calvin MeCormick, b.a. 
Franklin College, Ind. 
Dwight Porter, ph.b. 
Frederick Sumner Smith, b.a. 
Heman Bangs Smith, m.d. 



.A.) 
i. ) 



Bratlleboro, Vt. 


34 s. If. 


Louisville, Ky. 


92 w. 


New Britain, 


16 & ii. 


Abingdon, III. 


1 G9 Temple st. 


Marquette, Mich. 


114 College st. 


New Haven, 


527 Chapel St. 


Toledo, 0. 


167 Crown st. 


Cranford, N. T. 


6^ York sq. 


New Haven, 


298 Chapel st. 


Grinnell, Iowa, 


90 Whalley av. 


New Haven, 


62 Prospect st. 


Norwich, 


464 Chapel st. 


New Haven, 


85 Trumbull st. 


New Haven, 


14 Whalley av. 


Sulphur Springs, 0. 


36 Court st. 


New York City, 


90 High st. 


Franklin, Ind. 


215 York St. 


Hartford, 


14 s. H. 


New Haven, 


78 Trumbull st. 


Westville, 


Westville. 


Graduate 


Students, 20. 



28 



SHEFFIKLD SCIENTIFIC SCHOOL. 



SENIOR CLASS. 



Charles Francis Adams, 
Ethan Allen Andrews, 
Edward Bailey, Jr., 
Frank Lewis Bigelow, 
George Frederick Bosworth, 
Lester Paige Breckenridge, 
Charles Sheldon Burnham, 
Charles Monroe Carpenter, Jr., 
Howard Field Chappell, 
George Strong Daniels, 
Charles Manville Downs, 
John Slade Ely, 
George Sherman Folsom, 
Seymour Francis Frasick, 
Albert Moses Gerstle, 
Henry llolbrook Gladding, 
William Loomis Griswold, 
Frederic Jonathan Hiller, 
Samuel Higgins, 
Blain Jamison, 
Jeme Tien Yow, 
Edmund Parker Lord, 
Richard Becker Lyon, 
Silas Metzger, 
Edwin Kirtland Morse, 
Marcus Daty Munn, 
Marvin Olcott, 
Owyang Keng, 
Francis Stuyvesant Peabody, 
Oliver Phelps, 
Addison Alexander Righter, 
George Lewis Sargent, 
Louis Jacob Schiller, 
Bernard Joseph Shanley, 
Frank Augustus Smith, 
Henry Taber, 
John Heyward Trumbull, 
Richard Lindsay Trumbull, 
1 I<>\v;ird VanRensselaer, 
Frank Charles Warner, 
Robert William Watson, 
William Meeker Wood, 
Arthur Burnham Woodford, 
Clark Wright, 
Willis Benton Wright, 



Jessups, Md. 
Tarrytown, N. Y. 
Harrisburg, Pa. 
New Haven, 
Milford. 
Westjield, Mass. 
Woodbridge, 
Brooklyn, N. Y. 
Chicago, III. 
New York City, 
New Haven, 
New York City, 
Northford, 
Hartford, 
Youngstown, 0. 
New Haven, 
Banks* ill . 
Cohoes, N. Y. 
Buffalo, N. Y. 
New Orleans, La. 
Canton, China, 
Saxonville, Mass. 
New Haven, 
New Haven, 
Poland, 0. 
Southington, 
Coming, N. Y. 
Canton, China, 
Chicago, 111. 
Canandaigua, N. Y. 
M toot ■'■. A". J. 
New Hi i i //. 
New Haven, 
New Haven, 
New Haven, 
New York City, 
Talcahuano, Chili. 
Talcahuano, Chili, 
Albany, N. Y. 
West Suffield, 
Ashtabula, 0. 
Morristown, X. ./. 
West Winsted, 
West Roxbury, Mass. 
Cromwell, 



36 Elm st. 

175 Temple st. 

489 Chapel st. 

278 Orange st. 

94 Olive st. 

6-i York sq. 

Watson st. 

134 College st. 

36 Elm st. 

7:: w. 

70 Wooster st. 

71 w. 

161 George st. 

99 Wall st. 

6 Orange st. 

170 Martin st 

173 Whalley av. 

71 W. 

85 W. 
489 Chapel st. 

44 Elm st. 

sc, w. 

710 Chapel st. 

17 Grove st. 

49 Crown st. 

173 Whalley a v. 

86 w. 
169 Temple si. 

36 Elm st. 

92 w. 

7:; w. 

51 Elm st. 

s Martin St. 

211 Franklin st. 

36 Lyon st. 

A. 

41 Trumbull st. 

41 Trumbull st. 

23 Prospect st. 

1 1 College st. 

489 Chapel st. 

489 Chapel st. 

116 College st. 

82 Wall st. 

88 Grove st. 

Seniors, 45. 



STUDENTS. 



29 



JUNIOR CLASS. 



Horace Ellsworth Andrews, 
George Jackson Angell, 

Alfred Warren Armstrong, 
Charles Noyes Batcheller, 
Henry Jonathan Biddle, 
Francis Hayes Blake, 
Nathan Gross Bozeman, 
Frederick Casper, 
Charles Chamberlain, 
William Anson Chamberlin. 
Kii Yung Chun, 
William Henry Crocker, 
Walter Root Downs, 
James John Drummond, 
Robert Ogden DuBois, 
George Mortimer Dunham, 
Richard Lawrence Everit, 
Herbert Waldron Faulkner, 
William Alanson Hall, 
Alexander Bryan Johnson, 
Herbert Deatherage Lacey, 
Frederick William La Forge, 
Frank Judsou Lambert, 
Norman Smith Latham, 
Cassius Samuel Lyman, 
Nathaniel White Lynde, 
William Danforth MacQuesten, 
Sheldon Elton Minor, 
Nagamoto Okabe, 
Edward E. Paramore, 
Lewis Valentine Pirsson, 
Harry Smith Pope, 
James Edward Pope, Jr., 
John Hutchinson Robinson, 
Robert Browning Rood, 
Charles Edward Stockder, Jr., 
Fred Moore Strong, 
Arthur Graham Thompson, 
Edwin Thome, 
Thomas Pearsall Thorne, ' 
Walter Joy Vought, 
Edward Loder Whittemore, 
Alfred Buckingham Willcox, 
Chauncey Pratt Williams, Jr., 
S. Lawrence Williams, 
Chan Lok Wing, 



Cleveland, 0. 

Brooklyn, X. Y. 
Cleveland, 0. 
Wallmgjbrd, 17. 
Philadelphia, /'". 
X, w ll(i' < a. 
New York City, 
West Meriden, 
Brooklyn, N. Y. 
New lhi' I'". 
Canton, China, 
San Francisco, Cat. 
New Haven, 
Winfield, III. 
New Haven, 
Unionville, 
New Haven, 
Stamford, 
Morris, 

Utica, N Y. 
Brooklyn, N. T. 

Waterbury, 
Xi ir Haven, 
North Manchester, 
Holyoke, Mass. 

West Brookfield, Mass. 

Washington, D. C. 
Thomaston, 

Tokio, Japan, 

St. Louis, Mo. 
New York City, 
Jersey City, N. J. 
Jersey City, N J. 

Lake Village, Ark. 

Great Barrington, Mass. 

West Meriden, 

< hicago, 111. 

Milford, 

New York City. 

Mil/brook, N. Y. 

Buffalo, N. Y. 

Rye, N. Y. 

Chicago, ill. 

Albany, N. Y. 

Chicago, 111. 

China, 



43 College st. 
43 College st. 
43 College st. 
6$ York sq. 
36 Elm st. 
Mill Rock. 
196 Crown st. 
529 Chapel st. 
489 Chapel st. 
30 Trumbull st. 
44 Rim st. 
36 Elm st. 
64 LaFayette st. 
6 J- York sq. 
328 Howard av. 
1 09 Elm st. 
2,si Whitney av. 
233 York st. 
95 Wooster st. 
83 W. 
36 Elm st. 
6^ York sq. 
12 Eld st. 
120 Dwight st. 
25 Prospect st. 
6| York sq. 
167 Temple st. 
167 Temple st. 
92 Grove st. 
36 Elm st. 
121 Park st. 
61 w. 
61 w. 
215 York st. 
167 Temple st. 
6£ York sq. 
36 Kim st. 
43 College st. 
65 Whitney av. 
65 Whitney av. 
85 w. 
76 w. 
76 Vf. 
36 Elm st. 
36 Elm st. 
44 Kim st. 
Juniors, 46. 



30 



SHEFFIELD SCIENTIFIC SCHOOL. 



FRESHMAN CLASS. 



Paul Whitin Abbott, 
Gustavo Alfonso, 
Johu Alplieus Allen, 
Theodore Davenport Bacon, 
Benjamin Safford Barrows, 
George Andrew Barrows, 
Henr3 r Dudley Barry, 
John Bartholomew, 
Frederic Robinson Bartlett, 
Frederick Elijah Beach, 
Henry Whitney Berryman, 
William Williams Bond, 
Isaac Judson Boothe, 
Charles Allan Bowles, 
Frederick Truman Bradley, 
Charles Parker Breese, 
Charles Sumner Brown, 
Charles Milo Carpenter, 
Horace Raymond Carpenter, 
Fred Willis Chapman, 
Samuel Myron Chase, 
Harry Nelson Covell, 
Wayne Darlington, 
Edward Bradford Dench, 
Henry Kelsey Devereux, 
Edward Peers Eastwick, Jr. 
Frank Hynard Edsall, 
noratio South worth Frazer, 
Harry Brainard Oaylord, 
Charles Lockwood Gold, 
Charles Stewart Hall, 
George Vance Harper, 
William Harper, 
William Howard Hart, 
Allen Hubbard, 
Arthur Henry Jackson, 
llrurv Clay Johnson, 
Wylie Brantley Jones, 
Tpu Ye Ki, 
William Klein, 
John Elmer Lockwood, 
William Ellison Lockwood, 
James Lyman, 
John Lyman, 
George Smith Hunt McDowell, 



New Haven, 
New York City, 
New Haven, 
Norwich, 
Hartford, 
Philadelphia, Pa. 
Constantino, Mich. 
Guilford, 
Freeport, III. 
New Haven, 
New York City, 
New London, 
Birmingham, 
Springfield, Mass. 
New II 
Mi i iden. 
East Hampton, 
Madison, Wise. 
Afton, N. Y. 
Chico, Cat. 
Chicago, 111. 
Stamford, 
West Chester, Pa. 
Bridgeport, 
Cleveland, 0. 
New York City, 
Hamburgh, 
Holyoke, Mass. 
New Haven, 
West Cornwall, 
Warren, 0. 
Sing Sing, N Y. 
Shippensburg, Pa. 
New Haven, 
Weslfield, Mass. 
New Haven, 
Rome, Ga. 
New Ha\ en, 
Shanghai, China, 
New Haven, 
Stamford, 
Stamford, 
MiddlifMd, 
Middlifi Id, 
Portland, Me. 



257 Church St. 

88 Wall st. 

1 89 Temple st. 

247 Church st. 

L28 High st. 

114 College st. 

29 Prospect st. 

15 Wooster pi. 

192 York st. 

33 Lyon st. 

117 York st. 

33 Prospect st. 

84 Wall st. 

94 Grove st. 

142 Orange st. 

529 Chapel St. 

12 Trumbull st. 

167 Temple st. 

1G2 York st. 

82 Wall st. 

184 York st. 

200 York st. 

120 High st. 

18 E. 

55 Trumbull st. 

192 York st. 

128 High st. 

134 College st. 

40 Academy st. 

49 Grove st. 

49 Grove st. 

82 Wall st. 

82 Wall st. 

82 Trumbull st. 

&] York sq. 

12 Warren st. 

153 Crown st. 

89 Wooster st. 

i n Bigh st. 

86 Nicoll st. 

146 Dixwcll av. 

146 Dixwell av. 

107 w. 

107 W. 

33 Prospect st. 



STUDENTS. 



31 



John Henry Mann, 
Donald Grant Mitchell. Jr. 
Oliver Rockwell Morgan, 
John Edmund Xewell, 
Henry Curtis Nutt, 
Prank Spooner Parrott, 
(Joorge Shipman Payson, 
Edward Wells Penfield. 
David Murdoch Pratt, 
Willie Sherman Randall, 
Robert Ranlet, 
Albert William Robert, 
Joseph Warren Rogers, Jr. 
Alfred Hughes Rowe, 
Frederick Baylies Samson, 
Charles Lansing Say re, 
Horace Lee Simpson, 
Ebenezer Hubbard Skinner, 
Joseph Allen Skinner, 
Edward Irving Stone, 
John Edwards Stryker, 
Elmer Ellsworth Thompson, 
Charles Ridgway VanBlarcom. 
Alonzo Felton Wood, Jr. 
Alexander Wurts, 
Robert Hawthorne Wylie, 



Utica, X. Y. 

Edge wood, 
Glastonbury, 
Chicago, III. 

Chicaijo. III. 
Bridgeport, 
Chicago, III. 
Chicago, Ill- 
El mini, N. Y. 
Birmingham, 
Holyoke, Mass. 
New York City, 
Scarborough, N. Y. 
Fair Haven, 
Richmond, Ind. 
Utica, N. Y. 
Pensacola, Fla. 
Escambia, Fla. 
Holyoke, Mass. 
Bethlehem, 
Catskill, N. Y. 
St. Louis, Mo. 
Cornwall, N. Y. 
West Haven, 
New Haven, 
Chester, S. C. 



116 w. 

8 1 Wall St. 

187 Temple st. 

464 Chapel st. 

489 Chapel st. 

36 Elm st. 

464 Chapel st. 

94 I irove st. 

198 Crown st. 

72 High st. 

134 College st. 

231 Orange st. 

82 Wall st. 

Pair Haven. 

1G5 Temple st. 

L16 w. 

19S Crowu st. 

198 Crown st. 

146 College st. 

365 Orchard st. 

29 Prospect st. 

55 Trumbull st. 

88 Wall st. 

77 George st. 

65 Whitney av. 

258 Orange st. 

Freshmen, 71. 



SPECIAL STUDENTS NOT CANDIDATES FOR A DEGREE. 



Louis Asta Buruaga, 
John Lindley Coates, 
Glover Edward Sanford, 
Joseph Singler, 
Hiram Colin Slavens, 
Warren A. Spalding, 
William Bradbury Spring, 
William Fletcher Stone, 
William Petit Trowbridge, Jr. 



Santiago, Chili. 
Kansas City, Mo. 
Bridgeport, 
Ansonia, 

Kansas City, Mo. 
Neiv Haven, 
Portland, Me. 
New Haven, 
New Haven, 



258 Orange st. 

66 w. 

494 Chapel st. 

Ansonia. 
60 vr. 
89 Church st. 
36 Elm st. 
143 Lamberton st. 
82 Prospect st. 
Special Students, 9. 



SUMMARY. 

Graduates, - - - - - 20 

Seniors, ..... 45 

Juniors, - - - - - 46 

Freshmen, - - - - - 71 

Special, ..... 9 

Total, - - - - - 191 



SHEFFIELD SCIENTIFIC SCHOOL. 



i. 

OBJECTS. 

The Sheffield Scientific School is devoted to instruction 
and researches in the mathematical, physical, and natural sciences, 
with reference to the promotion and diffusion of science, and also 
to the preparation of young men for such pursuits as require 
especial proficiency in these departments of learning. It is one of 
the Departments of Yale College, like the law, medical, theologi- 
cal, and ait schools, having its separate funds, buildings, teachers, 
and regulations, but governed by the Corporation of Yale Col- 
lege, which appoints the professors and confers the degrees. It 
is, in part, analogous to the academic department, or classical col- 
lege, and, in part, to the professional schools. 

The instruction is intended for two classes of students : — 

I. Graduates of this or of other Colleges, and other persons 
qualified for advanced or special scientific study. 

II. Undergraduates who desire a training chiefly mathematical 
and scientific, in less part linguistic and literary, for higher scien- 
tific studies, or for various other occupations to which such 
training is suited. 

II. 
HISTORY AND ORGANIZATION. 

The School was commenced in 1847. In 1860, a convenient 
building and a considerable endowment were given by Joseph E. 
Sheffield, Esq., of New Haven, whose name at the repeated 
request of the Corporation of Yale College, was afterward 
attached to the foundation. Mr. Sheffield has since frequently 
and munificently increased his original gifts. 

In 1863, by an act of the Connecticut Legislature, the national 
grant for the promotion of scientific education (under the con- 
gressional enactment of July, 1862) was given to this department 
of Yale College. Since that time, and especially since the autumn 
of 1869, numerous liberal gifts have been received from the citi- 



34 SHEFFIELD SCIENTIFIC SCHOOL. 

zens of New Haven, and from other gentlemen in Connecticut, 
New York, and St. Louis, for the endowment of the School, and . 
the increase of its collections. 

The action of the State led to the designation by law of a State 
Board of Visitors, consisting of the Governor, Lieutenant-Gov- 
ernor, three senior Senators, and the Secretary of the State Board 
of Education; and this Board, with the Secretary of the Scien- 
tific School, is also the Board for the appointment of students to 
hold the State scholarships. 

At the request, of the Governing Board, the Corporation of 
Yale College has also appointed a Board of Councillors for the 
School, consisting of a number of gentlemen who have taken a 
deep interest in its welfare. 

The Governing Board consists of the President of Yale Col- 
lege and the Professors who are permanently attached to the 
School. There are several other instructors associated with them, 
a part of whom are connected with other departments of the 
College. 

III. 

BUILDINGS AND APPARATUS. 

The two buildings in which the work of instruction in the 
Scientific School is mainly carried on are called Sheffield Hall and 
North Sheffield Hall ; but instruction in Mineralogy, Geology, 
and Biology, including Zoology and Comparative Anatomy, is 
now given entirely in the Peabody Museum. These halls con- 
tain a large number of recitation and lecture rooms, a hall for 
public assemblies and lectures, chemical and metallurgical labora- 
tories, a photographical room, an astronomical observatory, 
museums, a library and reading room, besides studies for some of 
the professors, where their private technical libraries arc kept. 

The following is a summary statement of the collections belong- 
ing to the School : 

1. Laboratories and Apparatus in Chemistry, Metallurgy, Physics, Photography, 

and Zoologj'. 
•>. Metallurgical Museum of Ores, Furnace Products, etc. 

3. Agricultural Museum of Soils, Fertilizers, useful and injurious insects, etc 
-1. Collections in Zoology. 
5. Astrononiieal I (bservatory, w Lfch an equatorial telescope by Claris and Sons of 

Cambridge, a meridian circle, etc. 
G. A Collection of Mechanical Apparatus, constituting the " Collier Cabinet.'' 



GRADUATE AND SPECIAL STUDENTS. 35 

7. Models in Architecture, Geometrical Drawing, Civil Engineering, Topographi- 

cal Engineering, and Mechanics ; diagrams adapted to public lectures ; in- 
struments for field practice. 

8. Maps and Charts, topographical, hydrographical, geological, etc. 

The herbarium of Professor Brewer, and the astronomical instruments of Profes- 
sor Lyman, are deposited in the buildings. Professor Eaton's herbarium, 
near at hand, is freely accessible. Students also have access to the various 
laboratories and collections in Natural Science in the Peabody Museum. 

Students are also admitted, under varying conditions, to the 
College and Society libraries, the College Heading Room, the 
School of the Fine Arts, and the Gymnasium. 

IV. 

THE LIBRARY. 

The special technical library of the Scientific School consists of 
about five thousand volumes. Included in this is the " Hillhouse 
Mathematical Library" of twenty-four hundred volumes, collected 
during a long series of years by Dr. William Hillhouse, and in 
1870 purchased and presented to the Institution by Mr. Sheffield. 
A catalogue of this collection forms a supplement to the Animal 
Report of the Governing Board for 1870. All the prominent sci- 
entific journals of this country and of Europe, together with the 
proceedings of foreign academies, and of scientific societies, can be 
found either in this library or in the College Library to which 
students have access. 

V. 

INSTRUCTION FOR GRADUATE AND SPECIAL 
STUDENTS. 

Persons who have gone through undergraduate courses of study, 
here or elsewhere, may avail themselves of the facilities of the 
School for more special professional training in the physical sci- 
ences and their applications, gaining in one, two, or three years 
the degree of Bachelor of Philosophy, or, in two additional 
years of Engineering study, that of Civil Engineer, or of 
Dynamic Engineer. 

Or, engaging in studies of a less exclusively technical character, 
they may become candidates for the degree of Doctor of Philos- 
ophy. The instruction in such cases will be adapted to the par- 
ticular needs and capacities of each student, and may be combined 
with that given by the graduate instructors in other departments 
of the University. This degree is conferred upon those who, hav- 



36 SHEFFIELD SCIENTIFIC SCHOOL. 

ing already taken a Bachelor's degree, engage as students in the 
Department of Philosophy and the Arts for not less than two 
years in assiduous and successful study. It is not given upon 
examination to those whose studies are pursued elsewhere. The 
requirements for it will in some cases exact of the student more 
than two years of .post-graduate labor ; so, especially, wherever 
the course of undergraduate study has been, as in the Scientific 
School, of less than four years. The candidate must pass a satis- 
factory final examination, and present a thesis giving evidence of 
high attainment in the branches of knowledge to which he has 
attended. A good knowledge of Latin, German and French will 
be required in all cases, unless, for some exceptional reason, the 
candidate he excused hy the Faculty. The graduating fee is ten 
dollars. 

Subjects likely to receive special attention are suggested as 
follows : 

Professor Norton will instruct in applied mechanics and in 
spherical astronomy. 

Professor Lyman, in the use of meridional and other astronom- 
ical instruments, and in astronomical spectroscopy. 

Professor DuBois, in the principles of thermodynamics, and 
utilization of heat as a source of power. 

Professor Brush, in the analysis and determination of mineral 
species, and in descriptive mineralogy. 

Professor Johnson, in theoretical, analytical, and agricultural 
chemistry. 

Professor Brewer, in agriculture and forest culture, in the use 
of the microscope, and in physical geography. 

Professor Clark, in definite integrals, differential equations, 
analytical mechanics, the theory of numerical approximations, and 
the method of least squares. 

Professor Eaton, in structural and systematic botany, including 
the North American flora and the description of genera and 
species. 

Professor Walk Kit, in public finance and in the statistics of 
industry. 

Professor Allen, in analytical chemistry, and in metallurgy. 

Professor Vekrill, and Professor Smith, in zoology and geol- 
ogy. 

The same courses of study are open, for a longer or shorter time, 
to graduate students who do not desire to become candidates for 
a degree. 



GRADUATE AND SPECIAL BTUDENTS. 37 

Students who have taken the degree of Bachelor of Philosophy, 
may obtain the degree of Civil or of Dynamic Enijineei; at the 
end of two academical years, by pursuing the following higher 
course of study and professional training. 

The course of study for the degree of ClVIL Engineer will 
comprise — 

1. Higher Calculus. Higher Geometry. Theory of Numerical Operations. 

2. Analytical Mechanics. Mechanics applied to Engineering. 

3. A Course of Construction and Design. Projects. 

4. Practical Astronomy, with use of instruments, computations, etc. 

This course will occupy one year. 

To secure the requisite amount of professional knowledge and 
practice, the candidate will be required to furnish a comprehensive 
report of the results of an examination into the existing condition 
of some special line of constructive art ; or to present proper evi- 
dence that he has had actual charge in the field, for several months, 
of construction or surveying parties, or held some responsible 
position deemed equivalent to this. 

An elaborate design must also be submitted of some projected 
work of construction, based upon exact data obtained from care- 
ful surveys made by the candidate, and comprising all the requi- 
site calculations, and the necessary detailed drawings, and accom- 
panied by full specifications of the work to be done, and the 
requirements to be met by the contractor. 

The fee for this degree is five dollars. 

The course of study for the degree of Dynamic Engine er will 
comprise — 

1. Higher Calculus. Higher Geometry. Theory of Numerical Operations. 

2. General Principles of Dynamics (Analytical Mechanics), including special 

application of these principles to Dynamical problems. 

3. Construction of Machines. Designs. 

4. Preparation of theses on special subjects in Dynamic Engineering. 

During the second year candidates will be permitted to employ 
such a portion of their time as may be deemed advisable or neces- 
sary in the examination of engineering works and manufacturing 
establishments, and may also have the privilege of entering upon 
professional practice, provided it is done with the knowledge and 
consent of the Professor of Dynamic Engineering, and under such 
circumstances as shall appear to him to be favorable to profes- 
sional progress. 



38 SHEFFIELD SCIENTIFIC SCHOOL. 

An elaborate thesis on some professional subject, with an orig- 
inal design, or project, accompanied by proper working drawings, 
will be required at the end of the second year. 

The fee for this degree is five dollars. 

Special Students. — For the benefit of those who, being fully 
qualified, desire to pursue particular studies without reference to 
the obtaining of a degree, special or irregular students are received 
in most of the departments of the School; not, however, in the 
Select Course or in the Freshman Class. 

It should be distinctly understood that these opportunities are 
not offered to persons who are incompetent to go on with regular 
courses, but are designed to aid those who, having received a suffi- 
cient preliminary education elsewhere, desire to increase their pro- 
ficiency in special branches. 

VI. 

REQUIREMENTS FOR ADMISSION AND COURSES OF 
INSTRUCTION FOR UNDERGRADUATE STUDENTS. 

Terms of Admission. — Candidates must be not less than 
fifteen years of age, and must bring satisfactory testimonials of 
moral character from their former instructors or other responsible 
persons. 

For admission to the Freshman Class the student must pass a 
thorough examination in the following subjects: 

English — including grammar, spelling and composition. In grammar. Whitney's 
Essentials of English Grammar, or an equivalent. 

History of the United States. 

Geography. 

Latin — six books of Caesar's Commentaries, or their equivalent, and simple exer- 
cises in prose composition. 

Arithmetic — including the metric system of weights and measures. 

Algebra — so much as is contained in Loomis's Treatise, up to the general theory 
of equations. 

Geometry — Plane, solid and spherical : including fundamental notions of sym- 
metry, and examples of loci and of maxima and minima of plane figures: — 
an equivalent of the nine books of Cbauvenet's Treatise, or of the ten books 
of Loomis's Elements and the Appi-ndix up to the section on Transversals. 

Trigonometry — including the analytical theory of the trigonometrical functions, 
and the usual Formulae; the construction and use of trigonometrical tables ; 
and the solution of plane triangles; — SO much, for example, as is contained 
in Wheeler's Plane Trigonometry (Uoston, 1817), or Bichards's Plane Trigo- 
nometry (New York, 1878). 



REQUIREMENTS FOR ADMISSION. 39 

While no entrance examination is held in the History of England, candidates 
for admission are urgently advised to make themselves as familiar as possible 
with that subject * as a knowledge of it is essential to the most successful prose- 
cution of some of the studies of the course. 

Candidates will bo allowed the option of passing on the above- 
named subjects in two successive years. In such a ease they 
must present themselves for examination at the June examination 
of the first year in the following subjects or parts of subjects : 
History of the Dinted /States, Geography, Arithmetic, Plane 
Geometry, and Algebra to Quadratic Equations. 

In order to have this preliminary examination counted, candi- 
dates must pass satisfactorily on all the subjects ; and notice must 
be given of the intention to divide the examination to Professor 
G. J. Brush, Executive Officer of the School, on or before 
June 15th. 

In his preparation in Geometry the candidate should, as far as practicable, 
have suitable exercises in proving simple theorems and solving simple prob- 
lems for himself. It is important, too, that he should be accustomed to the 
numerical application of geometric principles, and especially to the prompt recol- 
lection and vise of the elementary formula' of mensuration. In Trigonometry he 
should be exercised in applying the usual formulae to a variety of simple reduc- 
tions and transformations, including the solution of trigonometrical equations. 
Readiness and accuracy in trigonometrical calculations are also of prime im- 
portance to the candidate. If the use of logarithms is postponed in his prepara- 
tion till Trigonometry is taken up (which is by no means necessary or advisable), 
he should then have abundant application of them to all forms of calculation 
occurriug iu ordinary practice, as well as to those appearing in the solution of 
triangles. Finally, in all of his calculations, he should study the art of neat, 
orderly, and readily intelligible arrangement. 

In LATIN, in order to secure the attainment of the required proficiency, the stu- 
dent should have such continued training in parsing as shall make him thoroughly 
familiar with declensions and conjugations, and accurate and ready in the appli- 
cation of the rules of syntax. As an additional guarantee of the proper mastery 
of these grammatical elements, the requirement has been adopted of " simple exer- 
cises in prose composition.'' By this is meant merely, such a course of element- 
ary exercises in translation, orally and iu writing, from English into Latin as, in 
connection with the systematic parsing just mentioned, shall necessitate a famili- 
arity with grammatical forms and the leading principles of syntax, and thus ren- 
der the reading of the six books of C;esar (or their equivalent) more thorough and 
fruitful. Since this course of elementary exercises in translation is designed as a 
preparation for reading, and not as a sequel to it, it should be invariably begun at 
the earliest stage of the study of Latin. To avoid any misapprehension of the 
nature of the extent of the requirement, the following works are specifically, 
named, among which the candidate for examination may make his own selection, 



40 SHEFFIELD SCIENTIFIC SCHOOL. 

These are Harkness's "Introduction to Latin Composition," 112 pages; Leigh- 
ton's l; Latin Lessons," 91 pages; Smith's '' Principia Latina," Parti.; MeClin- 
tock's "First Latin Book," 83 lessons (193 pp.). Any equivalent of these may be 
offered from the many useful books of a similar character. A knowledge of Pros- 
ody is not required. 

The examinations for admission take place at North Sheffield 
Hall, on Thursday, Friday, and Saturday, June 30, July 1, 2, and 
on Tuesday and Wednesday, September 13, 14, 1881. Opportun- 
ity for private examinations may, in exceptional cases, be given 
at other times. 

In 1881 examinations (for the Freshman Class only) will also 
be held in Chicago and in Cincinnati (beginning on Thursday, June 
30, at 9 a. m.), at a place to be announced in the local newspapers 
of the day previous. Candidates who propose to be present are 
requested to send their names to Professor G. J. Brush, Execu- 
tive Officer of the School, before June 15. A fee of five dollars 
will be charged for admission to these examinations. 

Candidates for advanced standing in the undergraduate classes 
are examined, in addition to the preparatory studies, in those 
already pursued by the class they wish to enter. No one can be 
admitted as a candidate for a degree, later than at the beginning 
of the Senior year. 

The Courses of Instruction, occupying three years, are 
arranged to suit the requirements of various classes of students. 
The first year's work is the Name for all; for the last two years 
the instruction is chiefly arranged in special courses. The special 
courses'most distinctly marked out are the following : — 

(a.) In Chemistry ; 

(6.) In Civil Engineering ; 

(c.) In Dynamical (or Mechanical) Engineering; 

(d.) In Agriculture; 

(e.) In Natural History; 

(/.) In Biology preparatory to Medical Studies ; 

(g.) In studies preparatory to (fining and Metallurgy; 

fh.) In Select studies preparatory to oilier higher studies. 

The arrangement of the studies is indicated in the annexed 
scheme. 

FRESHMAN FEAR— INTRODUCTORY TO ALL THE COURSES. 

Fiiisr Term — German — Whitney's Grammar and Reader. English — Louns- 

bury's History of the English Language; Exercises in Composition. Mathematics 

Analytical Geometry Physics — Atkinson's Qanot, with experimental lectures. 

Chemistry — Recitations and Laboratory Practice. Elementary Drawing — Prac- 
tical Lessons in the Art School. 



COURSES OF STUDY. 41 

Second Term — Language, Physics, and Chemistry — as stated above. Mathe- 
matics — Spherical Trigonometry (Wheeler's); Elements of Mechanics. Physical 
Geography — Lectures. Botany — Gray's Lessons, with Lectures. Political Econ- 
omy — Elementary Lectures. Drawing — Isometric Drawing, with application to 
drawing from models and structures by measurement. Shading and tinting. 
Principles of orthographic projection. Reading of working drawings and iso- 
metric construction of objects from their orthographic projections. Sections. 

For the Junior and Senior, years the students select for them- 
selves one of the following courses : 

(a.) IN CHEMISTRY. 

JUNIOR YEAR \ 

First Term — Theoretical Chemistry — Lectures and Recitations. Qualitative 
Analysis — Fresenius's. Laboratory Practice. Blowpipe Analysis. German. 
French. 

Second Term — Laboratory Practice — Quantitative Analysis. Mineralogy — 
Blowpipe Analysis and Determination of Species. Lectures. French. German. 

SENIOR YEAR : 

First Term — Organic Chemistry — Lectures and Recitations. Agricultural 
Chemistry — Recitations (optional). Laboratory Practice— Volumetric and Organic 
Analysis. Geology — Dana's. Zoology — Lectures. French. 

Second Term — Laboratory Practice — Mineral Analysis and Assaying. Geology 
— Dana's Manual. Metallurgy (optional). Mineralogy (optional). French. 

(b.) IN CIVIL ENGINEERING. 

JUNIOR YEAR : 

First Term — Mathematics— Elements of the Theory of Functions; Numerical 
Equations ; Differential Calculus. Surveying — Field Operations. Drawing — 
Descriptive Geometry, begun. German. French. 

Second Term — Mathematics— Integral Calculus. Rational Mechanics. Draw- 
ing — Descriptive Geometry, concluded. Topographical. Surveying — Topograph- 
ical. Gei' man. French. 

SENIOR YEAR '. 

First Term — Field Engineering — Laying out Curves. Location of line of Rail- 
road, with calculations of Excavation and Embankment. Hencks's Field Book 
for Railroad Engineers. Civil Engineering — Resistance of Materials. Bridges 
and Roofs, begun. Stone Cutting, with Graphical problems. Geology — Dana's. 
Mineralogy — Blowpipe Analysis and Determinative Mineralogy. French. 



42 SHEFFIELD SCIENTIFIC SCHOOL. 

Second Tekm — Civil Engineering — Bridges and Roofs. Building Materials. 
Stability of Arches and Walls. Mahan's Civil Engineering. Dynamics — Princi- 
ples of Mechanism. Steam Engine. Hydraulics — Hydraulics and Hydraulic- 
Motors. Drawing — Graphical Statics. Astronomy — Loomis's Astronomy, with 
practical problems. Mineralogy — continued. Geology — Dynamic. French. 

(c.) IN DYNAMIC ENGINEERING. 

JUNIOR YEAR : 

First Term — Mathematics — Elements of the Theory of Functions ; Numerical 
Equations ; Differential Calculus. Surceying — Field Practice. Drawing — De- 
scriptive Geometr}', begun. German. French. 

Second Term — Mathematics — Integral Calculus. Rational Mechanics. Kine- 
matics — General Theory of Motion and Principles of Mechanism ; Elementary 
Combinations of pure Mechanism ; Pulleys and Belts ; Gearing and forms of teeth 
for wheels; Parallel Motions. Drawing — Descriptive Geometry, concluded. 
German. French. 

SENIOR YEAR : 

First Term — Statics — Application of the Principles of Statics to Rigid Bodies ; 
Elasticity and Strength of Materials; Forms of Uniform Strength; Stability of 
Structures; Construction of Roof Trusses, Girders, and Iron Bridges. Machine 
Drawing — Bolts and Nuts; Riveting; Journals, Axles, Shafts, Couplings, Pillow 
Blocks ; Shaft-hangers, Pulleys ; Connecting Rods and Cranks ; Cross-heads ; 
Pipe Connections ; Yalves ; Steam Cylinders, Stuffing Boxes, Glands, etc. Shop 
Visits. Blowpipe Analysis. French. 

Second Term — Hydrostatics and Hydrodynamics — Equilibrium and Pressure of 
fluids ; Hydrometers, Manometers, Gauges, etc. ; Water Pressure Engines and 
AVater Wheels; Construction of Water Reservoirs and Conduits; Measurements 
of Water Supply; Discharge of Pipes.. Thermodynamics — General principle of 
Heat employed as a source of power ; Theory of the Steam Engine ; Hot Air 
Engines; Gas Engines. Machine Designing — Proportioning of Machine Parts, 
continued. Designing of Hoisting Engines; Shearing and Pumping Engines; 
complete working drawings for a high speed Steam Engine. Shop Visits and 
Reports. Metallurgy. 

(d.) IN AGRICULTURE. 

JUNIOR VKAR : 

First Term — Theoretical Chemistry — Lectures and Recitations. Qualitative 
Analysis — Fresenius's. Laboratory Practice. Blow])ipe Analysis. German. 
French. 

Second Term — Laboratory Practice — Quantitative Analysis. Mineralogy — 
Blowpipe Analysis and Determination of Species. Physical Geography — Lectures. 
Physiology — Huxley's. Botany — Lectures. French. German. 



COURSES OF STUDY. 43 

SENIOR YEAR \ 

First Term — Agriculture — Cultivation of the Staple Crops of the Northern 
States. Tree Planting and Forestry. Agricultural Chemistry— Johnson's. Or- 
ganic Chemistry — Lectures and Recitations. Geology — Daua's. Zoology. English. 
French. 

Second Term — Agriculture — Laws of Heredity and Principles of Breeding ; 
Lectures. Geology — Dana's. Rural Economy — History of Agriculture and 
Sketches of Husbandry in Foreign Countries; Systems of Husbandry. Agricul- 
tural Chemistry — Johnson's. Geology — Dana's. Zoology. ' Botany. Microscopy. 
English. French. 

(e.) IN NATURAL HISTORY. 

(Either Geology, Mineralogy, Zoology, or Botany, may be made the principal 
study, some attention in each case being directed to the other three branches of 
Natural History.) 

JUNIOR YEAR : 

First Term — Chemistry — Qualitative Analysis; Laboratory Practice; Recita- 
tions. Mineralogy — Blowpipe Analysis and Determinative Mineralogy. Botany 
— Gray's Manual ; Laboratory Practice. German. French. 

Second Term — Zoology — Laboratory Practice ; Recitations ; Excursions (land 
and marine). Botany — Laboratory Practice ; Excursions. Physiology — Huxley's. 
Mineralogy — continued. Physical Geography. German. French. 

SENIOR year: 

First Term — Geology — Dana's; Excursions. Zoology — Laboratory Practice; 
Lectures ; Recitations ; Excursions. Botany — Herbarium Studies ; Gray's Text- 
book ; Excursions. French. 

Second Term — Geology — Dana's. Anatomy of Vertebrates — Huxley's. Zoology 
— Laboratory Practice ; Recitations ; Lectures. Botany — Herbarium Studies, 
especially in the Cryptogamous Orders ; Botanical Literature ; Essays in Descrip- 
tive Botany. Meteorology. French. 

Besides the regular courses of recitations and lectures on structural and sys- 
tematic Zoology and Botany, and ou special subjects, students are taught to pre- 
pare, arrange, and identify collections, to make dissections, to pursue original 
investigations, and to describe genera and species in the language of science. 
For these purposes, large collections in Zoology and Palaeontology belonging to 
the College are available, as are also the private botanical collections of Professor 
Eaton. 

(f.) IN BIOLOGY-PREPARATORY TO MEDICAL STUDIES. 

JUNIOR YEAR : 

First Term — Theoretical Chemistry — Lectures and Recitations. Qualitative 
Analysis — Fresenius's ; Laboratory Practice ; Recitations. Mineralogy — Blow- 
pipe Analysis and Determinative Mineralogy. German. French. 



44 SHEFFIELD SCIENTIFIC SCHOOL. 

Second Term — Physiology — Huxley'.-;, with Practical Exercises. Toxicology — 
Fresenius's; Laboratory Practice; Recitations and Lectures. Physiological 
Chemistry — Sanderson's Handbook ; Recitations and Laboratory Work Miner- 
alogy — continued. Botany — Lectures, Practical Exercises in Phenogamous 
Plants, and Excursions. German. French. 

SENIOR TEAK : 

First Term — Physiological Chemistry — continued. Organic Chemistry — Lec- 
tures and Recitations. Zoology — Lectures. Botany — Practical Exercises. Lec- 
tures and Excursions. Geology — Dana's Manual. French. 

Second Term — Comparative Anatomy and Histology — Laboratory Practice and 
Recitations. Geology — Dana's Manual. Zoology — Lectures. Laws of Heredity 
and Breeding — Lectures. French. 

(g.) IN STUDIES PREPARATORY TO MINING AND METALLURGY. 

Young men desiring to become Mining Engineers, can pursue the regular 
course in Civil and Mechanical Engineering, and at its close can spend a fourth 
year in the study of metallurgical chemistry, mineralogy, etc. 

(h.) IN THE SELECT STUDIES PREPARATORY TO OTHER 
HIGHER STUDIES. 

JUNIOR YEAR \ 

First Term — Mineralogy — Blowpipe Analysis and Determinative Mineralogy. 
Astronomy. English — Early English. History — Freeman's Outlines. French. 

German. 

Second Term — Mineralogy — Lectures. Physical Geography — Guyot; Lectures. 
Botany — Lectures; Excursions; Laboratory Practice. English — Cbauoer, Bacon, 
Shakspere. History — Freeman's Outlines, with Lectures. Polilical Economy — 
Rogers's Manual. German. French. 

SENIOR YEAR : 

First Term — Geology — Recitations and Excursions. Zoology — Lectures and 
Excursions. Linguistics — Whitney's Life and Growth of Language. English — 
Shakspere. History — Constitutional History of the United States; Lectures. 
Political Economy — Lectures. French. 

Second Term — Geology — continued. Meteorology — Lectures. Political Economy 
— Lectures. English — Shakspere, Milton, Dryden, Pope, and later authors. 
History — Political History of U. S. ; History of Europe from 1848; Lectures. 
French. 

Exercises in English Composition are required during the 
entire course from all the students. The preparation of grad- 
uation theses is among the duties of the Senior Year. 

Lectures on -Military Science and Tactics are annually given 
by General Abbott, and other officers of the Engineer Corps of 
the United States Army. 



METHODS OF INSTRUCTION. 45 

Drawing. — The course in drawing extends through the three 

years. During the first term of Freshman year, the students 
practice free-hand drawing at the Art School building, under the 
direction of Professor Nieineyer, of the Yale School of the Fine 
Arts. After the completion of the course in free-hand drawing, 
instruction is given by Mr. F. R. Honey, during the second term 
in the elementary principles of instrumental drawing, embracing 
Elementary projection drawing, Isometric drawing, and Descrip- 
tive Geometry as far as Warped Surfaces. This course is obliga- 
tory upon all. 

During the Junior and Senior years, instruction in drawing is 
obligatory only on the students in Civil and Mechanical Engin- 
eering. In the former year the system of instruction embraces 
shades and shadows, tinting, perspective, and warped surfaces. 
By this method all the problems in Descriptive Geometry are 
required to be worked out on the drawing-board instead of the 
black-board. The course extends through the entire year, and is 
under the direction of Mr. Honey. 

In Senior year, students are required to apply the principles of 
drawing already obtained to works of construction, under the 
general supervision of the Professors of Civil and of Dynamic 
Engineering. 

VII. 

METHODS OF INSTRUCTION. 

The instruction of this institution is given chiefly in small class 
rooms, in connection with recitations and by familiar lectures, 
illustrated by the apparatus at the command of the various 
teachers. In many studies weekly excursions are made for the 
purpose of collecting specimens and examining natural phenomena. 

In Chemistry and Metallurgy the students work several hours 
daily in well-appointed laboratories, under the direct superinten- 
dence of the instructors, and are guided through systematic 
courses of quantitative and qualitative analysis, assaying, and the 
blow-pipe determination of minerals and ores. 

In Botany, during the summer of Junior year, exercises in 
analyzing and identifying plants occur two or three times a week, 
followed by practice in writing characters and descriptions of 
plants from living specimens. Students are shown also the best 
methods of collecting and preserving for future study, specimens 
of Flowering Plants, Ferns, Mosses, Algae, etc. In the autumn 
5 



46 SHEFFIELD SCIENTIFIC SCHOOL. 

term of Senior year the work of the summer is continued. Stu- 
dents are encouraged to pursue special lines of Botanical investi- 
gation, and varied assistance is rendered them according to their 
needs. The final examination is intended to show what they 
have learned, and the collections they have made are considered 
to be of minor importance. 

In Zoology excursions are made during the third term of 
Junior and first term of Senior year, in company with the 
instructors, for the purpose of observing the habits and making 
collections of marine, fresh-water, and terrestrial animals of all 
classes. Each student is required to prepare and present for 
examination a collection containing a specified number of species, 
and illustrating the various classes of animals. He must also be 
able to pass an examination upon his collection, at least to the 
extent of explaining the classes and orders illustrated, and show- 
ing why particular specimens belong to the respective classes. 

In Geology excursions are made for the purpose of examining 
geological phenomena and making special collections of rocks and 
minerals. Each student is required to pass a satisfactory examina- 
tion on his collections at the end of the first term of Senior year. 

In addition to the above, a course of lectures is given every 
winter by the professors of the schools and others, on topics of 
popular interest. 

VIII. 

TUITION CHARGES. 

The charge for tuition for undergraduate students is Si 50 per 
year, payable, $55 at the beginning of the first and of the second 
term, and $40 at the middle of the second term. The special 
student of Chemistry has an additional charge of $70 per annum 
for chemicals and use of apparatus. He also supplies himself at 
his own expense with gas, flasks, crucibles, etc., the cost of which 
should not exceed $10 per term. A fee of $5 is charged members 
of the Freshman Class Cor chemicals and materials used in their 
laboratory practice, and the same fee is required from all (except 
Chemical Students) who lake the practical exercises in Blow-pipe 

Analysis and Determinative Mineralogy. A Pee of $5 a term will 
also be charged to the students in the Zoological laboratory, for 
materials and use of instruments. An additional charge of $5 is 
annually made to each student for the use of the College Heading 
Room and Gymnasium. 

For graduate students the charge tor tuition is $100 per year. 



TERMS AND VACATIONS. 47 

IX. 

CHURCH SITTINGS. 

Free sittings for students in this department of Yale College 
are provided as follows: in the Center Church (Cong.); in the 
Trinity (Epis.); and in the First Methodist Church. 

Those who prefer to pay for a sitting for a year, more or less, 
in the churches above mentioned, or in any other church of any 
denomination, will be aided on application to the Secretary of 
the School. 

Sittings in the Gallery of the College Chapel are free as hereto- 
fore to the students of this department. 

X. 

DEGREES. 

Students of this department, on the recommendation of the 
Governing Board, are admitted by the Corporation of Yale Col- 
lege to the following degrees. They are thus conferred : 

1. Bachelok op Philosophy : on those who complete any of 
the three-years courses of study, passing all the examinations in a 
satisfactory manner, and presenting a graduation thesis. 

The fee for graduation as Bachelor of Philosophy including the 
fee for Triennial Catalogues, Commencement Dinners, etc., is $10 ; 
unless the person taking the degree is also an academical gradu- 
ate, when it is but $5. 

2. Civil Engineer and Dynamical Engineer : The require- 
ments for these degrees are stated on pages 17-18. 

3. Doctor of Philosophy : The requirements for this degree 
are stated on page 16. 

XI. 

TERMS AND VACATIONS. 

The next academic year begins Thursday, September 15, 1881. 
The first term begins eleven weeks from Commencement-day and 
continues fourteen weeks : the second term begins on the second 
Thursday in January and continues until Commencement-day, 
with a Spring recess — usually of eight days — including Easter. 
(See Calendar, p. 2.) 



48 SHEFFIELD SCIENTIFIC SCHOOL. 

XII. 

ANNOUNCEMENT IN RESPECT TO STATE STUDENTS. 

The scholarships established in this School in consequence of 
the bestowal upon it of the Congressional grants are designed to 
aid young men who are in need of pecuniary assistance in fitting 
themselves for agricultural and mechanical pursuits of life. All 
applicants must be citizens of Connecticut. In case there are more 
applicants than vacancies, candidates will be preferred who have 
lost a parent in the military or naval service of the United States, 
and next to these such as are most in need of pecuniary assist- 
ance; and the appointments will be distributed as far as practi- 
cable among the several counties in proportion to their population. 
The appointing Board for the current year, consisting of the Board 
of Visitors of the State and the Secretary of the School, will meet 
.on June 28th, 1881, and at or about the same time in the year 
1882, due notice of which will be given by publication in every 
county of the State. All applications should be made previous 
to that time. Blank forms for application will be sent, when 
requested, by Professor George J. Brush, Secretary of the 
Appointing Board. 

XIII. 

ANNIVERSARY. 

The Anniversary of the School is held on Tuesday of the 
Commencement week in Yale College, when selections from the 
graduation theses are publicly read. The degrees are publicly 
conferred by the President and Fellows of Vale College on Com- 
mencement Day. • 



APPENDIX. 



ENTRANCE EXAMINATION PAPERS. 



The following are the papers for 1880, upon which applicants for admission 
were examined at the June and September examinations. 



50 SHEFFIELD SCIENTIFIC SCHOOL. 



ARITHMETIC. 

July, 1880. 

1. (a) Select the prime numbers between 1 and 50. 
(b) Find the prime factors of 6902. 

4_l 24- 

2. Find the value of -j- — — -, in its simplest form. 

3. Divide 0.10724 by 0.003125. 

4. How many stones 10 inches long, 9 inches broad, and 4 inches 
thick, would it require to build a wall 80 feet long, 20 feet high 
and 2\ feet thick, without mortar? 

5. The population of a certain town has gained 25 per cent, 
within the last five years. It is now 6575 ; what was it five years 
ago? 

6. Extract the square root of 3369 to three places of decimals. 

7. Give the approximate value of the meter in inches ; of the 
gram in grains ; of the kilogram in pounds avoirdupois ; of the 
liter in liquid quarts. 

What is the weight of a liter of pure water at its maximum 
density ? 



ARITHMETIC. 



September, 1880. 

1. Reduce F ^ 7 and 2-jVy to their least common denominator ; 
add the results, and express the sum decimally to four places. 

2. If 8 horses consume 3^ tons of hay in 30 days, how long will 
4 T 9 7 tons last 10 horses? 

3. A buys 9 per cent, stocks at 25 per cent, premium ; and B 
buys 6 per cent, stocks at 25 per cent, discount : supposing divi- 
dends to be paid promptly, what rates of interest will they receive 
on their investments? 

4. Calculate the square root of 2.064 to two places of decimals. 

5. Calculate the cube root of 3.3 to two places of decimals. 

6. How many hectoliters of grain will a bin hold whose interior 
length, width, and depth, are each 6 ft. 6 in. 



ENTRANCE EXAMINATION PAPERS. 51 



GEOMETRY. 
July, 1880. 

[State what text-book you have studied and to what extent. | 

T. — Plane Geometry. 

1. (a) Define the symmetry of a figure with respect to an axis 
and with respect to a point. 

(b) Prove that if a figure is symmetrical with respect to two 
axes perpendicular to each other, it is also symmetrical with re- 
spect to the intersection of these axes. 

2. An angle formed hy a tangent and a chord is measured by 
one-half the intercepted arc. 

2. To bisect a given arc or angle. 

4. (a) If a perpendicular he drawn from the vertex of the right 
angle to the hypothenuse of a right triangle, the two triangles 
thus formed are similar to each other and to the whole triangle. 

(b) What can you say of the perpendicular as compared with 
the segments of the hypothenuse ? Why ? 

(c) What, of either side about the right angle? Why? 

5. On a given straight line to construct a polygon similar to a 
given polygon. 

6. The circumferences of two circles are to each other as their 
radii, and their areas are to each other as the squares of their radii. 

II. — Solid and Spherical Geometry. 

7. If a straight line and a plane are parallel, the intersection of 
the plane with planes passed through the line arc parallel to that 
line and to each other. 

8. Define a prism. Two prisms are equal, if three faces including 
a triedral angle of the one are respectively equal to three laces 
similarly placed including a triedral tingle of the other. 

9. Every section of a sphere made by a plane is a circle. 

10. Between what two limits does the sum of the angles of a 
spherical triangle lie? Write expressions for the surface and vol- 
ume of the cylinder, cone and sphere. 

Note. — Candidates who present themselves for the whole examination may 
omit questions 2, 3 and 5. Candidates who present themselves for the partial 
examination will confine themselves to the questions in Piano Geometry, 



52 SHEFFIELD SCIENTIFIC SCHOOL. 



GEOMETRY. 

September, 1880. 

[State what text-book you have studied and to what extent.] 

1. To draw a common tangent to two given circles. 

2. The bisector of an angle of a triangle divides tbe opposite 
side into segments which are proportional to the adjacent sides. 

8. The area of a parallelogram is equal to the product of its 
base and altitude. 

4. How do you find the area of a trapezoid ? The areas of 
similar polygons are to each other in what ratio ? Of all plane 
figures having the same area what one has the least perimeter? 

5. If a straight line is perpendicular to each of two straight 
lines at their point of intersection, it is perpendicular to the plane 
of those lines. 

6. A triangular pyramid is one-third of a triangular prism of 
tbe same base and altitude. 

7. Define the terms spherical excess, and tri-rectangular tri- 
angle. The area of a spherical triangle is equal to its spherical 
excess (the right angle being the unit of angles and the tri-rec- 
tangular triangle the unit of areas). 



ENGLISH. 

July, 1880. 

1. Parse the words in the following sentences : 

(a) Many were present who had no desire to change. 

(b) The wages of sin is death. 

2. Name the parts of speech, with an illustrative example of 
each one. 

3. Inflect throughout the pronouns of the first and second 
persons. 

4. Give the principal parts of the verbs lie, lay, draw, ride, 
thrive, set, sit, and go. 



ENTRANCE EXAMINATION PAPERS. 53 

ALGEBRA. 

July, 1880. 
[State what text-book you have studied and to what extent | 

1. Resolve the following expressions into factors: 

I6a<b*-24a 3 bmx+9m 3 x* ; 9<r/r -io«V ; a 8 — 85". 

„ r,- '' V ' 1 X V 1 *• 1 

2. Given - — > H 7 = ; and 7-5 i = - iS '""I 

a-\-b a — b a — b a-\-b a — b a-\-0 

x and y. 

, , b 

3. (liven Va- X -\- V7> — x =2 // to find x. 

4. (1) From 2 / s/l2d 2 take V]62« 2 . 

(2) Find the value of \/2X ^X V$- 

1 1 

(3) Divide 8a— b by 2a*— V s . 

5. Given — -\- 4x — 8>3 and 6aj-| <[ 18 to find a su- 

2. o 

perior and an inferior limit of x. 



II. 

/£ _j_ 2 a! 2 5 

6. Given - — = — , to find the values of x. 

x — 2 .« + 2 6 ' 

7. Given sc a -j- xy = a, ?/" -)- »y = 6, to find x and y. 

1 + 2x 

8. Expand - — 5 into a series by the method of indeter- 

1 1— x — x* J 

minate coefficients. 

9. The number of permutations of 11 things, 3 together, is 6 
times the number of combinations, 4 together; find n. 

Xote. — The first division of the paper extends as far as Quadratic Equations, 
and will be all that is required of candidates who propose to pass the partial ex- 
amination only. 



54 SHEFFIELD SCIENTIFIC SCHOOL. 



ALGEBRA. 

September, 1880. 
x* — b* x* 4- bx 

L Dlvlde a --2faH-y by irrr 

„ ,,. « + 4J 2a- 3b 

2. (riven — j — = — - and 5ax—2by = c to find a; and v. 

m-J-ic 3m — y * y 

. . 3 

3. V\A-x + Vu^x =Z7== to find a. 

V 11 — ic 



._ ,_ . 9 + J /a — b 

4. Simplify */2l + V54-«/6 ; ,7^ V ^J 5 

5. Extract the square root of 4cc 4 +16a 4 — L2az* — 24a'a:+25aV. 

6. Solve the equation 3aj a -j- 2a: — 9 = 76. 

7. IT§ = J = £ . . . = £ = r, show that 

«, + «,+ «,+ •»• + «* _ . 

6, + *, H- *, + -..+ *" 

8. Having the first term (a), the ratio (?•), and the last term (I), 
of a geometric progression, find the sum (s) and the number (n) 
of the terms. 

b 

9. Expand / a „ into a series by the binomial formula. 

10. Solve the equations x y = y°, and x" = y a . 



ENTRANCE EXAMINATION PAPERS. 55 



TRIGONOMETRY. 

July, 1880. 

[State what text-book you have studied and to what extent.] 

1. Given tan A = */'J ; nn ^ a ^ the other functions of A when A 
is an angle of the 3d quadrant. 

2. Given sin 30° = £; find the sine and cosine of ±60°, 120°, 
150°, 210°, 240°, 300°, 330°. 

3. Deduce the formula sin x + sin y = 2 sin \ (x-\-y) cos \ (x—y). 

4. Show that tan ~Kv — tan ' 1 >/ = tan -1 - — - — — . 

\ -\-xy 

5. Write the formulae for solving the several cases of right 
triangles. 

6. In a plane triangle the side b is 304, the side c 280.3 and 
the included angle A is 100°. Find the remaining parts. 



TRIGONOMETRY. 

September, 1880. 
[State what text-book you have studied and to what extent.] 

1. The length of an arc is 1.5 that of its radius; what is the 
number of degrees in the angle it subtends? 

2. Find all of the functions of the following angles : 

±45°, 135°, 225°, 315°. 

3. Given sin A = m sin B and tan A = n tan B ; find sin A and 
cosB. 

4. Deduce the formulye for the sine of the sum of two angles in 
terms of the sines and cosines of the angles. 

3 4 

5. Given A = sin" 1 -, B = sin -1 -, to show that A -4-B = 90°. 

5 5 

6. In a triangle A B C, given a = 309, b = 450, and A = 27° 50', 
to first determine whether the triangle admits of more than one 
solution, and then solve it. 



56 SHEFFIELD SCIENTIFIC SCHOOL. 

LATIN. 

July, 1880. 
I. Translate as literally as possible — 

a. Quum ea ita sint, tamen, si obsides ab iis sibi dentur, uti 
ea, quae polliceantur, facturos intelligat, et si Aeduis de injuriis, 
quas ipsis sociisque eorum intulcrint, item si Allobrogibus satis- 
faciant, sese cum iis pacem esse facturum. Divico respondit: 

5 Ita Helvetios a majoribus suis institutos esse, uti obsides 
accipere, non dare, consuerint; ejus rei populum Roman um 
esse testem. 

b. Ibi vadis repertis partem suarum copiarum transducere 
conati sunt, eo consilio, uti, si possent, castellum, cut pra-erat 

10 Quintus Titurius legatus, expugnarent, pontemque inter- 
scinderent ; si minus potuissent, agros Remorum popularentur, 
qui magno nobis usui ad bellum gerendum erant, commeatuque 
nostros prohiberent. 

c. Impeditis hostibus propter ea, quae ferebant, onera, subito 
15 quabus j>ortis eruptionem fieri jubet. Factum est opportunitate 

loci, hostium inscientia ac defatigatione, virtute militum, et 
superiorum pugnarum exercitatione, ut ne unum quidem nos- 
trorum impetum ferrent ac statim terga verterent. 

d. Dum in bis locis Caesar navium parandarum causa mo- 
20 ratur, ex magna parte Morinorum ad eum legati venerunt, qui 

se de superioris temporis consilio excusarent, quod bomines 
barbari et nostrae consuetudinis imperiti bellum populo Ro- 
mano fecissent, seque ea, quae imperasset, facturos pollicerentur. 

e. Britanniae pars interior ab iis incolitur, quos natos in 
25 insula ipsi memoria proditum dicunt ; maritima pars ab iis, 

qui praedae ac belli inferendi causa ex Belgis transierant ; 
qui omnes fere iis nominibus civitatum appellantur, qui bus 
orti ex civitatibus eo pervenerunt, et, bello illato, ibi per- 
manserunt atque agros colere coeperunt. 

30 /'. Ambiorix copias suas judicione non conduxerit, quod 
proelio dimicandum non existimarit, an tempore exclusus et 
repentino equitum adventu prohibitus, quum reliquum exer- 
citum subsequi crederet, dubium est ; sed certe dimissis per 
agros nuntiis sibi quemque consulere jussit. 

II. 1. Decline obsides (1), majoribus (5), loci (16). 

2. Compare imperiti (22), interior (24), certe (33). 

3. Write the synopsis, active and passive, of intelligat (2). 

4. Slate the mood and tense of the following: consuerint (6), 
prceerat (9), ferrent (18), imperasset (23), existimarit (31). 

5. Give the principal parts of the following: polliceantur (2), 
repertis (8), interscinderent (10-11), gerendum (12), verterent ^18), 
incolitur (24), orti (28), colere (29), existimarit (31), exclusus (31), 
crederet (33), consulere (34). 

6. State the construction of all italicized words. 

7. Define indirect statement (oratio obligua), and quote an 
example from the above text, 

8. Convert into direct statement (oratio directa) the example 
quoted in answer to question seventh. 



ENTRANCE EXAMINATION PAPERS. 57 

LATIN. 
September, 1880. 

I. Translate as literally as possible — 

a. Eadem secrete- ab aliis quaerit ; reperit esse vera: Ipsum 
esse Dumnorigem, summa audacia, magna apud plebem prop- 
ter liberalitatem gratia, cupidum rerum novarum : complures 
annos portoria rehquaque omnia Aeduorum vectigalia parvo 

5 pretio redempta habere, propterea quod, illo licente, contra 
liceri audeat nemo. 

b. Quum ab his quaereret, quae civitates, quantaeque in 
armis essent et quid in bello possent, sic reperiebat : Plerosque 
Belgas esse ortos ab Germanis, Rhenumque antiquitus tians- 

10 ductos propter loci fertilitatem ibi consedisse, Gallosque, qui 
ea loca incolerent, expulisse. » 

c. His rebus gestis, quum omnibus de cansis Caesar pacatam 
Galliam existirnaret, superatis Bclgis, expulsis Germanis, victis 
in Alpibus Sedunis, atque ita inita hicme in Illyricum profectus 

15 esset, quod eas quoque nationes adire et regiones cognoscere 
volebat, subitum bellum in Gallia coortum est. 

d. Germanico bello confeeto, multis de causis Caesar statuit 
sibi Rhenum esse transeundum ; quarum ilia fuit justissima, 

20 quod, quum videret Germanos tam facile imjjelli, ut in Galliam 
venirent, suis quoque rebus eos timere voluit, quum intelligerent 
et posse et audere populi Romani exercitwn Rhenum transire. 

e. Utuntur aut aere aut taleis ferreis ad certum pondus 
examinatis pro nummo. Nascitur ibi plumbum album in 

25 mediterraneis regionibus, in maritimis ferruni, sed ejus exigua 
est copia; aere utuntur importato. Materia cujusque generis, 
ut in Gallia, est, praeter fagum atque abietem. 

f. Ac fuit antea tempus, quum Germanos Galli virtute supe- 
rarent, ultro bella inferrent, propter hominum multitudinem 

30 agrique inopiam trans Rhenum colonias mitterebt. Ttaque ea, 
quae fertilissima Germaniae sunt, loca circum Ilercyniam sil- 
vam, Volcae Tectosages, occupaverunt atque ibi consedei - unt. 

II. 1. Decline vectigalia (4), ea (11), hieme (14). 

2. Compare parvo (4), facile (20), fertilissima (31). 

3. Write the synopsis, active and passive, of habere (5). 

.4. State the mood and tense of the following: reperit (1), 
audeat (6), videret (20), superarent (28-29), inferrent (29). 

5. Give the principal parts of the following: quaerit (1), rep- 
erit (1), audeat (6), incolerent (11), coortum (1(5), confecto (17), 
impelli (20), videret (20), intelligerent (21), nascitur (24), conse- 
dei-unt (32). 

6. State the construction of all italicized words. 

7. Define -indirect statement (oratio obliqua), and quote an 
example from the above text. 

8. Convert into direct statement (oratio directa), the example 
quoted in answer to question seventh. 



58 SHEFFIELD SCIENTIFIC SCHOOL. 

LATIN EXERCISES. 

July, 1880. 

1. The Helvetians 1 move 3 (their) carap s from 4 this 6 place*. 

2. Caesar does' the same 8 (thing). 

3. Caesar sends-forward 9 all 10 (his) cavalry 11 . 

4. The cavalry was sent-forward by 13 Caesar. 

5. Caesar will move (his) camp and 13 send-forward all (his) 
cavalry. 

6. The Helvetians having moved (their) camp 14 , Caesar did the 
same (thing). 

7. Caesar said 16 he would move his camp. 

8. (Rewrite sentence seventh so as to illustrate direct statement). 

9. The Helvetians say: "The Roman 10 people" is a witness 18 ." 

10. (Rewrite sentence ninth so as to illustrate indirect statement). 



1 Helvetius. 


' facere. 


13 que. 


3 movere. 


8 idem. 


14 use subjunctive with quum. 


3 castra. 


9 praemittere. 


16 dicere. 


4 ex. 


10 omnis. 


16 Roman us. 


6 is. 


11 equitatus. 


" populus. 


6 locus. 


13 a. 


18 testis. 



LATIN EXERCISES. 

September, 1880. 

1. Labienus 1 fortifies 3 the camp 3 . 

2. The camp is fortified by 4 Labienus. 

3. Labienus set-out 6 against 6 the enemy 7 . 

4. Labienus ascertained 8 the design 9 of the enemy (plural). 

5. Labienus, having ascertained 16 the design of the enemy (plu- 
ral), fortifies (his) camp. 

6. Labienus set-out with" five 11 cohorts' 3 . 

7. Labienus said 13 he would set-out with five cohorts. 

8. (Rewrite sentence seventh so as to illustrate direct statement). 

9. Labienus says: "I will move 14 the camp at (lay-break 16 ." 

10. (Rewrite sentence ninth so as to illustrate indirect statement). 



Labienus. 


7 hostis. 


13 oohors. 


communire. 


8 cognoscere. 


18 dicere. 


castra. 


8 consilium. 


14 movere. 


a. 


10 cum. 


" prima lux. 


proficisci. 


11 quinque. 


16 use ablative absolute. 


contra. 







ENTRANCE EXAiMINATION PAPERS. 59 



HISTORY OF THE UNITED STATES. 

July, 1880. 

1. What territory has the United States acquired by purchase? 
by conquest ? by annexation ? 

2. State the causes of (1) the French and Indian War; (2) the 
Revolutionary War; (3) the War of 1812. 

3. Arrange the following events in the order in which they 
occurred, with their dates: admission of California to the Union, 
assembling of the first Continental Congress, acquisition of Florida, 
second election of Monroe, opening of the Erie Canal, capture of 
Atlanta, death of Daniel Webster. 

4. What was the Wilmot Proviso? 

5. What Vice-Presidents were afterward elected Presidents ? 

6. Give the names of the opposing political parties in 1800; in 
1840; in 1860. 



HISTORY OF THE UNITED STATES. 

September, 1880. 

1. What territory was granted by James I. to the London Com- 
pany? to the Plymouth Company? 

2. Describe the settlement of Virginia. 

3. Arrange the following events in the order in which they 
occurred, with their dates: surrender of Cornwallis, the admission 
of West Virginia to the Union, the Whiskey Rebellion, the nego- 
tiation of Perry's treaty with Japan, the adoption of the Consti- 
tution. 

4. When and where was the Confederate Government formed ? 

5. What was the Compromise of 1850? 

6. What President was impeached ? What Presidents were 
elected by the Federalist party ? 



60 SHEFFIELD SCIENTIFIC SCHOOL. 



GEOGRAPHY. 

July, 1880. 

1. Bound the State of Mississippi; name its larger cities, and 
tell bow they are situated. 

2. Where is the Cape of Good Hope ; Cape May ; Cape St. 
Lucas ; Cape Race ? 

3. What countries of America border on the Pacific Ocean ? 

4. Where does the River Rhine rise, run and empty; and what 
countries does it touch ? 

5. What countries of Europe touch the Mediterranean Sea? 

6. Where are the following cities: Melbourne, Milwaukee, 
Havre, Valparaiso, Cairo ? 



GEOGRAPHY. 



September, 1880. 



1. Bound the State of Virginia; what are some of its larger 
cities, and how are they situated ? and what are some of the 
principal rivers in it or on its borders? 

2. What states (of the U. S.) border on the Gulf of Mexico? 
name them in their order, beginning with Texas. 

3. Where does the Missouri river rise? describe the direction 
of its course ; what states and territories does it pass through or 
touch ? 

4. Where are the following European cities, and how are they 
situated: Bremen, Venice, Cologne, Havre, Hamburgh? 

5. Where are the Aleutian Islands? the Azores? the Ber- 
mudas? the Philippines ? the Bahamas? 

6. Bound British India. Give the names of some of its prin- 
cipal rivers, mountains, and cities, and tell how each is situated. 




1 jpfffP" 



TWENTY-FIFTH ANNUAL REPORT 



OF THE 



Executive Committee 



OF THE 



HARTFORD HOSPITAL, 



PEESENTED TO THE COEPOBATION 



AT THEIR 



A.nnu.a.1 Meeting , December 8, 1880. 



HARTFORD, CONN.-. 

PRESS OP THE CASE, LOCKWOOD & BRAINAED COMPANV. 

1881. 



OFFICERS OF THE CORPORATION. 



CHARLES H. NORTHAM, President. 
EDSON FESSENDEN, Vice-President. 
WARD W. JACOBS, Secretary and Treasurer. 



EXECUTIVE COMMITTEE. 

EDSON FESSENDEN, 
GEORGE B. HAWLEY, 
CHARLES H. NORTHAM. 



COMMITTEE ON FINANCE. 

C. H. NORTHAM, 
EDSON FESSENDEN, 
GEORGE M. BARTHOLOMEW. 



AUDITORS. 

GEORGE M. BARTHOLOMEW, 
HENRY KENEY. 



LIBRARIAN. 

GURDON W. RUSSELL. 

DIRECTORS CHOSEN AT THE ANNUAL MEETING, DEC. 8, 1880. 

G. W. RUSSELL, HENRY KENEY, 

CHARLES H. NORTHAM, ROLAND MATHER, 

G. B. HAWLEY, JONATHAN B. BUNCE, 

EDSON FESSENDEN, HENRY C. ROBINSON, 

CHARLES M. POND, GEORGE M. WELCH, 

GEORGE SEXTON, HENRY K. MORGAN. 
MORGAN G. BULKELEY, ex-officio. 



VICE-PRESIDENTS FOR LIFE BY SUBSCRIPTION OF FIVE HUNDRED DOLLARS 
AND UPWARDS, ALSO DIRECTORS FOR LIFE. 

♦CHESTER ADAMS, HUNT, HOLBROOK & BARBER, 

T. M. ALLYN, R. W. H. JAR VIS, 

•A. S. BECKWITH, H. & W. KENEY, 



CHARLES BOSWELL, 
•LEE & *BUTLER, 
GEORGE M. BARTHOLOMEW, 
*JAMES G. BOLLES, 
*JOHN BEACH, 
C. N. BEACH, 
♦GEORGE BEACH, 
J. SEYMOUR BROWN, 
*SAMUEL COLT, 
CHENEY BROTHERS, 
♦LEONARD CHURCH, 
♦JOSEPH CHURCH, 
GEORGE H. CLARK, 
Mrs. SAMUEL COLT, 
SAMUEL COIT, 
♦ERASTUS COLLINS, 
FRANCIS B. COOLEY, 
CALVIN DAY, 
THOMAS M. DAY, 
♦FOSTER & CO., 
♦JAMES GOODWIN", 
♦JOHN H. GOODWIN, 
G. B. IIAWLEY, 
♦ELLKRY HILLS, 
♦JAMES B. HOSMER, 
♦EDMUND G. HOWE, 



C. C. LYMAN, 
♦WILLIAM T. LEE, 
♦SAMUEL MATHER, 
C. H. NORTHAM, 
J. M. NILES, 
*J. S. NILES, 
*H. A. PERKINS, 
JOSEPH PRATT, 
DANIEL PHILLIPS, 
CHARLES M. POND, 
THOMAS SMITH, 
♦JOSEPH TRUMBULL, 
SAMUEL I. TUTTLE, 
WILLIAM F. TUTTLE, 
Miss MARY W. WELLS, 
WOODRUFF & BEACH, 
♦THOMAS S. WILLIAMS, 
♦DAVID WATKINSON, 
♦JOHN WARBURTON, 
♦ROBERT W ATKINSON, 
♦MARY A. W ATKINSON, 
♦OSW1N WELLES, 
♦N. M. WATERMAN. 
♦Miss E. M. WATKINSON, 
♦Mrs. MARIA W ATKINS* >N, 
♦TERTIUS WADSWORTH. 



DIRECTORS FOR LIFE BY SUBSCRIPTION OF TWO HUNDRED DOLLARS AND 

UPWARDS. 



C. H. BRAINARD, 
♦CHAKLES BENTON, 
BOLLES & SEXTON, 
HIRAM BISSELL, 
BIRCH & BRADLEY, 
J. G. BATTERSON, 
*E. A. BULKELEY, 
♦THOMAS K. BRACE, 
♦LUCIUS BARBOUR, 
CASE, TIFFANY & CO., 



E. N. KELLOGG, 
GEORGE S. LINCOLN & CO. 
*SIMEON L. LOOMIS, 
♦Mrs. JOSEPH MORGAN, 
ROLAND MATHER, 
J. &M. MERR1MAN, 
♦WILLIAM MATHER, 
♦JOHN M. NILES, 
♦C. F. POND, 
•IRA PECK, 



! Deceased. 



•ELISHA COLT, 
•NEWTON CARTER, 
H. KENDALL CARTER, 
•WILLIAM L. COLLINS, 
CHARLES COLLINS, 
*DANIEL P. CROSBY, 
JULIUS CATLIN, 
•AUSTIN DUNHAM, 
LEONARD DANIELS, 
*DAY, GRISWOLD & CO., 
•JAMES DIXON, 
EDSOX FESSENDEN, 
*EBENEZER FLOWER, 
*S. W.GOODR1DGE, 
G. F. HAWLEY, 
•ISAAC HILLS, 
•HUNGERFORD & CONE, 
NELSON HOLLISTER, 
Rev. JAMES HUGHES, 
*H. HUNTINGTON, 



•FRANCIS PARSONS, 
*GUY R. PHELPS, 
Miss ESTHER PRATT, 
E. M. REED. 
HENRY C. ROBINSON, 
•E. C. ROBERTS, 
•ROGERS BROTHERS, 
•ELISHA K. ROOT, 
*E. G. RIPLEY, 
CHARLES SEYMOUR, 
*Miss EL'ZA K. SIIEl'ARD, 
•WILLIAM L. STORES, 
E. TAYLOR & CO., 
*0. G. TERRY, 
•ISAAC TOUCEY, 
•MILES A. TUTTLE, 
WILLIAM W. TURNER, 
•SAMUEL S. WARD, 
GEORGE M. WELCH, 
•JAMES H. WELLS, 



'Deceased. 



Vacancies arc occurring in the training-school for nurses. 
Applications for the position of pupil-nurses are solicited. 
See page 17. 



OFFICERS 



HARTFORD HOSPITAL. 



SUPERINTENDENT. 

LEANDER HALL. 

CONSULTING PHYSICIANS AND SURGEONS. 

GURDON W. RUSSELL, M.D., E. K. HUNT, M.D. 
GEORGE B. HAWLEY, M.D., A. W. BARROWS, M.D. 

VISITING PHTBICIA.N8 AND SURGEONS. 

P. M. HASTINGS, M.D., W. A. M. WAINWRIGHT, M.D. 

J. C. JACKSON, M.D., GBORGE F. HAWLEY, M.D., 

GEORGE C. JARVIS, M.D.. H. S. FULLER, M.D. 

OPHTHALMIC AND AURAL SURGEON. 

W. T. BACON, M.D. 

RESIDENT PHYSICIAN AND SURGEON. ASST. RESIDENT SURGEON. 

D WIGHT W. HUNTER, M.D. JAMES RAMSAY, M.D. 

LADY SUPERINTENDENT OF TRAINING-SCHOOL. 

Mrs. F. A. TUTTLE. 

APOTHECARY. 

H. W. FULLER. 

STEWARD. 

WM. H. PORTER. 



The hospital reports were first numbered from the comple- 
tion of the first building, but this report is numbered from 
1855, when the institution was first organized. 



TWENTY-FIFTH ANNUAL REPORT, 

Ending with the fiscal year Sept. 30, 1880. 
A SUMMARY 

OF THE REPORTS OF THE HARTFORD HOSPITAL. ISSUED BY THE EXECT 
TIVK COMMITTEE DURING THE LAST TWENTY-FIVE YEARS, INCLUDING 
THE REPORT OF 1880 TO THE CORPORATION AT THEIR ANNUAL 
MEETING, DECEMBER 8. 1SS0. 



SELECTION OF SITE. 

In the Spring of 1854 the terrible accident which was caused 
by the explosion of the steam boilers of the car-factory at 
Dutch Point, aroused the citizens of Hartford to the necessity 
of providing a place where the sick and afflicted could receive 
care and treat men t. At that time there were no accommoda- 
tions where the many mangled and dying, caused by this acci- 
dent, could be conveyed, where they would receive the atten- 
tion and surgical aid their situation demanded. Soon after 
this accident the Hartford City Medical Society appointed a 
committee to make some arrangement for the establishment 
of a City Hospital. 

About this time David Watkinson, a wealthy and benevolent 
citizen of Hartford, had expressed his intention to give by will 
$40,000, to establish a hospital in the city. At a gathering 
of the members of Christ Church, subsequent to the meeting 
held by the Medical society, a few benevolent gentlemen or- 
ganized a society to provide a home for the sick. 

May 2, 1854, a public meeting was called, addressed especi- 
ally to all interested in the establishment of a hospital. This 
meeting, at which the Mayor presided, was well attended, 
and the subject fully discussed. Many physicians and promi- 
nent citizens took part, and demonstrated the necessity of such 
an institution. At this meeting a committee was appointed 
to draft a constitution and charter. At an adjourned meet- 



8 

ing May 9th, this committee reported the proposed constitu- 
tion and charter, which were adopted, and a committee appointed 
to present them to the General Assembly, who at their 
May session, 1854, incorporated the Hartford Hospital. 

At a meeting of the corporators, viz., David Watkinson, 
Ebenezer Flower, A. S. Beckwith, S. S. Ward, A. W. Butler, 

A. M. Collins, Wm. T. Lee, Job Allyn, Samuel Colt, James 

B. Crosby, Albert Day, Chester Adams, James G. Bolles, 
George Beach, ThomasSmith, Jonathan Goodwin, A. W. Birge, 
Lucius Barbour, and Charles T. Hillyer, held February 20. 
1855, the organization of the Hartford Hospital was complet- 
ed by the appointment of twelve directors, viz., Francis Par- 
sons, William T. Lee, Albert Day, Samuel S. Ward, Eliphalet 
A. Bulkeley, Gurdon W. Russell, Chester Adams, George B. 
Hawley, James G. Bolles, Myron W. Wilson, Jonathan Good- 
win, and Lucius F. Robinson. 

At the directors' meeting, July 16, 1855, Chester Adams, 
G. B. Hawley and A. S. Beckwith were appointed a commit- 
tee to select a site for the permanent establishment of the 
hospital. After examining many locations and spending much 
time, David Watkinson asked Dr. Hawley if the Coggswell lot 
(the present hospital site) would be a desirable place for the 
building. The Doctor replied that it would be very acceptable. 
Within three days the Doctor received a note from Mr. Wat- 
kinson, stating that he had purchased the lot, for which he 
had given his obligation for $16,000, and expected the hospital 
would meet this obligation within three weeks. A directors' 
meeting was immediately called and arrangements were com- 
pleted by which the hospital was favored with the best loca- 
tion in the city for this purpose. 

COST OF BUILDING. 

When the hospital was organized, February 20, 1855, the 
first duty was to procure money to purchase a site, erect build- 
ings, and provide meansto defray current expenses. In our pov- 
erty we trusted that the benevolent citizens would supply our 
wants. At a directors' meeting, held March 27, 1855, Cluster 
Adams, G. B. Hawley, and Lucius F. Robinson were appointed 



a committee to apply to the General Assembly of that year for 
assistance from the State. The application resulted in the ap- 
propriation of $10, 000 from the State treasury, to be paid when 
$20,000 should be raised by private munificence. 

At a directors' meeting, August 24, 1855, Chester Adams. 
G. B. Hawley, and A. S. Beck with were appointed to solicit 
subscriptions. These gentlemen presented the subject to a 
large portion of our citizens. This call was responded to in 
a spirit of generosity by pledging $41,000 to erect buildings 
for the purpose of relieving suffering. 

On the 4th of December, 1855, James B. Hosmer, S. S. 
Ward, G. B. Hawley, Edson Fessenden, and Chester Adams 
were appointed a committee to procure plans and specifications 
for suitable accommodations for the sick. The services of W. 
Russell West, architect, were procured. Mr. West devoted 
much time and study in perfecting plans. He was peculiarly 
fortunate in favoring us with a building which is especially 
adapted for hospital purposes. 

The corner-stone of the hospital was laid by Governor Buck- 
ingham, April, 1857, in the presence of many members of the 
legislature, then in session, and a large assembly of citizens. 
Appropriate addresses were made by Hon. Henry C. Deming, 
G. B. Hawley, H. M. Knight and others. In some future period, 
time will develop the many precious articles placed under the 
corner-stone, the view of which will gladden generations yet 
unborn. 

In April, 1859, the hospital building was dedicated for its 
blessed work, by addresses which were published in the report 
of that year. 

The center building and north wing were first erected of 
Portland brown stone. The walls were of first-class rubble 
masonry. They accommodated forty-four patients together 
with all appliances for their care and treatment. These 
buildings cost $34,000, and the land with additions cost 
$16,738, which expense was paid with the $41,000 subscrip- 
tion, and the $10,000 given by the State. 

In consequence of the civil war, the demand for hospital 



10 

necessities were greatly increased, and many maimed, 
wounded, and sick soldiers were received. 

In 1868-9, the generous and liberal citizens were again 
called upon, and $86,200 was subscribed for additions to the 
building. $20,000 was received from the State for the same 
purpose, which sums amounted to #106,200. In 1868, '69, and 
70, the south wing, with two east wings, were added, and the 
laundry was built, with many other improvements, at a cost 
of $165,065. Deduct from this sum #106,200 which had 
been given for building purposes, left the hospital in debt on 
building account, $58,865. In 1871, $20,000 was received 
from the State, which, deducted from $58,865, leaves $38,^65 
to be paid by donations. With these increased accommoda- 
tions the hospital furnished room for one hundred patients. 

In 1875 the institution was again crowded beyond endur- 
ance. Patients must either be discharged, or increased ac- 
commodations furnished. 

It was decided to erect a surgical ward, and a ward for 
special cases, for which there was an urgent demand. These 
wards were added in 1876, at a cost of $25,000, and accom- 
modated twenty-eight patients in the main ward, and eight 
in the special ward. 

As the operating room was not adapted for the purpose 
designed, it was decided in 1880 to build a new one, and by 
so doing to furnish needed accommodation for the training 
school for nurses. 

Tlie operating room was built for $3,500. The entire cost 
of hospital buildings to the present time, including grading, 
laundry, accommodations for training school, etc., is $227. ."it;."). 
The site, seven acres, cost $16,738; total cost of building and 
site, $244,303. Of this sum $50,000 was received from the 
State, and $127,200 was received by private subscription, for 
building purposes; total, $177,200. This leaves a balance of 
$67,103 which was paid from the fund. 

TA TIE NTS. 

The society for providing a home for the sick abandoned 
their organization April 1, 1856, and presented their fmiii- 



11 

fcure to the hospital. The building formerly occupied by the 
old society was then hired for hospital purposes, in which 
patients were received two years and seven months, previous 
to the erection of new buildings. During this time 77 pa- 
tients received hospital treatment. As our winter accommo- 
dations were not appropriate for the sick, it was decided to 
discontinue the reception of patients November, 1858, until the 
new buildings were completed. 

The hospital buildings were first opened for patients August 
1, 18G0, and the report for that year was not published. 

During the winter of 1862, the institution received 258 sol- 
diers, who were sick from an epidemic of measles, which 
prevailed in the regiment encamped in West Hartford, previ- 
ous to their departure to the front. Since the organization 
of the hospital, 7,115 patients have received the benefits of 
the institution, 4,659 have been discharged recovered, 812 
improved, 475 not improved, but have been cared for under 
most trying circumstances ; 874 have died surrounded with 
all the comforts, care, and attention that watchful kindness 
could bestow. 

The average number of patients during the last ten years 
has been 90 yV Of the 874 deaths 28 \ per cent, were from 
consumption. As this is a lingering and distressing disease, 
a large number of this class sought relief in the institution. 
In 1873 the first case of intermittent fever was admitted. 
These admissions were yearly increased as will be seen by the 
following statistics ; 3J per cent, of those admitted in 1873 
were cases of intermittent fever, 1874, 2 per cent., 1875, 2 
per cent., 1876, 2| per cent., 1877, 4| per cent., 1878, 8i per 
cent., 1879, 9f per cent., and 1880, 9| per cent. 

The admissions of typhoid fever have diminished as the 
cases of intermittent fever have increased. Of all the admis- 
sions of patients to the institution in 1872, 24; per cent, were 
typhoid fever. In 1873, 3£ per cent., in 1874, G\ per cent., 
1875, 4 per cent., 1876, 2 per cent., 1877, | per cent., 1878, 1 
per cent., 1879, l\ per cent., and in 1880, If per cent. 

Since the admission of intermittent fever, the fever cases 
have assumed a bilious and typho-malarial character. 



12 

Frequent cases of Briglit's disease have been admitted, 
both in acute and chronic form. Since 1868, 263 children 
have been born in the institution, 120 males, 143 females. 

CURRENT EXPENSES. 

Since tbe organization of the hospital, February 20, 1855, the 
current expenses have amounted to §437,579. This does not 
•include rent of building or repairs and improvements. There 
is no compensation for outside management, and the services 
of physicians and surgeons are free. This simply includes 
the daily running expenses. #65,008 has been received from 
patients who were able to pay part or the whole of their 
board, which includes medical and surgical treatment, medi- 
cine, board, washing, nursing, care, and continual watching. 

The State has paid for current expenses, -$49,745 for the 
care of the sick from all parts of the State, who are con- 
stantly seeking relief in the institution, and have no special 
claim on hospital charity. Humanity demands that this class 
should receive care and treatment. 

The various towns of the State have paid $73,610 for ac- 
commodations for those who from misfortune have been cast 
upon this charity. The towns pay $4.00 per week, when the 
actual cost to the institution is from 16.00 to $7.00 per week. 
In large cities, where the poor receive these benefits, the cost 
varies from $6.00 to $10.00 per week, without including sev- 
eral hundred thousands of dollars for building purposes. 

During and since the war, $75,064 has been received from 
the State for the care of soldiers. The hospital has paid out 
in money $5,672 more than has been received from the Slate 
for this care and treatment. This amount, paid by the State 
for soldiers, includes no compensation for cost of building, 
medical and surgical attendance, or outside management. 
There has been received $3,921 for care of seamen, $4,027 
from sundry sources. The total of the above receipts is 
$270,37(5, which added to $180,370, tlie amount received from 
the fund amounts to $150,746. Deduct the current expenses, 
$437,579 from the total receipts, leaves $13,167 to partially 
defray the annual expenses for repairs, improvements, and 
furnishing. 



13 

Since the organization of the hospital, there has been re- 
ceived from all sources, for site, building purposes, and cur- 
rent expenses, $627,946. This includes income from the 
fund. The whole amount paid for site, buildings, and cur- 
rent expenses, amounts to $695,049. This total income 
deducted from total expenses, leaves the hospital in debt 
$67,103, which has been paid from the fund. 

Most of the patients being supported wholly or partially 
by charity, the hospital cannot continue its blessed work of 
relieving suffering unless the fund increases in proportion to 
the growing demand for this charity. 

TRAINING SCHOOL. 

In March, 1877, the Directors introduced into the Hospital 
a training-school for nurses. They examined the various 
systems adopted in Europe and this country, and selected the 
one in which the lady superintendent is the head of the nurs- 
ing corps, subject to the regular authority of the hospital. 

Since the organization of the school, seven trained nurses 
have graduated, and thirteen pupil-nurses are continually 
occupied in caring for the sick in the wards. 

The pupil-nurses are admitted for two years, which is the 
shortest time the pupil can pass through the regular course of 
study which is necessary to qualify them to perform the du- 
ties of trained nurses, and to enable them to pass the exam- 
ination necessary before receiving their diplomas. The first 
year they receive $10 per month, the second year $14 per 
month, with board, washing, etc. All the nursing, in both 
male and female wards, is performed by the nurses' school, 
with the assistance of orderlies. Since its organization there 
has been a decided improvement in the order and neatness of 
the wards, and especially in everything pertaining to nursing 
and comfort of patients. The second year the pupils have an 
opportunity to become familiar with family-nursing, under 
trained instruction. The compensation of $10 per week re- 
ceived for this service belongs to the Hospital, which nearly 
rewards the institution for time spent in instructing pupils in 
the art of nursing, in studying text-books, recitations, lee- 



14 

tures, etc. During the last three years, $6,103 has been paid 
the pupil-nurses for services in the wards, and $3,670 has been 
returned to the Hospital from money earned by the pupils in 
family-nursing. The money thus received by the Hospital 
for family-nursing, and the amount paid pupil-nurses for ser- 
vices in the Hospital, makes the school independent, and 
above the necessity of public charity. Thus far, the Hos- 
pital has been unable to supply the constant demand for 
trained nurses. 

OFFICERS. 

At the May session of the Legislature, 1854, nineteen per- 
sons were appointed corporators of the Hospital. Of these, 
two only remain to survey the works of the last twenty-five 
years, viz. : Charles T. Hillyer, President of the Charter Oak 
Bank, and Thomas Smith, one of our worthy and benevolent 
citizens. 

February 25th, 1855, the Hospital was organized by ap- 
pointing twelve directors. On the 27th of the same month, 
these directors chose the following officers of the institution : 
Francis Parsons, President; William T. Lee, Vice-President; 
Flavins A. Brown, Secretary and Treasurer. Executive Com- 
mittee : Chester Adams, George B. Hawley, and Lucius F. 
Robinson. Of the directors and officers but two are now 
living, Gurdon W. Russell and George B. Hawley. 

Francis Parsons was President, six years, from the first 
organization until his death. April 8th, 1861, James B. Hos- 
mer was elected President. He filled the office for sixteen 
years. At his death, Charles H. Northam was elected Presi- 
dent, December 11, 1878, and continues to hold the office 
at the present time. F. A. Brown performed the duties of 
Secretary and Treasurer twenty-five years, faithfully, and 
without compensation, until his death. July, 1880, Ward \V. 
Jacobs was elected Secretary and Treasurer, which position 
he at present occupies. Lucius F. Robinson died within the 
year he was elected member of the Executive Committee. 
April, 1856, Edson Fcssenden was elected in his place. 
Chester Adams was an active member of the Committee until 
his death in 1870, when Charles H. Northam was elected in 



15 

his place, and still continues a member of the Committee, 
with G. B. Hawley and E. Fessenden. Mr. Adams remem- 
bered the Hospital with the princely gift of $68,000. 

At a directors' meeting held April, 1855, the following 
physicians were elected on the medical and surgical staff : 
S. B. Beresford, G. W. Russell, G. B. Hawley, E. K. Hunt, 
and Myron W. Wilson. Of the six physicians first elected, 
all are living, excepting S. B. Beresford and M. W. Wilson. 
In 1856, David Crary was elected to fill the vacancy caused 
by the death of Dr. Wilson. 

At a directors' meeting, April, 1863, Dr. Crary resigned 
his position on the staff, and P. M. Hastings was chosen in 
his place. At a directors' meeting, 1871, H. P. Stearns and 
J. C. Jackson were added to the staff. In 1873, H. P. 
Stearns resigned his position on the staff, in consequence of 
being appointed Superintendent of the Retreat. The same 
year, G. C. Jarvis, W. A. M. Wainwright, and G. F. Hawley 
were appointed physicians and surgeons to the Hospital. 

In 1874, II. S. Fuller was elected as a member of the staff, 
in the place made vacant by the death of Dr. Beresford. 

In 1879, the oculist and aurist department was perma- 
nently established, and W. T. Bacon was appointed to take 
charge of that department. 

During the last eighteen years, 6,812 patients have been cared 
for in the Hospital, 61,954 weeks, at an average cost of 86.53 
per week. It is impossible to estimate the amount of suffer- 
ing relieved by this charity. It is a great satisfaction to 
know that money given for hospital purposes is used directly 
to relieve suffering, and the disbursements are watched over 
by those whose only interest is to restore the sick to health, 
and the maxim, " He that giveth to the poor lendeth to the 
Lord," will be doubly verified to those whose who bestow 
their bounty to provide for the sick and destitute. 

EDSON FESSENDEN, 
GEORGE B. HAWLEY, 
CHAS. H. NORTHAM, 



RULES FOR PUPILS OF THE TRAINING SCHOOL FOR 
NURSES, HARTFORD HOSPITAL. 

The Directors of the Hartford Hospital have made arrange- 
ments for giving, at the Hospital, two year's training to women 
desirous of becoming professional nurses. 

Persons wishing to receive this course must apply either to the 
superintendent of the Hospital, or to the lady superintendent of 
the nurses' school, upon whose approval they will be accepted as 
pupils in the Hospital. 

Candidates must be over twenty-one and under thirty-five years 
of age. They must be of sound health, and must present, on 
application, a certificate from some responsible person as to their 
good character. 

Applicants will be received for one month on probation. Dur- 
ing this month they are boarded and lodged at the expense of the 
Hospital, but receive no compensation if they leave before the 
expiration of the month, or are found incompetent by the lady 
superintendent. 

The superintendent of the Hospital and lady superintendent of 
the nurses' school will have full power to decide as to the fitness 
of the nurses for the work, and the propriety of retaining or dis- 
missing them at the end of the month for trial. The same author- 
ity can discharge them in case of misconduct or inefficiency. 

They will reside in the Hospital and serve the first year as 
assistants in the wards of the Hospital; the second year they will 
be expected to perform any duty assigned them by the lady super- 
intendent, either to act as nurses in the Hospital or to be sent to 
private cases among the rich or poor. 

Training. 

Those persons complying with the foregoing conditions will be 
accepted as pupils by signing a written agreement to remain at 
the school for two years, and to conform to the rules of the Hos- 
pital. 



18 

The instruction includes: 

1. The dressing of blisters, burns, sores, and wounds; the 
preparation and application of fomentations, poultices, and minor 
dressing. 

2. Application of leeches, and subsequent treatment. 

3. Administration of enemas. 

4. Use of female catheter. 

5. The best method of friction to the body and extremities. 

6. Management of helpless patients, moving, changing, giving 
baths in bed, preventing bed-sores, and managing positions. 

7. Bandaging, making bandages and rollers, and lining splints. 

8. Making beds and changing sheets while the patient is in bed. 

9. That no part of the Hospital is clean if it can be made 
cleaner. 

The pupils are taught to prepare food, together with drinks and 
stimulants for the sick; to understand the art of ventilation with- 
out chilling the patient, both in private houses and hospital wards, 
and all that pertains to night, in distinction from day, nursing; 

To report to the physician accurate observations of the state of 
the secretions, expectoration, pulse, skin, appetite, temperature of 
the body, intelligence (as delirium or stupor), breathing, sleeping, 
condition of wounds, eruptions, formation of matter, effect of 
diet, stimulants, or medicines, and to learn the management of 
convalescents. 

Instruction will be given by attending and resident physicians, 
and surgeons at the bedside of the patients, and in various other 
ways, also, by the lady superintendent and head nurse. 

The pupils will pass through the different wards, serving and 
being taught, for one year. They will be supplied with board and 
lodging, and will be paid ten dollars ($10) per month the first 
year, the second, fourteen dollars (SI 4) per month for their cloth- 
ing and personal expenses. This sum, with their education, is 
considered a full equivalent for their services. 

"When the full term of two years is completed, the nurses thus 
trained, after passing a final examination, will receive diplomas, 
certifying to their knowledge of nursing, their ability, and good 
character. 



19 

N. B. — This paper is to be filled in (in the candidate's own 
handwriting), and sent to the Superintendent of the Hartford 
Hospital, Hartford, Conn. 

Questions to be answered by Candidate. 

1. Name in full, and present address of candidate. 

2. Are you a single woman or widow ? 

3. Your present occupation or employment ? 

4. Age last birthday, and date and place of birth ? 

5. Height ? Weight ? 

6. Where educated ? 

7. Are you strong and healthy, and have you always been so ? 

8. Are your sight and hearing perfect ? 

9. Have you any physical defects ? 

10. Have you any tendency to pulmonary complaint ? 

11. If a widow, have you children? How many ? Their 
ages ? How are they provided for ? 

12. "Where (if any) was your last situation ? How long were 
you in it ? 

13. The names in full and addresses of two persons to be 
referred to ? State how long each has known you. If previously 
employed, one of these must be the last employer. 

14. Have you ever been a pupil of any other training-school? 

15. Have you read and do you clearly understand the regula- 
tions ? 

I declare the above statement to be correct. 
(Signed) 

Candidate. 
Date. 



MEDICAL CASES TREATED IX 



HARTFORD HOSPITAL 



FROM OCTOBER 1, 1879, TO OCTOBER 1, 1880. 







ta 






CD* 






B 






& 




0) 


a 




"3 
5 


*3 

s 

o 

ft 


Alcoholism, 


46 


7 


Hydatid of Liver, 


1 




Angina Pectoris, 


2 




Heart, Palpitation, 


1 




Apoplexy, 


2 




" Mitral Stenosis, 


2 




Addison's Disease, 


1 




Hypertrophy, 


1 




Arsenic Poisoning, 


1 




Hysteria, 




2 


Bronchitis, 


6 


1 


Incontinence of Urine, 


1 




Bright's Disease, Chronic, 


1 


1 


Inanition, 


1 




" " Acute, 


1 


1 


Infants, 


11 


8 


Constipation, 


3 


3 


Insanity, 


2 


3 


Catarrh, Gastro-hepatic, 


1 




Imbecility, 






Cirrhosis of Liver, 


3 




Irritable Bladder, 


2 




Convulsions, Infantile, 


1 




Insolation, 


1 




Delirium Tremens, 


3 




Jaundice, 






Diarrhoea, Chronic, 


3 




Lightning Stroke, 


1 




Dyspepsia, 


5 


1 


Meningitis, 


1 




Debility, General, 


3 


6 


" Cerebral, 


1 




" Senile, 


6 


6 


Nervous Prostration, 






Dysentery, 


3 




Neuralgia, Cerebral, 


1 




Emphysema, 


2 




Neuralgia, 


1 




Epilepsy, 


4 


3 


Paraplegia, 


1 




Endocarditis, 


1 




Purpura Hemorrhagica, 


1 




Fever, Continued, 


3 




Pneumonia, 


5 




" Intermittent, 


35 


23 


Pleurisy, 


4 




" T\ phoid, 


10 


1 


Paralysis Agitans, 


2 




" Typho-malarial, 


1 


1 


Phthisis, 


25 




" Bilious, 


2 


1 


Pregnancy, 




31 


Gastritis, 


2 


2 


Peritonitis, 






Gastro Duodenitis, 


1 




Pleurisy, Sub-acute, 


1 




Hematuria, 


1 




Pulmonary Gangrene, 


1 




Hemiplegia, 


1 


3 


Paralysis, 




1 



21 





* 
.2 
"a 


8 

"3 
E 






00 

"3 

a 


Progressive Locomotor 

Ataxia, 
Rheumatism, Acute, 
" Chronic, 


2 

6 , 
19 

1 


2 
1 


Tetanus, 

Urethral Congestion, 

Variola, 


1 
1 
1 




" Gonorrhoea^ 
Sciatica, 


Total, 


253 


129 



SURGICAL CASES. 




Abscess of Face, 

of Uterus, 

of Foot, 

of Back, 

of Palmar, 

of Perineal, 
Anthrax, 
Arthritis, 
Burns, 
Bubo, 
Cancer of Breast, 

of Stomach, 

of Uterus, 

of Neck, 

of Liver, 
Chanchroids, 
Caruncula, 
Cystitis, 
Contusion of Limbs, 

of Head, 

of Knee, 

of Back. 

of Eye Lid, 

of Hip, 

of Side, 

of Face, 
Contused wound of leg, 
Caries of Tibia, 

of Femur, 
Concussion of Spine, 
Caries of Foot, 
Dislocation of Humerus, 



of Radius and Ulna, 
Eczema, 
Epithelioma of Foot, 

of Lip, 

of Ear, 
Enlarged Prostate, 
Endometritis, 
Erysipelas, 
Epididymitis, 
Ferunculus, 
Fistula in Ano, 
FibroidTumorof Uterus, 
Fracture of Skull, 

of Tibia, 

of Fibula, 

of Metacarpal, 

of Femur, 

of Humerus, 

of Scapula, 

of Tibia, and Fib. Co., 
Gonorrhoea, 
Hydrocele, 
Hemorrhoids, 
Hare Lip, 
Hernia Inguinal, 
Incised wound of Throat 

of Wrist, 
Injury of Hand, 

of Finger, 

of Ear, 
Lumbago, 
Lacerated wound of hand. 



22 



Morbus Coxarius, 
Necrosis of Inferior Max 

of Pelvis, 

of Thumb, 
Nsevus, 

Ovarian Tumor, 
Orchitis, 
,. Onychia, 
Paronychia, 

Phlegmonous Sorethroat, 
Periostitis, 

Phlegmonous Infiam., 
Prolapse Uteri, 
Pott's Disease of Spine, 
Retention of Urine, 
Retroversion of Uterus, 
Sprain of Knee, 

of Wrist, 

of Back, 

of Elbow, 

of Hip, 



Sprain of Foot. 

Stricture of Urethra, 

Scrofula, 

Syphilis, Primary, 
"' Secondary, 

Tertiary,' 
Hereditary, 

Tumor of Face, 

Tonsilitis, 

Synoritis, Chronic, 

Ulceration of Ccrvex, 

Ulcer, Varicose, 
" Indolent, 
Syphilitic, 

Vesical Calculi, 



Total, 



Eye and Ear Department. 



5 




1 






1 


3 


3 


3 






1 




1 


1 


1 


1 






1 


:; 


3 


15 


5 


2 


1 


1 





124 



08 





35 


"3 
5 
a> 

J* 

1 
1 
1 




00 

a 

1 

2 

1 
1 

20 


« 

E 

09 
Ei, 


Anterior Synechia, 

Cataract, 

Conjunctivitis, 

Gonorrhoea], 
Granula, Lids, 

" withpaunus, 
Glaucoma, 
Iritis, Syphilitic, 
Injury 01 Eye, 
Keratitis, Supurative, 
Eerato-Iritis, 
Ophthalmia, Neantorum, 


l 

6 


Staphyloma, 
Strabismus Interncas, 
Trachoma, 

Ulceration of Cornea, 
Perforation of Tympani, 
Polypus, Meatus, 


1 
1 


Total, 


5 



Births. 



Male. 



11 



Female, 



23 



Table of Deaths. 



Apoplexy 

Acute Bright's, , 

Addison's Disease, . . . 
Abscesses of Back, . . 

Cancer, 

< 1 ironic Rheumatism, 
Cerebral Meningitis, 
Capillary Bronchitis. . , 

Collitis 

Chronic Diarrhoea,. . 
Cirrhosis of Liver, . . . 
Chronic Meningitis, . 



Congestion of Brain, 



Endo Carditis, 

Exhaustion, 

Fracture Base of Skull, . 
Fracture of Vertebrae, . . 
Gangrene of Lungs, .... 

Gastro Enteritis, 

Infantile Convulsions,... 



Meningitis, 1 

Phthisis 15 

Peritonitis, 

Puerpural Peritonitis, 
Pneumonia, . 



Softening of Brain, 



Senile Debility, . . , 
Spinal Meningitis, , 

Shock, 

Senile Gangrene, . 

Still Born, 

Suicide, 

Typhoid Fever, . . . 
Tetanus 



Total, 



68 



Diseases. 



Table of Operations. 



Amputation of Breast, 

of Finger, 

of Hand, 

of Thigh 

of Thumb 

Dilatation of Urethra, 

Divulsion of Urethral Stricture, 

Exsection of Head of Metatarsal bone, 
For Cataract, . 

Fistula in Ano 

Hydrocele, 

Keratitis Suppurative, 

Staphyloma 

Strabismus, 

Foreign body from Iris, 

Caruncula, Urethral, 

Epithelioma of lip, . 

Cancerous Gland, 

Haemorrhoids, 

Polypus, U terine, . 

Removal of Tonsils, 

Iridectomy, ... : 

Lithotomy, 

Urethotomy, 

Total 



Males. 

3 
1 
1 
2 



33 



Females 
2 



10 



ACTS OF LEGISLATION 



Act Incorporating The Hartford Hospital. 

Resolved, by the Senate and House of Representatives in 
General Assembly convened : 

Section 1. That David Watkinson, Ebcnezer Flower, A. 
S. Bcckwith, S. S. Ward, A. W. Butler, A. M. Collins, Wm. 
T. Lee, Job Ailyn, Samuel Colt, James B. Crosby, Albert Day, 
■Chester Adams, James G. Bolles, George Beach, Thomas 
Smith, Jonathan Goodwin, A. W. Birgc, Lucius Barbour, and 
•Charles T. Hillycr, and all such persons as arc from time 
to time associated with them, for (he purpose of establishing 
and maintaining a hospital in the city of Hartford, and their 
successors, be, and they hereby are, incorporated for said pur- 
pose, and made a body corporate and politic, by the name of 
The Hartford Hospital, and by that name shall be capable of 
suing and being sued, pleading and being impleaded, and may 
purchase, take, receive, hold, cell, and convey estate, real and 
personal, to such an amount as may be necessary for the pur- 
poses of said corporation ; may have a common seal, and the 
same may alter and change at pleasure, and may make and 
execute such by-laws and regulations, not contrary to the laws 
of this State or of the United States, as shall lie deemed nec- 
essary for the well ordering and conducting the concerns of 
said corporation. 

Sec. 2. That said corporation shall be governed by the 
following articles : 

Article 1. This corporation shall be called The Hartford 
Hospital. Persons contributing for the use of the corpora- 
tion at any one time the sum of fifty dollars, shall be members 
for life. Persons contributing five stun of five hundred dollars 



25 

shall be vice-presidents for life, and also directors for life ; 

those contributing two hundred dollars -shall be directors for 
life; those twenty-five dollars shall be members for five years, 
and those ten dollars shall be members for one year. 

Art. 2. In order the better to carry into effect, the object 
of the said corporation, the members thereof shall, at an an- 
nual meeting, tobe held at such time and place as the by-laws 
of the said corporation shall direct and appoint, elect from 
their own number, by ballot, and by a majority of the votes 
given at such election, twelve persons as directors of the said 
corporation; and the persons so elected, together with the 
mayor of the city of Hartford for the time being, shall consti- 
tute a board of directors. Tlic directors so elected shall hold 
their offices for one year, and until others are elected in their 
places. In case of any vacancy in the board the remainder 
of the directors shall have power to fill such vacancy until the 
next election. 

Art. 3. The board of directors shall, annually, as soon as 
may be convenient after the said annual election, elect by bal- 
lot from among their own numbers, a president, a vice-presi- 
dent, and shall also elect a secretary and treasurer, who shall 
hold their offices for one year, and until others are elected in 
their stead. But as many directors may be chosen as there 
may be directors by subscription. 

Art. 4. The said board of directors shall have power to 
manage and conduct all the business and concerns of the 
corporation, and to make such laws as may be necessary for 
the management and disposition of the estate and concerns of 
the corporation, and to appoint such officers and servants as 
they may deem necessary. The medical officers, including 
all attending and consulting physicians and surgeons, shall be 
appointed annually. A'acancies occurring before the expira- 
tion of a year from the time of any appointment, shall be 
filled by the directors as soon as the same can conveniently 
be done. 

Airr. 5. A majority of the corporators shall call the first 
meeting for the election of officers, at such time and place in 
the city of Hartford as they shall appoint, giving three days 1 



2G 

notice thereof by publishing the same in the daily papers of 
the city ; and the annual meeting of said corporation shall be 
held at such time and place, and on such notice as shall be 
fixed by the by-laws of said corporation. 

Sec. 3. This act may be altered, amended, or repealed by 
the General Assembly. 

Approved, May session, 1854. 

Resolution Amending the Charter of The Hartford 

Hospital. 

Resolved, That additional members of said corporation may 
hereafter be elected at any annual meeting by a two-thirds 
vote of those present without the payment of any sum of 
money on the part of members so elected. 

Sec. 2. So much of the original act incorporating The 
Hartford Hospital as is inconsistent with this act is hereby 
repealed. 

Approved, January session, 1881. 

Amendment of the Charter of The Hartford Hospital. 

Whereas, it is deemed desirable that in addition to the strict 
purposes of a hospital the said corporation should have 
the power, with such funds as shall be given for that pur- 
pose, to establish in connection with said hospital, and 
upon the same grounds, or elsewhere, an Old People's 
Home, or a department for the comfortable support and 
maintenance of such aged and infirm persons as shall, 
from time to time, be admitted to the comforts and privi- 
leges of such department by and under such rules and 
regulations and upon such terms as shall, from time to 
time, be established by said corporation — therefore 

Resolved by the Senate and House of Representatives in 
General Assembly convened : 

Sec. 1. That in addition to the powers already conferred 
upon The Hartford Hospital, said corporation are hereby au- 
thorized to establish, in connection with these present hospital 
buildings, and upon the hospital grounds, or elsewhere, an 



27 

Old People's Home, or a department or home for the accom- 
modation, support, and maintenance of such aged and infirm 
persons as shall, from time to time, be admitted to the com- 
forts and privileges of such department or home, and erect 
the necessary buildings therefor, and sustain the said home 
with such funds and means as shall be given for that purpose, 
or paid by or for the benefit of the persons admitted to said 
home. The board of directors of said Hartford Hospital shall 
have the power to make and execute any and all such by-laws, 
rules and regulations, in relation to such department or home, 
and the management of the same, and the funds pertaining 
thereto, and generally all the concerns of said department, 
not contrary to the laws of this State, or of the United States, 
as shall be deemed necessary or proper for the well ordering 
and conducting the concerns of said department, and the 
same repeal or change at pleasure. And may appoint, if 
deemed expedient, a board of managers for said department, 
with such powers as they shall deem proper, and also such 
officers and servants as they may deem necessary. 

All the rights and privileges conferred by the charter of 
The Hartford Hospital upon persons contributing for the use 
of said corporation shall be had and enjoyed by persons 
and parties limiting their contributions to the use of the 
department for the aged and infirm, as fully and to the same 
extent as if no such limitation was connected with such 
contributions. 

All the moneys and funds already or which shall be given 
or contributed for the uses and purposes of The Hartford 
Hospital shall be confined to and used for the benefit of the 
hospital department, and all moneys and funds in any way 
given or contributed for the aged and infirm department 
shall be held and used exclusively for that department, under 
such rules and regulations as may be adopted in relation to a 
division of the common expenses pertaining to the two de- 
partments which cannot be kept separately and accurately 
divided. ^ 

This department of The Hartford Hospital shall be known as 
The Old People's Home, and any and all moneys, gifts, legacies, 



28 

devises, bequests, or other contributions, given to The Old 
People's Home, or for its use, or to The Hartford Hospital, or 
to any other trustee or trustees, for or in trust for the use of 
The Old People's Home, shall be good and effectual, and shall 
be for the use of this department for the aged and infirm 
created under this act. 
Approved, June 19, 1873. 

Act Appropriating Money for The Hartford Hospital. 

Resolved by this Assembly : 

That the comptroller of public accounts be, and he hereby 
is, authorized and directed to draw an order upon the treas- 
urer of this state in favor of the person who, for the time be- 
ing, shall act as treasurer of The Hartford Hospital, for the 
sum of ten thousand dollars, whenever the treasurer of said 
hospital shall exhibit to said comptroller satisfactory evidence 
that the sum of twenty thousand dollars has been actually 
subscribed and paid to said hospital by private individuals, 
and whenever satisfactory obligations have been given to the 
treasurer of this state that said hospital shall, at all times, be 
open to receive, upon equal terms, mariners and all other 
persons from all parts of the state. 
Approved, May session, 1855. 

Act Exempting The Hartford Hospital from Taxation. 

Be it enacted by the Senate and House of Representatives in 
General Assembly convened : 

That all property, real or personal, which has been or may 
Itc granted or given to '-The Hartford Hospital," and by 
them invested and held for the use of said institution, shall 
with the income thereof remain exempt from taxation : pro- 
vided, That the property of the directors of said institution 
shall not be exempt from taxation. 

Approved, June 25, 1856. 

Vote of the town of Hartford. 

" That in relation to those persons who, by reason of sick- 
ness or accident, arc thrown upon the town for temporary 



29 

support during such sickness, or while they need medical aid, 
the selectmen he authorized to keep them at the almshouse 
or at The Hartford Hospital, at their discretion." 
Voted, December 8, 1856. 

Act Appropriating Two Thousand Dollars. 

Resolved by this Assembly : 

That an appropriation -of two thousand dollars be made to 
The Hartford Hospital, to be expended under the direction of 
the governor and executive committee of said hospital for the 
support of charity patients in said hospital, and that said ex- 
ecutive committee be directed to use said funds in such way 
as to give its benefits to the different towns in the state as 
they may from time to time make application. Said execu- 
tive committee is hereby directed to report annually to the 
General Assembly. 

Approved, June 23, 1860. 

Act making an Annual Appropriation of Two 
Thousand Dollars. 

Resolved by this Assembly : 

That an annual appropriation of two thousand dollars be 
made to The Hartford Hospital, to be expended under the di- 
rection of the governor and executive committee of said hos- 
pital, for the support of charity patients in said hospital, and 
that said executive committee be directed to use said funds in 
such way as to give its benefits to the different towns in the 
state as they may, from time to time, make application. 

Said executive committee is hereby directed to report an- 
nually to the General Assembly. 

Approved, July 2, 1861. 

An Act in addition to an Act providing for the Sup- 
port of Paupers. 

Re it enacted by the Senate and Rouse of Representatives in 
General Assembly convened : 

Section 1. That no child of any person, born in The Hart- 
ford Hospital or in The New Haven Hospital while the parent 



30 

or parents of such child are residing in either of said hospitals 
as beneficiaries thereof, shall be deemed to be settled in the 
town where such child is born by reason of such birth alone. 

Sec. 2. All acts and parts of acts inconsistent herewith 
are hereby repealed. 

Approved, June 25, 1863. 

Act providing for the Support of Discharged Soldiers. 
Resolved by this Assembly : 

That whenever any discharged soldier requiring surgical 
attendance shall be placed as a patient in The Hartford Hos- 
pital, or in the institution of The General Hospital Society of 
Connecticut, the sum of three dollars per week, for the sup- 
port of such patient, shall be paid from the State treasury to 
such hospitals, respectively, under the direction of. the Gov- 
ernor of this State and the executive committee of said hospi- 
tals, respectively. 

The said committee are hereby directed to report quar- 
terly to the Governor, and annually to the General Assembly, 
the number of said patients, as aforesaid. 

Approved, July 21, 1865. 

Act providing for the Support of Discharged Soldiers. 
Resolved by this Assembly : 

Section 1. That whenever any discharged soldier requiring 
surgical attendance shall be placed as a patient in The Hart- 
ford Hospital, or in the institution of The General Hospital 
Society of Connecticut, instead of the sum of three dollars, 
heretofore allowed, the sum of six dollars per week for the 
support of such patient shall be paid from the State treasury 
to said hospitals, respectively, under the direction of the Gov- 
ernor of this State and the executive committee of said hospi- 
tals, respectively. 

Sec. 2. That whenever any such discharged soldier shall 
die in either of the above hospitals, the expense of his funeral 
shall be paid from the State treasury. 

Sec. 3. The said committee are hereby directed to report 



31 

quarterly to the Governor, and annually to the General As- 
sembly, the number of said patients and of funerals, as 
aforesaid. 

Approved, June 30, 18G6. 

Act providing for the Support of Discharged Soldiers. 
Resolved by this Assembly : 

Section 1. That whenever any officer or soldier, honorably 
discharged, who lias served in any regiment of Connecticut 
troops during the late war, shall be placed as a patient in The 
Hartford Hospital, or in the Institution of The General Hospi- 
tal Society of Connecticut, the sum of three dollars per week 
for the support of such patient shall be paid from the State 
treasury to said hospitals, respectively, under the direction of 
the Governor of the State and the executive committee of 
said hospitals, respectively. 

Sec. 2. The Governor of this State is hereby appointed 
commissioner of said hospitals, and he may authorize the ad- 
mission of such patients as are entitled to the benefit of the 
first section of this law to the said hospitals, during the period 
requiring surgical attendance. 

Sec. 3. Whenever any Connecticut officer or soldier, hon- 
orably discharged, shall die in either of the above-mentioned 
hospitals, the State shall pay the sum of ten dollars for the 
expense of the funeral of said soldier. 

Sec. 4. All laws inconsistent with the foregoing are hereby 
repealed. 

Approved, July 17, 1867. 

Act amending the Act approved July 17, 1867. 

Resolved by this Assembly : 

That the resolution passed at the May session, 1867, and 
approved July 17, 1867, providing for the reception as pa- 
tients of discharged Connecticut soldiers in The Hartford Hos- 
pital, or in the Institution of The General Hospital Society of 
Connecticut, be amended in section first by striking out 
"three" and inserting the word "six," and also by adding 



82 

the additional words " and this resolution shall apply to the 
years 1867 and 1868." 
Approved, July 27, 1868. 

Act appropriating Twenty Thousand Dollars. 

Resolved by this Assembly : 

That the sura of twenty thousand dollars be, and hereby is, 
appropriated from the treasury of the State to The Hartford 
Hospital, and that the Comptroller is hereby directed to draw 
his order on the Treasurer for said amount, whenever the ex- 
ecutive committee of said hospital shall officially certify that 
an additional sum of twenty thousand dollars shall have been 
subscribed for building purposes. 

Approved, July 9, 1869. 

Act appropriating Twenty Thousand Dollars. 

Resolved by this Assembly : 

That the sum of twenty thousand dollars be, and hereby is, 
appropriated from the treasury of the State to The Hartford 
Hospital, and that the Comptroller is hereby directed to draw 
his order on the treasurer for said amount, in favor of said 
hospital, when the executive committee of said hospital shall 
officially certify that an additional sum of eleven thousand 
dollars shall have been subscribed by responsible parties 
toward paying the debt of said hospital building purposes. 

Approved, July 26, 1871. 

Providing for Support of Sick and Wounded Soldiers 
in Hospitals. 

Resolved by this Assembly : 

Section 1. That whenever any discharged soldier, who 
was credited upon the quota of this State during the war of 
the rebellion, and who is a resident of this State, requires sur- 
gical or medical treatment on account of wounds received in 
said war, or on account of sickness or disability contracted 
while in the service, and who is wholly or partially disabled 
by reason thereof, shall be placed as a patient in The Hartford 



33 

Hospital, or in the institution of The General Hospital Society 
of Connecticut, or in any other institution approved by the 
Governor, the sum of five dollars per week for the support of 
such patient shall be paid from the State treasury to such hos- 
pital or institution respectively, under the direction of the 
Governor of this State. 

Sec. 2. That the Governor is hereby authorized to employ 
competent surgeons to examine all soldiers received in said 
institutions and drawing State aid under this resolution, who 
shall make monthly reports to the Governor concerning the 
same ; and such surgeons shall not be connected in any man- 
ner with said institutions ; and a sum not exceeding four hun- 
dred dollars is hereby appropriated annually to pay for the 
services of such surgeons. 

Sec. 3. No soldier hereafter discharged from one hospital 
in this State shall thereafter receive Stato aid, if admitted to 
any other hospital or institution for surgical or medical treat- 
ment. 

Sec. 4. That all resolutions and acts inconsistent with this 
act are hereby repealed. 

Approved, March 24, 1877. 

An Act in relation to Invalid Soldiers, Sailors, and 

Marines. 

Be it enacted by the Senate and House of Representatives in 
General Assembly convened: 

Section 1. All soldiers, sailors, and marines who served in 
the Union army or navy in the late civil war, in the Connecti- 
cut regiments or in the navy quota from Connecticut, and re- 
ceived an honorable discharge therefrom, who, from disease 
or wounds, may need medical care and treatment, shall be en- 
titled to receive such medical care and treatment as may be 
necessary, at The Hartford Hospital, or at the hospital of The 
General Hospital Society of Connecticut at New Haven, and 
the expense of such medical care and treatment shall be de- 
frayed by the State. 

Sec 2. All soldiers and sailors and marines who served 
in the Union army or navy, in the late civil war, in Connecti 
3 



34 

cut regiments or in the navy quota from Connecticut, who 
shall, from wounds or disease, become unable to earn a liveli- 
hood, and who have no adequate means of support, shall, if 
they have received an honorable discharge from said army or 
navy, be entitled to a home at the hospitals named in the 
preceding section, and to such food and clothing as shall be 
necessary, and the expense thereof shall be defrayed by the 
State. 

Sec. 3. All soldiers, sailors, and marines who served in 
the Union army or navy, in the late civil war, and who may 
wish to avail themselves of the benefits of this act, shall make 
application to the Governor of the State, who, with the Adju- 
tant-General and Surgeon-General of the State, shall consti- 
tute a soldiers' hospital board, with full power to make all 
necessary rules and regulations for the government of soldiers 
and sailors and marines who may avail themselves of the 
benefits of this act, and shall have the sole power to admit 
and discharge any soldier, sailor, or marine for cause, and to 
fix the sum paid for such medical treatment, care, and 
support. 

Sec. 4. All acts or parts of acts inconsistent herewith are 
hereby repealed, and this act shall take effect July 1, 1878. 

Approved, March 27, 1878. 

An Act in Amendment of an Act Concerning Public 
Charitable and Reformatory Institutions. 

Be it enacted by the Senate and House of Representatives in 

General Assembly convened : 

That section eighteen of chapter five, title eight, of the 
Revised Statutes, be and the same is amended so as to read 
as follows: Five thousand dollars shall be annually paid from 
the treasury to The General Hospital Society of Connecticut, 
and the same sum to The Hartford Hospital, to be expended 
under the direction of the Governor and the managers of said 
institutions respectively, for the support of charity patients, 
and so used as to benefit the different towns, as they may from 
time to time make application ; a report of which expendi- 
tures shall be made annually to the General Assembly. 

Approved, March 27, 1878. 



SUPERINTENDENTS REPORT. 



To the Corporation of The Hartford Hospital at their annual 
meeting, December 8, 1880 : 

I respectfully submit the twenty-fifth annual report, for the 
fiscal year ending September 30, 1880, of the management of 
The Hartford Hospital, with the receipts, disbursements, and 
items of information. 

The number of patients remaining in the hospital October 
1, 1879, was 95 — 63 males, 32 females ; during tbe year 597 
have been admitted, making an aggregate of 692 patients 
under treatment — 462 males, 230 females ; of this number 
362 have recovered, 93 removed improved, 38 not improved, 
30 eloped or expelled, 66 have died, and 103 remain under 
treatment — 57 males, 46 females. 

There have been 20 births — 11 males, 9 females. 

The whole number of weeks occupied was 4,970 f , of 
which citizens occupied 4,201i, Conn, soldiers 713, sea- 
men 56:. 

There have been 59 patients, occupying 193 weeks, sup- 
ported entirely by charity. 

The appropriation from the State of $5,000 has partially 
supported 576 patients, at the rate of $1.21 per week for each 
patient. 

The number of Connecticut soldiers was 42. 

The number of marine patients was 19. 

The daily average of patients for the year was 95^. 

The greatest number any one day was 109, the least 78. 

The average duration of patients 71 weeks. 

The average cost per week of each patient was $6.01. 

There were 311 Americans, 286 foreigners. 

Patients were received from 49 different towns in the State. 

The training-school for nurses is proved a success. The 
demand for nurses from private families from all parts 
of the State, and even out of the State, is constant, and ex- 



36 

ceeds our ability to supply them. Arrangements are now- 
being made whereby we shall shortly be able to increase 
the number of pupil nurses under training. At the begin- 
ning of the fiscal year there were thirteen nurses under 
training. Of these, three have graduated, three have left 
for various causes, and seven remain. During the current 
year, twenty-four applications for positions as pupil nurses 
have been received. Of these ten have been taken for the 
probation month, six of these, having proved satisfactory, 
have been accepted as pupil nurses, and are now members of 
the school, making thirteen nurses under training in the 
wards. The names of the three who have graduated and 
received their diplomas, signed by the consulting physicians 
and executive committee, are Miss Ida F. Barnes, Miss 
Lizzie T. Oliver, and Miss Mary E. Crane. 



Superintendent's Account. 
The Hartford Hospital in account with Leander Hall. 



Dr. 




1879-80. To ara't paid for 


Breadstuffs, 


$1,011.02 


Barn Expenses, 


288.97 


Butter and Eggs, 


1,801.81 


Books, 


33.75 


Clothing, 


25.95 


Fuel, 


2,725.83 


Furniture, 


747.04 


Fruit and Vegetables, 


934.73 


Freights, 


25.28 


Groceries, 


1,294.05 


Gas, 


853.59 


Improvements, 


1,209.70 


Insurance, 


50.00 


Ice, 


145.00 


Meat, Fish, and Fowl, 


5,105.09 


Milk, 


904. OS 


Medicine, 


1,080.98 


Miscellaneous, 


109.52 


Printing, Stationery, etc., 


808.18 


Salaries, Wages, and Labo 
Washing and Soap, 


r, 10,282.70 


158.39 


Water, 


296.00 


Whiskey, Wine, etc., 


304.26 


Instruments, 


82.97 


Taxes, 


180.04 


Total Current Expenses, 


$29,873.88 


Ain't paid Treasurer, Board 


of Patients, etc., 


16,118.63 



$45,992.51 



Cr. 



1880. By am't received, 




F. A. Brown, 


$8,724.33 


\V. W. Jacobs, 


21,149..-).-) 


Board of Patients from va 




rious towns, 


9,261.48 


Paying Patients, 


4,423.79 


U. S. Collector, Board of 




Seamen, 


436.00 


Rent, 


857.77 


Services of Nurses, 


1,083.69 


Sales, 


34.40 



Registrar of Births and Deaths, 21.50 



$45,992.51 



37 

Detailed Statement of the Receipts of the Haktfokd Hospital from 
Oct. 1,1879*0 Oct. 1, 1880. 
Received from the State Appropriation : 
December 31, 1879, - - - $1,250.00 

March 31, 1880, .... 1,250.00 
June 30, 1880, .... 1,250.00 
Sept. 30, 1880, .... 1,250.00 



$5,000.00 
Received from the State for Baard of Soldiers : 
December 31, 1879, - - $729.99 

March 31, 1880, - 852.40 

June 30, 1880, .... 818.92 

Sept. 30, 1880, - - - 809.89 



$3,211.20 
Received from the U. S. Collector for Seamen : 
December 31, 1879, - - - $4.1.00 

March 31, 1880, .... 137.00 

June 30, 1880, .... 45.00 

Sept. 30, 1880, 213.00 

$436.00 



Received from various town in the 


State : 




December 31, 1879, 


• 


$2,617.24 


March 31, 1880, - 


- 


2,391.19 


June 30, 1880, 


- 


1,969.78 


Sept. 30, 1880, 




2,283.27 


Received from Paying Patients : 




December 31, 1879, 


- 


$1,278.88 


March 30, 1880, - 


- 


897.88 


June 30, 1880, 


- 


910.11 


Sept. 30, 1880, 




1,336.92 


Received from Sales : 




December 31, 1879, 


- 


7.65 


March 30, 1880, - 


- 


3.30 


June 30, 1880, 


. 


8.45 


Sept. 30, 1880, 


- 


15.00 



),261.48 



$4,423.79 



$34.40 



38 

Received from Rent : 
December 31, 1879, 

March 31, 1880, .... 
June 30, 1880, .... 
Sept. 30, 1880, .... 

Received from Registrar of Births and Deaths, 
Received from income of fund, 
Total Receipts, 

Received from Services of Nurses, - - . $1,C83.69 



$255.25 




188.25 




206.76 




207.51 






$857.77 


5, 


21.50 


- 


12,723.86 


- 


35,968.00 



S9 



A umber of Patients who have received (he benefits of the Hospital 
during the year ending September 30, 1880. 





Male. Female. 


Total. 


X umber of patients in Hospital, October 
1, 1879, ...... 

Admitted during the year, 

Total, 

Of this number have been discharged : 
Recovered. ..... 

Improved, ...... 

Not improved, ..... 

Removed, discharged, or eloped, 
Dead, ...... 

Total, 

Remaining October 1, 1880, . 


63 

399 


32 

IMS 


95 
597 


462 

252 
57 
23 
23 

50 


230 

110 

36 
15 

7 
16 


692 

362 
93 

38 
30 
66 


405 


184 


589 


57 46 


103 


Whole number admitted to October 1, 1880, . . . 7,116 
'• " discharged to October 1, 1880, . . 7,063 
li " remaining October 1, 1880, ... 103 



Monthly Admissions from October 1, 1879, to September 30, 1880. 



Male. 


Female. 


Total. 




Male. 


Female. 


Total. 


October, 


30 


25 


55 


May, 


34 


15 


49 


November, 


36 


12 


48 


June, 


36 


18 


54 


December, 


32 


10 


42 


July, 


40 


26 


66 


January, 


30 


18 


48 


August, 


35 


16 


51 


February, 


28 


11 


39 


September, 


43 


26 


69 


March, 
April, 


30 
25 


6 
15 


36 










40 


Total. 


399 


MIS 


597 



40 



Occupation of Patients. 



Boot-makers, 


7 


Farmers, 


25 


Physicians, 


2 


Brass-molders, 


6 


Factory Op'tives 


■ 11 


Paper-makers, 


2 


Brewers, 


3 


Fireman, 


1 


Painters, 


10 


Butchers, 


3 


Gunsmiths, 


2 


Prostitutes, 


3 


Box-makers, 


2 


Gardeners, 


5 


Plumbers, 


2 


Blacksmiths, 


4 


Housekeepers, 


63 


Printers, 


4 


Barbers, 


3 


Hostlers, 


13 


Peddlers, 


7 


Broom-maker, 


1 


Harness-makers, 


6 


Pattern-makers, 


2 


Burnishers, 


2 


Hatters, 


2 


Quarryman, 


1 


Brakeman, 


1 


Helpers, 


2 


Reporters, 


4 


Bookbinder, 


1 


Infants, 


22 


Roofers, 


6 


Baker, 


1 


Jewelers, 


5 


Seamen, 


21 


Clerks, 


11 


Laborers, 


111 


Saloon-keepers, 


9 


Cooks, 


9 


Laundresses, 


7 


Sextons, 


2 


Carpenters, 


7 


Missionary, 


I 


Students, 


3 


Clergyman, 


1 


Masons, 


5 


Teacher, 


1 


Cabinet-makers, 


3 


Mechanics, 


2 


Tinsmiths, 


3 


Cigar-makers, 


3 


Merchants, 


8 


Teamsters, 


12 


Domestics, 


77 


Machinists, 


14 


Tailors, 


6 


Dressmakers, 


4 


Nurses, 


3 


Waiters, 


13 


Dentist, 


1 


None, 


23 


Weaver, 


1 


Engineers, 


2 











Nativity of Patients. 



Alabama, ] 

Connecticut, 202 

Canada, 6 

Denmark, 2 
Dist. of Columbia, 1 

England, 28 

East Indies, 1 

France, 4 

Florida, 1 

Germany, 23 

Georgia, 2 



Ireland, 


182 


Italy, 
Illinois, 


2 

1 


Louisiana, 


3 


Massachusetts, 
Maine, 


27 
4 


Maryland, 


1 


Michigan, 
New York, 


1 

28 


North Carolina, 
New Jersey, 


2 
2 



New Hampshire, 3 

Ohio, 1 

Pennsylvania, 5 

Portugal, 1 

Russia, 1 

Rhode Island, 5 

Sweden, 10 

Scotland, 4 

Switzerland, 1 

Vermont, 5 

Virginia, 3 



41 



Patients ivere received from (he following towns. 



A von, 


Manchester, 


Plainville, ' 


Bristol, 


Mansfield, 


Simsbury, 


Canton, 


Meriden, 


South Windsor, 


Coventry, 


Madison, 


Stonington, 


Bloomfield, 


Norwich, 


Suffield, 


East Windsor, 


North Canaan, 


Salisbury, 


Essex, 


New London, 


Torrington, 


Enfield, 


New Haven, 


Vernon, 


East Hartford, 


New Britain. 


Watertown, 


Farmington, 


New Hartford, 


Windsor Locks. 


Glastonbury, 


Naugatuck, 


Wethersfield, 


Hartford, 


Newington, 


Windsor, 


Haddam, 


Portland, 


West Hartford, 


Lyme, 


Plymouth, 


Waterbury. 


Middletown, 




• 



GENERAL STATISTICS. 





bo 

■3 

■a 
o 

— » fc.' 
"gg 
'b **> 


Number Each Yeab. 


■a 
a 
a> 
o 

ttS 
a >, 
'3 i> 
•35 

a o 

H 


U 

<2 

o 

to 

C3 

V C 

> 3 

<l 

— J3 

OS *> 

Q 


Number 
any Day. 


YEARS. 


S3 
O 

■a 
a 
fc> 


•3 
V 
M 

•3 

V 
00 

5 


QJ 

> 
O 

o 

0> 

K 


•a 
o 
> 
p 

s. 
a 


■a 
a> 

> 
p 

3. 

a 

o 
S5 


•a 
3 

V 


OB 
V 

C3 

5 


a 


I860-: 861, 


45 


45 


32 


21 


7 


1 


3 


1.3 


12 


14 


1 


1861-1862, 


258 


271 


214 


159 


20 


12 


23 


57 


27 


85 


14 


1862-1 36:), 


107 


164 


141 


103 


15 


5 


18 


2.3 


18 


57 


11 


1863-1864, 


157 


180 


149 


103 


14 


8 


24 


31 


27 


45 


21 


1864-1865, 


1.32 


163 


142 


102 


2 


9 


29 


21 


27 


31 


21 


1865-1866, 


196 


217 


172 


133 


5 


8 


26 


45 


35 


49 


21 


1866-1867, 


221 


266 


211 


176 


8 


5 


24 


55 


44 


59 


29 


1867-1868, 


251 


306 


250 


183 


16 


15 


36 


56 


50 


63 


38 


1868-1869, 


259 


315 


260 


192 


18 


16 


34 


55 


55 


67 


42 


1869-1870, 


248 


339 


298 


220 


21 


20 


37 


41 


50 


62 


36 


1870-1871, 


329 


370 


306 


210 


28 


18 


50 


64 


63 


67 


39 


1871-1872, 


347 


411 


345 


215 


43 


46 


41 


66 


62 


71 


59 


1872-187.3, 


370 


436 


368 


206 


76 


31 


55 


68 


69 


76 


56 


1873-1874, 


452 


520 


422 


299 


36 


29 


58 


98 


79 


98 


63 


1874-1875, 


492 


590 


486 


323 


53 


29 


5.3 


104 


95 


110 


71 


1875-1876, 


C03 


707 


573 


376 


64 


35 


57 


134 


11.3 


136 


90 


1876-1877, 


599 


733 


613 


378 


85 


49 


72 


120 


130 


149 


112 


1877-1878, 


914 


1 ,034 


944 


591 


117 


6K 


100 


90 


101 


123 


80 


1878-1879, 


538 


628 


533 


307 


93 


37 


68 


95 


97 


113 


87 


1879-1880, 


597 


692 


589 


362 


93 


38 


66 


103 


94 


109 


78 




7,115 




7,048 


4,659 


812 


475 


874 









DONATIONS. 



Through the kindness of the editors we have received the 
Hartford Courant, Hartford Post, Hartford Times, Meriden 
Call and Citizen, and The Churchman. 

Magazines, Papers, and Periodicals. 

Mrs. Tuller, bdl. magazines; Mrs. Pliny Jewell, Jr., news- 
papers and magazines ; Mrs. D. B. Mosely, newspapers ; Mrs. 
E. K. Hunt, bdl. newspapers ; George W. Root, bdl. news- 
papers ; Mrs. J. W. Brace, magazines and newspapers ; Mr. 
Crossett, newspapers ; Mrs. Henry Very, newspapers ; Lewis 
Sheldon, 2 vols. Zell's Encylopedia, magazines and newspa- 
pers ; Mrs. M. M. Woodbury, bdl. newspapers ; Mrs. S. C. 
Robbins, bdl. newspapers ; Mr. Phelps, bdl. illustrated news- 
papers; Mr. Churchill, bdl. magazines; C. T. Marston, news- 
papers ; Mrs. Tolhurst, newspapers ; Mrs. C. B. Smith, news- 
papers ; E. B. Watkinson, illustrated newspapers. 

Fruits and Flowers. 

Dr. E. K. Hunt, bushel of pears ; Mrs. Stiles D. Sperry, 
basket of oranges ; Mrs. Barnard, 5 bushels of apples ; G. W. 
Darlin, 1 bbl. apples ; Mrs. Colt, 2 bushels apples ; Mrs. Bur- 
dette Loomis, flowers ; Mrs. Seymour, flowers ; Rev. E. P. 
Parker, cross of flowers ; Mrs. Marston, flowers ; the Flower 
Mission through Mrs. Sluyter, flowers weekly. 

Clotlting, Old Linen, and Cotton. 

Miss Bull, old cotton ; Miss A. C. Hills, bdl. old shirts ; 
Mrs. Amos Pilsbury, bdl. old shirts; Mrs. L. T. Welles, bdl. 
under-clothing; George W. Corning, 23 shirts, 8 night-shirts, 
10 night-dresses, 5 chemises, 2 pair drawers, 1 wrapper, 1 



43 

vest, bill, under-clothing, 2 bdls. old cotton; Mrs. Pliny 
Jewell, 1 shawl, stockings and shirts; Mr. C. J. Puller, bill. 
old shirts ; Mrs. J. P. Smith, Unionville, Conn., bell, shirts 
and under-clothing; Mrs. George Hatch, lull, shirts and old 
cotton ; Mrs. Roland Swift, bill, old shirts ; Mrs. D. B. Mosely, 
bdl. old cotton ; Mrs. Oswin Welles, bill, under-clothing; Mrs. 
J. P. Harbison, bdl. clothing, bill, old cotton ; Miss Hull, 2 
pair drawers ; Mrs. George Roberts, bdl. old linen. The 
family of Erastus Collins, 8 shirts, 8 pairs socks, 5 dusters, 2 
dressing-gowns, 1 coat, old cotton, hats, shoes, rubbers, 
gloves, collars, etc. 

Thanksgiving and Christmas. 

Mrs. C. H. Brainard, 2 boxes figs, 12 dozen oranges, 2 
bushels apples, 8 lbs. Malaga grapes ; Mrs. Shipman, 27 
oranges, Malaga grapes and apples; Hon. D wight Pardee, 
$10 00 and basket of fruit ; Mrs. A. S. Porter, 50 oranges ; 
Mrs. E. K. Hunt, bos oranges. 

Some names may be unintentionally omitted. Many have 
left donations without leaving their names, but all are as- 
sured their gifts have been thankfully received. 



BY-LAWS 



OF THE 



COEPOEATION 



AND RULES 



OF THE 



HARTFORD HOSPITAL. 



BY-LAWS OF THE CORPORATION. 



T. ANNUAL MEETINGS. 



The annual meetings of The Hartford Hospital shall he held 
on the second Monday of Deccmhcr, in the city of Hartford, at 
such time and place as the executive committee shall appoint, 
hy giving three days' notice in the daily papers. 

ii. directors' meetings. 

1. The directors shall hold their annual meeting on the 
third Monday of December. Notice of the time and place 
shall he given to each member by the secretary. 

2. Five of the directors shall constitute a quorum. 

3. The president, or in his absence the vice-president, shall, 
at the request of not less than three members of the corpora- 
tion, call meetings of the directors, and notice of the time and 
place shall be given to each member by the secretary. 

4. The directors, at their first or adjourned meeting after 
election, shall select from their own number three persons, 
who shall act as an executive committee ; also, elect six or 
more' physicians and surgeons to take charge of the medical 
and surgical departments ; said physicians and surgeons hav- 
ing been first nominated by the visiting medical and surgical 
staff. 

in. executive committee. 

1. The executive committee shall appoint a superintendent 
of the hospital, oversee the finances, admit and discharge pa- 
tients, and see that they are provided with such things as are 
necessary for their comfort and recovery. 

2. It shall be their duty to direct the management in all 
the affairs of the institution. 



48 

3. All orders on the treasurer must be signed by one of 
the executive committee. 

4. A meeting of the executive committee shall he held at 
the hospital at least twice during each month, and a record 
of their doings shall be kept by the superintendent. 

IV. VISITING PHYSICIANS AND SURGEONS. 

1. The visiting physicians and surgeons shall take charge 
of the medical and surgical departments, and arrange their 
turns for visiting the hospital. 

2. Acute cases must be visited every day, and chronic cases 
as often as necessity requires. 

V. SUPERINTENDENT. 

1. The superintendent shall take charge of the hospital, 
under the direction of the executive committee. 

2. All moneys for board of patients must be paid to the 
superintendent, unless otherwise directed by the executive 
committee. 

VI. PATIENTS. 

Patients may be admitted by either member of the executive 
committee, subject to the approval of said committee, at their 
regular hospital meetings. 

VII. COMPENSATION. 

Neither the medical staff nor executive committee shall 
receive from the hospital compensation in any form for duties 
performed in its behalf. 

VIII. AMENDMENTS. 

No by-law shall lie altered or amended, except bj a two- 
thirds vote of the directors present at an annual meeting — 
such amendment having first been presented to Ihe board of 
directors, in writing, at a previous annual meeting. 



RULES OF THE HARTFORD HOSPITAL. 



I. VISITING PHYSICIANS AND SURGEONS. 

1. The visiting physicians and surgeons shall have the 
entire direction of the medical and surgical department. 
They shall also exercise a supervision of the condition of the 
wards, the deportment of the nurses, and prescribe the diet 
for patients. They shall give such directions to the super- 
intendent as shall be necessary in regard to the health and 
physical condition of the patients, and see that these direc- 
tions are carefully executed, and their prescriptions faithfully 
administered. 

They shall report to the executive committee whatever 
interferes with the welfare of the institution. 

2. The regular visits of the visiting physicians and surgeons 
shall be made daily, between the hours of 8 a. m. and 12 m. 

3. Extra visits shall be made whenever the necessity of the 
case demands. 

4. They shall report to the superintendent patients who are 
in a proper condition to be discharged from the Hospital. 

5. No visiting physician or surgeon shall absent himself 
from duty without notifying some member of the executive 
committee. 

6. All surgical operations shall be performed by the visit- 
ing surgeon in attendance, or some member of the staff, by his 
invitation. 

7. No capital operation shall be performed without consul- 
tation with the medical staff. 

8. Notice of the time for operating shall be sent by the 
superintendent to all members of the staff. 

9. No operation shall be performed without the consent of 
the patient ; but if consent cannot be obtained after all the 

4 



50 

surgeons in consultation have decided that the patient's 
safety demands it, the visiting surgeon shall advise the dis- 
charge of the patient from the Hospital. 

II. RESIDENT AND ASSISTANT SURGICAL MEDICAL STAFF. 

1. The resident and assistant medical and surgical staff' 
shall consist of two or more physicians and surgeons who are 
graduates from a medical college. 

2. Each of the house-staff shall sign an agreement to remain 
in the service of the Hospital for one year, and conform to its 
rules and regulations. 

3. Each shall serve the first six months as assistant, and 
the remainder of the term as resident physician and surgeon. 

4. They shall not be absent at the appointed hours for the 
attendance of the visiting physicians and surgeons, and when 
desiring to leave the premises they shall arrange with the 
superintendent for their absence. 

5. Under no circumstances shall all members of the house- 
•sjtaff be absent at the same time. 

III. RESIDENT PHYSICIAN AND SURGEON. 

1. The duties of the resident physician and surgeon shall 
be assigned him by the visiting physicians and surgeons, all 
of whose instructions and directions in regard to the care and 
treatment of the sick he must promptly and carefully execute. 

2. He shall visit the patients in their respective wards every 
morning and evening, and be prepared to report their condi- 
tion to the visiting physicians and surgeons. 

3. He shall accompany the physicians and surgeons in 
their daily visits, shall, under their directions, record each 
case, stating name, age, and disease, with symptoms, treat- 
ment, and result, record daily all prescriptions, and note all 
important facts. 

4. He shall, under the direction of the physicians and sur- 
geons, make a report to the corporation of all the diseases 
and the results of those cases which have been treated in 
the Hospital during the fiscal year ending the last day of 
September. 



51 

5. He shall send the diet-list prescribed for the day to the 
lady superintendent, who will have the food prepared and sent 
to the wards. 

6. He shall see that the medicines are correctly com- 
pounded and faithfully administered, the diets properly fur- 
nished, and the patients kindly treated by the attendants. 

7. The resident physician must report to the lady super- 
intendent any improper conduct on the part of nurses or 
patients, but shall not, under any circumstances, attempt to 
discipline them. 

8. In any case of emergency he shall request the immediate 
attendance of the visiting physician or surgeon ; if he cannot 
be found, any member of the visiting staff shall be called. 

9. He shall record the name of the attending physician 
and surgeon ; the day of the week, the date, and time of day 
when